Nicolas Monardus. Doctor, phisiton of Sevill, dokter te Sevilla, 1512-1588.


R als een soort z wordt direct tot r gemaakt. VV wordt W. Opgeschreven door Nico Koomen.


Ioyfullnewes out of the New-found Worlde, Amerikaanse planten en medicijnen.

Wherein are declared, the rare and singuler vertues of divers Herbs, Trees, Plantes Oyles & Stones, with their appplications, as well tothe use of Phisicke, as of Chirurgery, which being well applyed bring a present remedie for all diseases, & may seem altogether incredible: notwithstanding by practice found out to be true.

Also the portrature of the said Hearbs. Englished by John Frampton, Marchant.

Newly corrected as by conference with the olde copies may appeare. Wher unto are added three other wokes treating of the Bezaar-stone, the herb Escuerconera, the properties of Iron and Steele in Medicine, and the benefit of Snow.


Printed by E. Allde, by the assigne of Bonham Norton. 1596. Genomen uit

[1] THE FIRST PART OF THIS BOOKE TREATETH OF THE thinges that are brought from te Occidentall Indias, which serve for the use of Medicine, and of the order that must be kept in taking the roote called Mechoacan, wherein are discovered great secretes of Nature, and great experiences: made and compiled by Doctor Monardus, Phisition of Sevill. (Nicolas Monardes, 1512-1588)  

In the yeare of our Lord God, one thousand, foure hundreth ninetie two, our Spaniardes were governed by sir Christopher Colen, being naturally borne in the country of Geneua to discover the Occidentall Indias, that are called at this day, the newe worlde: and they discovered the first land therof, the xi. day of October, of the said yere: from that time unto this, they have discovered many sundry Islandes, and much firme land, aswel in that country, which they cal the new spaine, as in that which is called the Peru, where there are many Provinces, many Kingdomes, and many Cities, that have contrarie and divers customes in them, in which there have beene found out, thinges that never in these partes, nor in any other partes of the worlde have been seene, nor unto thys day knowen: and other thynges which nowe are brought unto us in great aboundance, that is to say, Gold, Silver, Pearles, Emeraldes, Turkeies, (turkoois) other fine stones of graet value. Yet great is the excesse and quantitie that hath come, and every day doeth come, and in especially of Golde and Silver: It is a thing worthy of admiration [2] the great number of Melons, which have come from thence, besides the great quantity of pearles which have stored the whole world: also they doo bring from those parts, Popingries, Griffons, Apes, Lions, Gerfaucons, other kinds of Haukes, Tigers wool, Cotton wool, Graine to dy colours withall, Hides, Sugars, Copper, Brasilie the wood Ebano Anill: And of al these, there is so great quantitie, that there commeth everie yeere, one hundred ships laden therewith, that is a great thing, and an incredible riches.

And besides these great riches our Occidentall Indias doo send unto us many Trees, Plants, Hearbs, Rootes, Juices Gummes, Fruites, Licours, Stones that are of greay medicinall vertues, in the which there bee found, and have been found in them, very great effectes that do exceede much in value and price all the aforesayde thinges, by so much as the corporall health is more excellent, and necessarie then the temporall goodes: the which thinges all the world dooth lacke, the want whereof is not a litle hurtfull, according to the great profite which wee doo see, by the use of them to follow, not onely in our Spayne, but also in all the world.

And this is not to bee marvelled at, that is so: for the Philosopher dooth say, that alle Countries doo not yeelde Plantes and Fruites alike: for one Region yeeldeth such Fruites, Trees, and Plantes, as an other dooth not: wee doe see that in Creta onely groweth the Diptamo, and the Incence onely in the Region of Saba and the Almaciga, onely in the Islande of Chio, and the Sinamon, Cloves, and Pepper, and other spices only in the Islands of the Maluca, and many other thinges you have in divers partes of the worlde, which were not knowne untill our time, and the people of old time did lacke them: but Time which is the discoverer of all thinges, hath discovered them unto us greatlie to our profite, considering the great neede that we had of them. [3] (Fol.2) And as there are discovered new Regions, new Kingdomes, and new Provinces by our Spaniardes so they have brought unto us new Medicines, and newe Remedies, where with they do cure many infirmities, which, if we did lacke them, woulde bee incurable, and without any remedie: of which things although that some have knowledgde, yet they bee not common to all people, for which cause I did pretend te treate, and to write of all things that they bring from our Indias, apperteyning to the Arte and use of Medicine, and the remedie of the hurtes and diseases that wee doo suffer and endure, whereof no small profite dooth follow to those of our time, and also unto them that shall come after us: in the bewraying whereof, I shalbe the first, that the rather the followers may adde hereunto, with this beginning, that which they shal more know, and by experience hereafter finde out.

And as in this Citie of Sevill, which is the Porte and scale of all the Occidentall Indias, we doo knowe of them more, then in any other partes of alle Spayne, for because that all things come first hither, where by better intelligence and greater experience it is learned: so do I, with practice and use of them this fortie yeres, that which I doe cure in this Citie, where I have informed my selfe of them, that have brought these thinges out of these partes with muche care, and I have made expererience thereof with many and divers persons with al diligence and foresight posible, and with much happie successe.


Of the Anime and Copall. (Kopal komt van de Nahuatl taal copalli wat wierook betekent. Een gom en meestal van Hymenaea verrucosa, ook van Rhus copalinum of wordt in de aarde gevonden zoals amber. Anime of gum anime is vrijwel gelijk en zitten er soms diertjes in, het wordt in vloeibare staat als vernis gebruikt)

They do bring from the newe Spaine 2 kinds of Rosine, that be both much alike one to the other, the one is called Copall, and the other Anime. The Copall is a Rosine verie white, and of muche brightnesse, it is [4] brought in certeyne great peeces, which are like to peeces of Diacitron very cleere, it hath an indifferent smell, but not so good as the Anime: with this Copall, the Indians did make perfumes in their sacrifices, so the use thereof was frequented in the Temples, by their Priestes.

And when the first Spaniardes went to those partes, the Priests went out to receive them, wich little firepots, burning in them this Copall, and giving to them the smoke of it at their noses: wee doo use heere to perfume with it in diseases rising uppon coldnesse of the heade, in the place of Incence or Anime: it is hotte in the seconde degree, and moyst in the first, is is resolvative, and softneth by some watrish partes that it hath.

The Anime is a Gumme or Rosine of a great Tree, it is white, it draweth neere to the collour of Incence, it is more oyly then the Copall is, it commeth in graines, as the Incence dooth although some what greater, and being broken, it hath a yellowe colour, als Rosine hath: is is of a very acceptable and pleasaunt smell, and put uppon burning coales, it doothe consume very quickly.

It differeth from our Anime, that is brought from Levante, which is not so white, nor so bright, insomuche that some doo say, that is is spice of Charabe or Succino, which is called Amber congeled, wherewith they do make Beades, but is is not so, for that the Charabe is a kinde of Pitche, that is found in the Germayne Sea, and it is taken out of the Sea in great peeces with a dragge of Iron, so that is seemeth to come foorth of some Fountaines into the Sea, after the maner of pitche, and beeing come foorth unto the colde ayre, it congeleth, for because there is seen in the same, peeces of stickes, other superfluites of the Sea, cleaving unto it and in this they shal see the errour of them that say that it is Gumme of Alamo, and of others, that is of the Pinetree.

Of our Anime Hermolaus Barbarus, a man most excellently [5] (Fol. 3) learned dooth saye, that it is gathered about the place where Incence is founde, and that lande or soyle, is called Amintin and therefore the thing is called Anime.

That which is brought from the new Spaine, is gathered from certeyne Trees, of a reasonable greatnesse, by way of incision, as the Incense and Almasiga (soort boom) are gathered: we do use therof for many infirmities, and principally for the griefe of the head, and paines thereof, caused of humours, or of colde causes, and for stuffyng in the head, that thereof dooth proceede, after evacuation, perfumining there with the chambers in the Winter season: and whereas are generall infirmities, it dooth purifie and correct the Ayre, and they doo perfume therewith their head kerchers, when that they doo goe to sleepe: for them that doo suffer paines in the head, and occasions thereof, it dooth profite to perfume the head of him that is so diseased, it dooth comforte the head unto such as have it debilited, or weakenend, and doo suffer paines by occasion thereof: they doo put is also in plaisters, and in seere clothes, whereas is neede of comfort, and to dissolve especially colde humours, or windines: they doo use it aso in place of Incence, as well in the perfumes, as in the aforesaide.

It dooth comfort the braine, applied in the forme of a plaister, and even so likewise the stomacke, and all partes being full of Sinewes, made after the fashion of a Seere coth with the third parte of Waxe: it taketh out the cold of any member, whatsoever, being applied thereunto for a long time, with refreshing it. It is hotte in the second degree, and moist in the first.

Of the Gumme called Tacamahaca. (Protium heptaphyllum, eerder Icicia tacamahaca)

And also they doo bring out of the newe Spayne an other kinde of Gumme or Rosine, which the Indians doe call Tacamahaca, and the same name did our Spaniardes give it, it is Rosine [6] taken out by incision of a tree, being as great, as a Willow tree, and is of a very sweete smell, it bringeth foorth a red fruite, as the seede of Pionia.

This Rosine or Gumme, the Indians doe much use in their infirmities, chiefly in swellings in any part of the bodie, wheresoever they bee ingendred for that it dissolveth, ripeneth, and marvelously desolveth them. And even so, it taketh away any manner of greefe, that is come of a colde cause: as humours, and windinesse: this the Indians do use very commonly, and familiarly. And fort his effect the Spaniardes hath brought it.

The colour is as the colour of Galnano, (galbanum) and some doe say that it is the same, it hath white partes like to Amoniaco it is of a good smel, and the tast is like, insomuch that being cast upon hotte burning coales, and giving the smoke thereof at the nose of a woman that doth swoone, or els hath lost her feeling by suffocation of the Mother, it dooth cause her to come quickly, and easily to her selfe. And the Rosine putte to her navell, after the manner of a plaister, causeth the Mother to keepe in her place: and the use thereof, is so much amongst women, that the most parte which is spent thereof is for this effect, for that they doo finde themselves verie much eased by it, taking away from them all manner of chokinges of the Mother, and comforting the stomacke. Some that bee curious doo adde thereunto Amber, and Muske, and so it is better then alone. Is is alwaies fixed, without melting of it selve, untill that is bee all wholie wasted.

And where it dooth most profite, is for to take away any manaer of griefe, caused of colde humours and windie and beeing applied unto them in manner of a plaister, it taketh them away, and dissolveth them with great admiration: it dooth cleave in such sorte, that untill it hath donne, and wrought his effect, it cannot bee taken away, and the selfe same it dooth, being laide upon swellinges, for that it [7] (Fol.4) consumeth and desolveth them, and if there be any desire to ripen them, it dooth it, and that verie quickly.

Is is also a remedie verified, and experimented, that it dooth profite muche in Reumes, and Runnings, wheresoever they goe, for it taketh them away, putting a small peece of linnen cloath with this Rosine, behinde both the eares, or the eare on the parte which runneth, for that it dooth restraine the running of them: and applied unto the temples of the head, in manner of a plaister, it dooth withholde the runnings and the fluxe, that runneth to the eyes, and to the partes of the face: it taketh away the tooth ache, although that the tooth bee hollowe, by putting a little of this Rosine into the hollowe, and if there with the rotten tooth be burned, it maketh that the corruption goeth no further: and being laide in the manner of a plaister in the hollownesse of the necke, or griefe of the shoulders, it taketh away the paines: mingled with the thirde parte of storax, and a little Amber made in a plaister, for the stomacke, it dooth comfort it, and causeth appetite to meate: it helpeth digestion and desolveth windines: after the same fort put upon the moulde of the head, it comforteth and taketh away the paines thereof. In the Sciatica, or paines of the hippes put thereunto, the effect thereof is greate: and likewise it is so in alle paines of the ioyntes: and in any payne of the body whersoever it be, chiefly if it come of cold humours or mixt: For because with his resolution, it hath partes of binding which doo give a marvellous comforting in ioyntes, or in hurtes of Sinewes, putting that alone, it dooth heale and cure them, for great is the experience that wee have of it, ingendring foorth with matter: it taketh away an extreame colde: ordinarily it is applied to all griefes: I do mingle therewith the thirde parte of yellowe Waxe, for that will be applied the better and the use thereof is so celebrated, that the people knowe no other remedy for any griefe, but only the use of this Rosin, so that [8] it bee not inflamations verie hotte, and also in them after the first furie is past, and the fearcenesse thereof, it doth profite much for to dissolve the rest: it is hotte in the beginning of the third degree, and drye in the second.

Of the Gumme Caranna. (Protium carana, eerder Icicia carana)

They doe bring from the firme Lande, by the waye of Cartagena, and number (Nombre) de Dios, a Rosin of the coulour of Tacamahaca, somewhat cleare, and thinne, called in the Indians language, Caranna, and this woorde and name our Spanyardes have given it, and it hath in maner the smell of the Tacamahaca, although it bee somewhat more stronge of smell, it is very oyly, and it cleaveth fast without melting, for the clamminesse that is hath. It is a newe Medicine, and brought hither about a tenne yeeres past, and the Indians doe use it in their infirmities against swellings, and in alle manner of griefes, and now in our partes it is much esteemed, for the great effectes that it doth worke.

It doth profit and heale the same infirmities, that the Tacamahaca doth, but it woorketh more speedyly, so that many infirmities, wherein the Tacamahaca doth not so muche effect the Caranna doth easily heale. There was one that did suffer paines in his shoulders, the which paines he had suffered al long time, in such sort, that hee could not stir his armes, having used a great time the Tacamahaca, yet hee was not healed, untill he had put thereunto the Caranna, and thereby in three daies he was made whole. In the griefes of the Jointes, and the Gout Arthetica, it hath a marvellous effect, being applied unto the griefe, so that it be not an inflamation, of verie hotte humour, for it taketh it awaye, with much easinesse. In olde swellinges, als well in humours as in windes, it dissolveth: in griefes caused by defluxe or running [9] (Fol. 5) of cold humours or mixed, it worketh a marvellous effect: in all paines of the Sinewes, and griefes of the head, and griefes that thereof doe proceede, it profiteth much.

Surely, it is a medicine to dissolve and to take away griefs of great efficacie, and doth make his worke with great certaintie in new greene woundes, especially of the Sinewes it doeth much proffit, and greatly in iointes, in the wich I have seene done only therewith very great workes: it is an intercepting to stay the fluxe and running of the eyes, and other partes applyed behinde the eares, and in the temples of the head. Is is verie fattie and oylie, and hot more then in the second degree.

And it is to be noted that all these Rosines the Indians doe gather by way of Incision, by giving cuttes in the Trees, of which forthwith the licour doth droppe out, and from thence they gather it.

Of the Oyle of the Figge tree of Hell. (Jatropha curcas)

From Gelisco, a province in the new Spaine they bring an Oyle or Licour, that the Spaniardes have called, Oyle of the Figge tree of Hell, for that it is taken from a tree that is no mor nor lesse then our Fig tree of Hel, (Papaver spinosum) alswell in the Leafe, als in the Fruite: it is the same that we doe commonly call Chatapucia, of Cherva, it is also milkish as ours is, for that it is more burning in the Indias for the grofnes of the earth.

The Indians doe make this oyle, als Deoscorides doeth shewe, in the first booke, the xxx. Chapter, that is, to pounde the seede, seetht it in water, and after it is sodden, then they gather the Oyle that swimmeth uppon it, with a Spoone, and this is the maner to make Oyle of fruite and Seedes, and Bowes of trees: It is verie much frequented and used of the Indians. As for expression of wringing out the iuice, [10] they doe not knowe how to doe it, for lacke of knowledge, this kind of oyle principally is better drawen out this way, then by expression. This Oyle hath great vertues as by the use thereof hath beene seene, as well in the Indians, as in our partes, and all that I will say, is of verie greate experience, and much use thereof in many persons: it doeth heale and cure alle infirmities caused of colde humours, and windines: it doth dissolve al hardnes with molification, and all inflamations being windie: it taketh away all manner of paine in what parte soever it bee, chiefly if it come of any colde cause, or windines, for that in this it maketh a marvellous worke, dissolving great windinesse, wheresoever it bee, and especially in the bellye: and with this they do heale a windy Dropsie, likewise al kinds therof, annoynting there withall the Bellie, and Stomacke, taking some droppes therof with wine, or other licour appropriated, that it may ovoide the citrine water, and make the winde to be expelled: and if they doe put it in any maner Glister, or Medicine, given so it doeth avoide out the citrine water, and doth expell Windes with more assuraunce then any other Medicine. In the griefes of the Stomacke of cold humors, and windes and Colicke it worketh great effect, anointing therewith, and taking some droppes thereof, and principally they do this in that mortall disease called the Ileon, which is a certaine filthines that purgeth at the mouth. It doeth avoyde fleame principally, in griefes of the Jointes certain droppes of this oyle taken with the broth of some fat foule, it doeth empt away the humour that causeth the payne, it doeth heale the olde sores of the head, that doth yelde much matter.

A Gentleman that did vomit his meate the space of many yeeres did anoint his stomack with this oyle, and therewith did recover never vomitted again: It doth undoe Opilations of the inner parts of the body, of the stomacke, of the Mother, anointing it therewith. And unto yong children [11] (Fol. 6 ] and Boyes, that cannot goe to the Stoole, annointing the lower parte of the Navill with this oyle, it dooth provoke the to the stoole: and if they have wormes, it dooth expell and kill them, chiefly if they give them a droppe or two with milke, or with some fat grosse thing. And for those that have lost their hearing, it causeth it to be restored to them, with a marvellous woorke, as it hath beene seen by many experiences. In griefies of Jointes, and in griefes of swellinges, so that they come not of a very hotte cause, it taketh them away and dooth dissolve them: many of the members beeing drawne together and annointed with this Oyle, they do extende and the Sinewes are mollified with it, taking away the griefe if that there bee any: it taketh away any markesor signes, wheresoever they bee in the face, principally, and the Morphewe which women many times bee troubled withall, the annoynting with this Oyle, dooth take it away, and consume it, not with litttle content to them that use it. It is hotte in the first parte of the thirde degree and moyst in the second.

Of the Bitumen which is a kinde of pitch.(bitumen, afzetting van teer in het water)

There is in the Islande of Cuba, certayne Fountaines at the Sea syde, that do cast from them a kinde of black Pitch, of a strong smell, which the Indians doo use in ther cold infirmities. Dur people doo use it there to pitche theyr Shippes, withall, for it is well neere lyke unto Tarre, and they do mingle therewith Tallowe, to make it Pitch the better. I doe beleeve that this is Napta, which the ancient wryters doo speake of. Possidonto sayth, that there are two Fountaynes thereof in Babylon, one whyte and the other black.

That which is brought from the Indias, we do use against [12] griefes of the Mother, for that it dooth reduced the Mother in her place. And if it rise on high, then put it to the Nosethrilles, and if it come downe to the lower partes, putting thereto a wet tent with this Pitche, it causeth it to goe upwarde to her place: and likewise it dooth profite, being applied to cold infirmities, as the other Medicines doo which we have spoken of. It is hotte in the second degree, moyst in the first.

Of Liquid Amber, and the Oyle thereof. (Liquidambar styraciflua)

From the newe Spaine they doo bring a Rosine that we call Liquid Amber, and one like Oyle that wee call Oyle of Liquid Amber, that is to say, a thing that wee doo moste set by, and as precious as Amber, or Oyle thereof, both of them being of sweete smel of goed savour, and especially the Oyle of Liquid Amber, which is of savour more delicate and sweete then Amber. A Rosin taken out by incision from certaine trees very great and faire, and full of leaves, which are like to Ivie, (Hedera) and the Indians doo call them Ococol. They carry a thicke rinde, of the colour of Ashes, this rinde being cut, doth cast out the Liquid Amber thicke, and so they doo gather it, and because the rinde hath a smell very sweete, they do breake and mingle it with the Rosine, and when it is burned, it hath a better smell, in so much, whersoever the trees are, there is a most sweete smell through all the fields.

When the Spaniardes came the first time to that place where it groweth, and did feele such a sweete smell, they thought that there had beene spices and trees thereof.

There is brought much quantitie of Liquid Amber in to Spaine, insomuch that they doo bring many Pipes, and Barrelles full thereof to sell for Merchaundise, for heere they rayse profite thereof, to perfume in thinges of sweete [13] (Fol. 7) smelles, wasting it in place of Storax, for that the smoke and smell dooth seeme to be the same: and also they do put it into other confections of sweete smelles to burne, and suche like thinges. It casteth from it so much smell without burning of it, that wheresoever it be, it cannot be hidden, but dooth penetrate many houses and streetes with the sweete smell, when there is quantitie of it.

It serveth much in medicine, doth therein great effect, for that it healeth, conforteth, dissolveth, and mittigateth payne applied unto the Moulde of the heades by it selfe, or mingled with other thinges. Aromaticall, it dooth comfort the braines, and taketh away the paynes of any manner of griefe, proceeding of a colde cause layed after the manner of a Plaister thereunto, it dooth also mittigate, and take away the paines, and griefes of the stomack, wherin it doth a marvelous effect, applied after the manner of a Stomacher. For that it dooth comfort the Stomack, and dooth dissolve windes, and helpe digestion, and take away rawnes it causeth the meate to be well digested, it giveth lust to eat: it is made of Liquide Amber, spread abroade upon a sheepes skinne, in the forme of a breastplate, mingled with a little Storax, Amber and Muske, is is a Plaister which dooth profite much in all that I have saide. There is knowne of this plaister very great experience, in thys Cyttye, for the good effect that it worketh: it is hot in the ende of the second degree, and moist in the first.

Out of this Liquide Amber is taken the Oyle that is called the oyle of Liquid Amber, the which in his smel is more sweet, it is taken out of the Liquid Amber when it is newly gathered, putting it in parte where it may distill of it selfe (the more subtill) is the perfectest and best of all.

Others there be that do presse it, because the more quantitie thereof may be taken out, they bring it for merchaundise, for that they use to dresse Glaves therwith for the common people, and in this trade there is much spent. [14]

It is used in Medicine for many diseases and it is of great vertue to heale colde diseases, for it healeth excellently well all partes whersoever it be applied, it dissolveth and mollifieth any maner of hardnes, taking away the paynes: it dissolveth the hardnesse of the Mother, and openeth the opilations thereof. It provoketh the Monthlie course in women, and it maketh soft any manner of hard thing. It is hot well neere in the thirde degree.

And it is to be noted that many doo bring this Storax very thin from the Indias, which is not soo good for because that they make it of the bowes of the trees, cut in peeces, and sodden, they gather the fatnes that swimmeth upon: and the Indians do sel the buddes of the trees whereout the Liquid Amber is taken, made in handfulles, doo sell it in their market places, for to put amongst their clothes, which causeth them to smell, as of the water of Angels, fort his purpose the Spaniardes doo use it.


Of the Balsamo. (Myroxylon balsamum var. pareirae)

They doo bring from the newe Spayne that licour most excellent, which for his excellencie and mervellous effectes is called Balsamo, an imitation of the true Balsame that was in the land of Egypt, and for that it dooth such great workes, and remedie so many unfirmities there was given to it such a name. It is made of a tree greater then of Powngarnet Tree, (Punica) it carrieth leaves like to Nettles: the Indians do call it Xilo, and we doo call the same Balsamo. It is made two maner of waies, the one is by the way of incision cutting the rind of the Tree which is thinne, giving many small cuttinges, out of which there commeth a clamish licour, of colour white, but it is little and moste excellent and very perfect. The other fashion is, whereby the Indians do use to take out licour of [15] (Fol.8) the trees, which is a common use amongst them is this: they take the bowes and the great peeces of the trees, and make them as small as they can, and then cast them into a greate Kettle, with a good quantitie of water, so boile them until they see it sufficiently done, and afterward they let it coole, and gather up the oyle that doeth swimme thereuppon with certaine shelles, and that is the Balsamo that commeth too these parts, and that commonly is used: the colour thereof is Alborne which is likened to blacke, it is of most sweet smel, and verie excellent. It is not convenient nor it ought to bee kept in any other vessel then in silver, Glasse or Tinne, or any other thing glassed, it doeth penitrate and doeth passe through: the use thereof is onely in thinges appertaining to Medicine, and it hath been used of long time well neere since the new Spaine was discovered, for that incontinent the Spaniards had knowledge of it, because they did heale therwith the wounds that they did receive of the Indians, being advised of the vertue therof by the same Indians, and they did soo the sayde Indians heale and cure themselves therewith.

When it first came into Spayne, it was esteemed als much as it had reason it shoulde be: for that they dyd see it make marvellous workes: one ounce was worth tenne Duccates and upwardes, and now it is better cheape: the first time that they carried it to Rome, it came to be worth one ounce, one hundreth Duccats: after that they brought so much and such great quantitie that it is now of small value: this commeth of the abundance of thinges, and when it was very deere all men tooke profite of the profite of it, and since it came to bee of so lowe a Price, it is not so muche esteemed beeing the selfe same Balsamo, that it was then when is was woorth one hundreth Duccates the ounce. Surely if the Indians had not beene discovered, but only for the effecte to send us this marvellous licour the labour had been wel employed which our Spaniardes [16] have taken, for that the Balsamo, that was used to bee had in Egypt, it is many yeeres since it failed, because the Time from whence it came, dried up, wherby you have now none in the worlde. Our Lord God did thinke it good in place of that to give us this Balsamo, of the newe Spaine, the which in my iudgement in Medicinal vertue, is no whit inferiour unto that of Egipt, according to the great effectes that we doe see in it, and the great profit that it doeth, which we doe see in Medicines, in three waies: that is to say, it is taken at the mouth, or it is applied outwardly, or it serveth in thinges of Surgerie. Taken in the morning fasting, it healeth the shornesse of breath: it taketh away the diseases of the bladder: it provoketh the Menstrues of women taken and applyed with a Pessarie: it taketh away the old paines of the Stomacke, licking certaine droppes therof in the morning fasting, layde upon the palme of the hende, and so continued, it doeth comfort the stomacke: it doeth rectifye the Liver: it maketh a good colour in the face, it maketh a good breathing, it openeth the Brest, it undoeth opilations, and conserveth youth: I know a person of much estimation that did use it, and beyng of great yeeres, did looke like a young man, and lived after he used it without occasion of any evill. They which have beene troubled with a dry cough have used it, and to some it hath been profitable, and some Gentle women that have not brought foorth Children, have used it in tentes for to purge the Mother, and it hath doone them good.

It hath beene also applyed outwardly in alle manner of griefes caused of colde humours, or of windes. For that beyng continued, it taketh away verwy well any manner of griefe, applied hot, with a little fether, and laying thereupon a cloth wet with the selfe same Balsamo, it is dissolvative, and so it doeth consume and undoe swellinges colde and olde. It strengtheneth any parte where it is put unto, the foreparte of the heade it doeth comforte mervellously, [17] (Fol. 9) and taket away the paines thereof, consuming any manner of humour or colde that is in it: it taketh away the palsey by annoyntyng the Foreheade and Necke, and the partes that bee impotent, and it doeth profite in alle infirmities of Sinewes, and shrinkinges of them. Applyed unto the stomacke, it helpeth digestion, and comforteth it, dissolving windinesse: and if there be any opilation, it openeth it. And also the opilations of the inner partes it dieth, molifie and sofften: it taketh away the paine of the Stone in the Kidneies of Raynes, beeing layde hot uppon the greined place: in the paines of the Bellie or Stomake caused of colde or windes, beeing put therunto hotte, or layed uppon hotte Breade taken out of the Oven, it taketh them away: it provoketh Urine, and them that cannot pisse, applying it outwardly, and taking a fewe droppes thereof, it doeth unloose and expelle it: in the paines of the ioyntes it hath marvellous effect, and in these it hath a speciall Prerogative, and especially in the Sciatica, dissolveth any manner of hardenesse or swelling that remaineth in any such griefe: in paines of the Sinewes it is a mervellous remedie, and in all runninges of fluxe, it doeth stoppe and heale.

This Balsamo being applyed in practice of Surgerie hath grat effects of it selfe, or mingled any other way with medicine, that hath vertue to doe the effect whersoever it is applied, and to shew all the vertues thereof, it would be verie long. I do remit it to him that shal use it that he may make the mixture that shall be necessarie and convenient.

The Balsamo is a verye common and used remedie for woundes being newe, for that it doth cure them by the first intention, glewing together the partes without making matter, and where there be bruses that cannot bee glewed together, it doeth a verie good worke, makyng digestion with redinesse, and in the rest of the workes that appertaine to Surgerie, it doth that which is convenient [18] untill the woundes be whole, and for this cause the use therof is a common medicine in al surgerie for poore folkes, seeing that as with one medicine all effects are wrought therwith, that are necessarie: is is a common thing to say, that when one is hurt, let Balsamo be put thereunto, and so they doe, it doth heale them. In the woundes of Sinewes it worketh a mervellous effect, for that it doeth both cure and heale. It healeth better then anyother medicine doeth, it resisteth colde, the wounds of the head it healeth very wel, not having the Skull broken, nor perished.

Any manner of woundes beyng freshe, it doeth heale in any parte of the body whersoever they bee, so that there be no more in it but a simple wounde. In Joyntes what manner of wounde soever it bee, it doeth make a mervellous worke: The use thereof is very common in this Cytie, in woundes. For that you have fewe houses, but you have Balsamo in them for his effect, so that in wounding of of any person foorthwith they goe to the Balsamo, for with little quantitie thereof they doe cure and heale, and many times with putting of it once everie thirde day, they finde the wounde whole. In olde sores applyed by it selfe, or with any other oyntment, it doeth mundifie, and fill them uppe with flesh.

In large fevers Paroxismales beyng layde halfe an houre before the colde doeth come, uppon the moulde of the heade very hot, the patient being verie well covered with clothes, and taking fortwith five or sixe droppes thereof in wine, it taketh away the colde, in three of foure times doing it. It is of a sharpe savour and somwhat bitter, wherby are seene the dry partes and comfortative that it hath: it is hot and dry in the second degree.

I will not let to write of a certaine Hearbe, whych the Conquerours of the new Spaine doe use for the remedie of their wounds, and shottes of arrowes, which unto them was a great remedie in their troubles, and it was discovered by [19] (Fol. 10) an Indian, which was Servaunt to a Spaniarde called Iohn Infant. Hee was the first that used it, they did call it, and doo call it at this present day: The Hearbe of Iohn Infant. (Herba Johannis infantis, Frans herbe de Jean infant een kruidje met bladeren als kleine zuring) This hearb is little, they gather it greene, and beate it, and so they lay is simply upon the wound: it doth restrain and stoppe the blood, and if it bee a wound in the fleshe, it dooth cause it to grow together, and healeth it by glewing the partes. The woundes of the Sinewes, and other parts it dooth comfort, mundifie, and ingendreth fleshe in them until they be whole, and because they do not finde this hearb in alle places, they bring it made into powder, for that it woorketh the same effect as well als beeing greene, and the pouder, as some say, doth it better then the hearbe.

As this hearbe, so likewise have you many other in alle the other partes of the Indias, that have the same and other properties, and doo worke marvellous effectes: to write of everie one of them perticulerly, it were needfull to maken a greater volume, then we doo pretende of this that we shall entreate of.

Three thinges they bring from our Occidentall Indias, which at this day be celebrated in all the worlde, and with them they have made doo make the greatest works that ever were made in medicine, there were never them like made, by any other medicine that unto this day hath beene known, for that the nature of al three is to cure infirmities which without this remedy be incurable, and to worke the effectes that doo seeme to bee thinges of woonder, and these are notorious, not onely in these parts, but in all the world: the which thinges are the wood that is called Guaiacan, the China and the Sarcaparillia. And for that it seemeth that the China dooth come from Portingall, and that the Portingales do bring it from the Orientall Indias, and not from ours, I wil say what is to be said herafter when we do speak thereof. And therefore let us beginne with Guaiacan, as of a remedie that first came from the Indias, and as first of the [20] the best of all, as experience hath shewed, and the use thereof in so many yeares.

Of the Guaiacan and of the holy Wood. (Guaiacum officinale, Bulnesia sarmientoi)

The Guaiacum, that is called the woode of the Indias was discovered forth with when the first Indias was found, which was the Islande of Sancto Domingo, where is great quantitie thereof. There was an Indian that gave knowledge thereof to his Maister in this maner. There was a Spaniard that did suffer great paines of the Pox, which he had taken hy had taken by the company of an Indian woman, but his servant being one of the Phisitions of the country, gave unto him the water of Guaiacan, wherewhit not onely his greevous paynes were taken away that he did suffer, but he was healed very well of the evill: with the which many other Spaniardes, that were infected with the same evill were healed also, the which was communicated imediatly, with them that came from thence, hether to Sevill, and from thence is was divulged throughout al Spayne, and from thence through all the worlde, for that infection was sowen abroad throughout all partes thereof: and surely for this evill it is the best, the most chief remedy of as many as hetherto have been found, and with most assuraunce, and most certeyntie, it healeth and cureth the saide disease, if they be well handled: thys water given as it ought to be, it is certeine that it healeth it most perfectly, without turning to fall againe, except the sicke man doe returne to tumble in the same bosome, where he tooketh the first infection.

Dur Lord God would from whence the evill of the Pox came, from thence should come the remedy for them. Since it is known that they came into these parts from the Indias [21] (Fol. 11) and first of all from Sancto Domingo. The Poxe bee as common amongst the Indians, and as familiar, as the Measelles bee unto us, and well neere the most part of the Indians, both men and women have them, without making thereof any scruple, and they came first in this sorte.

In the yeare of our Lord God 1493 in the warres That the Catholike King made in Naples, with Kyng Charles of Fraunce, hy was called Greathead, in this time sir Chrisopher Colon, returned from the discoverie that he had made of the Indias, which was Sancto Domingo, and other Islands, and he brought with him from Sancto Domingo, a great number of Indians, both men and women, which he carried with him to Naples, where the Catholike King was at that time, who had then concluded the warres, for that there was peace betweene the twoo Kinges, and the hostes did communicate togeather, the one with the other. And Colon being come thether with his Indians, the most part of them brought with them the fruite of their countrie, which was the Poxe. And the Spaniardes began to have conversaton with the Indian women, in such sort that the men and women of the Indias, did infect the Campe of the Spaniardes, Italians, and Almaines: for the Catholike king hod then of all these Nations, and there were many that were infected with that evill. And after the hostes communed together, the fire did kindle in the campe of the king of Fraunce, of which it followed, that in shorte time the one and the other were infected with this evill seede: and from thence it hath spred abroad into all the world.

At the beginning it had divers names: the Spaniardes did thinke that it had beene given them by the Frenchmen, and they called it he Frenche evil. The Frenchman thought that in Naples, and by them of the Country, the evill had been given them, they called it the evill of Naples. And they of Almaine seing that by conversation with the Spniardes, (*) they came by it, they called it in the Spanisch, [22] Skabbe; another called it the Measelles of the Indians, and that very truely, seeing that from thence came the evill in the beginning.

Amongst the great Phisitions of that time, there were sundry great opinions of the cause, and originall of the infirmitie. The one sorte sayde that it came of the evill melancholie meates, that the hostes of necessitie had eaten, als wilde hearbes, and many Gardein hearbes, and rootes of hearbes, Asses, and Horses, and other lyke tinges, that ingender such like infirmities, corrupting and burning the blood. Others there were, that did attribute it to the coniuctions of Saturnus and Mars, and they did apply it to the heavenly influence, and gave thereunto divers and sundry names. Some called it the Leprosis, others Swine Poxe, other Pentegra, others the Deathlie evill, others Elephansia, without certeyne assuraunce what disease it was. For they were ignorant that it was a newe disease, and they would reduce it to some already known and written of. And nowe we come to our Guaiacan, whose name was given by the Indians, and of them very well knowne, and so they have called it and do call it, in all the world, calling it also the woodde of the Indias. Of this woodde many have written much, onse sorte saying that it was Ebano, others that it was a kinde of Boxe, with many other names whereby they have named it. Is is a newe tree never seene in our partes, nor in any other of the discoveries, and as the country is new, so is the tree a new thing also.

Whatsoever it be, is is a great tree, of the greatnesse of an Oke: it casteth out many bowes, the rinde it dooth cast from it being dry, greate, and full of Gumme, the heart thereof is verie great, it is well neere like to blacke, all is very hard as much and more then Ebano is. It casseth forth a little leafe and hard, and every yeere it bringeth forth yellowe flowers, out of which is ingendred a rounde fruite with litle kernells within it, of the greatnesse of a Medler: [23] (Fol. 12) of these Trees there is greate aboundance in Sancto Domingo.

And after this they have founde an other Tree, of the kinde of this Guaiacan, in Saint John de Puerto Rico, which is an other Ilande neere to that of Sancto Domingo, such an other tree as that is, saving that it is lesse, the bodye of the tree and the bowes are smaller, it hath scarcely any harte, or if it have any, it is very little, that is in the body of the tree, for that the bowes have none at all: It is of more sweet smel and more bitter then the Guaiacan, that is now used in our time, I meane that of Sancto Domingo, and for his marvellous effectes, they call it the holie Woode, surely with reason: for that it is of a better working then that of Sancto Domingo, which is seene by experience, but even aswell the one, the other is a marvellous remedie, to cure the disease of the Poxe: of the which and of everie one of them a water is made, and is taken for this infirmitie, and for many others in this forme.

They take twelve ounces of the wood made small, and twoo ounces of the Rinde of the same woodde broken, and they cast it to steepe in three Pottels of Water, in a newe pot, that will holde somewhat more, for the space of xxiiii houres: and the pot being well stopt, they seeth it over a soft fire of kindled Coales, untill the two Pottels bee sodde away, and one remaining. And this is to be noted at the time the water is put to it, putting therein one Pottle, they dip in a little Rodde, and doe marke howe high the water of one Pottle reacheth, and by that measure and marke, they shall see when the two are sodden away, and the one Pottell remaineth. After the water is sodden, they set it to coole, and straine it, and keep it in a glassed vessell, and forth with uppon the said sodden woodde, they poure foure Pottels of water, and seeth it till one bee sodden away, and this Water must bee strained and kept apart, and it must be taken in this forme. [24]

After that the sicke man is purged by the counsell of a Phisition, let him be put into a warme Chamber, and kept from the colde and from ayre, and beeing laied in his bedde, let him take early in the morning tenne ounces of Water, of that which was first made well warmed, and let him be covered so that he may sweat wel, let him kepe his sweat at the least two houres, after he hath swet, let him be made cleane from his sweat, take a warm shirt, and the rest of his Linen cloathes, and foure houres after he hath swet, let him eat Reasings, Almonds and Bisket and that in reasonable quantitie. Then let him drink of the water that was made at the second time, the quantitie that he hath need of, and of the selfe same let him drinke in the day time, eight houres after he hath eaten, let him returne to take the first water, and let him take other ten ounces well warmed, and then sweate other two houres, and after his sweate let him bee made cleane, and then bee covered againe wyth warme cloathes, and one houre after he hath swet, let him make his supper of the same Reasings, Almonds, and Bisket, and drinke of the second water. This order he must observe the first fifteene daies, except thee have some notable weaknesse, and in such case hee must bee succoured with giving him to eat of a young Chicken, iointly, with the rest of the diet: and in them that be leane, that cannot beare so precise diet it is sufficient that they take it for nine daies, and at the end of them they may eat a little Chicken rosted, if in case the sicke person be debilited, and that he cannot suffer the diet, let him have from the beginning a very small Chicken, going forwarde increasing of the proces of time, and beeing past the 15 dayes, let him returne to purge himself at the sixteene daies end, let him take the waight of five shillinges of the substaunce of Canafistola, taken out by Strayner or other thinge respondent thereunto, and that day let him drinke no stronge water, but of the simple, and the next day after the Purgation, let him returne to [25] (Fol. 13) the aforesaide order, taking in the morning and evening the strong water with his sweatinges, eating and drinking the same. Saving that in place of a Chicken hee may eate halfe a rosted Pullet, or some what more, and this seconde time let him take it for other xx daies, in the which time hee may ryse, and walke about his chamber, being apparelled and kept warme. And at the end of them, hee shall returne to purge himselfe an other time, and must have a special care to keepe good order, and after hee hath taken the water for other fortie dayes, must keepe himselfe from women and from wine especially: and in place of wine, hee must drinke the simple water of the woodde, which if he will not doe, then let him drink of water sodden with Anise seede of Fenell seede, supping little at night and eating no flesh.

This is the best way that the water of the woode ought to be taken, which doth heale many infirmities incurable, where other Medicines could not worke the same effecte. this water is the best remedy that is in the worlde to heale the disease of the Poxe, whatsoever of of what kinde soever it bee, for that it rooteth it out for ever without any more comming againe, and in this it hath his principalprerogative and excellencie. This water is also good for the Dropsy, for the shortnesse of breath, for the Falling sicknes, for the diseases of the Bladder, and of the Raines, for the paines of the Joyntes, for all evils cause of colde humors, for ventositie, and other dangerous and importunat diseases, where by ordinarie benefites of Phisitions have not profited. Chiefly it excelleth wher the evil dispositions be, that have proceeded at any time from the disease of the Poxe.

Ther be many that with this wood have made sundry mixtures, making Siropes therof, and surely with good effect. But my iudgement and opinion is, that he which shal take the water of the wood, ought to take it in the maner as is above said, without any mingling thereof, for that by experience [26] it hath beene seene so to make the better worke.

This water is good for the teethe, making them white, and fastning them, by continuall washing of them there with: it is hot and dry in the second degree.

Of the China. (Smilax china)

The Second Medicine that commeth from our Indias, is a roote called the China. It seemeth that I should flaunder it, to say that the China groweth in our Occidentall Indias, since commonly the Portingales doe bring it from the Orientall Indias.

But this you shall understand, that Sir Frauncis de Mendosa, a worthy Knight, when hee came from the newe Spaine and Peru, shewed to mee a great Roote, and other little rootes, who asked me, what rootes they were? I answered that they were rootes of the China, but that they seemed to mee to be verie freshe. Hes sayde to mee that so they were, and that it was not long since that they had bene gathered and brought from the new Spaine. I marvelled that they had it there, for I did beleeve that in the China only it had growen: he said unto mee, that not only there was in the newe Spaine the China, but that also we shoulde see brought greate quantitie of Spycerie from the place which that China came from. And I beleved it when I saw the contract that he had made with his Maiestie, to bring into Spaine great quantitie of Spicery, that hee had begun to set and to plant and I sawe greene Ginger brought from thence, as also the China.

This China is a roote lyke to the roote of a cane wyth certaine knottes within it, white and some white with the whitnesse hath an alborne colour: it is red without, the best is the freshest, that which hath no holes, if it bee weightie, and not worm eaten, and that it have a fatnes as if it were congeled, and it hath an unsaverie tast. This Roote doeth [27] (Fol. 14) growe in the China, which is the Orientall Indias neere to Siria and Sircania. It groweth neere to the Sea:onely with the roote they helpe themselves, with the which the Indians be healed of greevous diseases. And therefore they have it in great estimation: they do heale all maner of large diseases therewith, and also the sharpe diseases: especially Agues, with the Water of it, provoking Sweates, and by this way they heale many. It provoketh sweat marvellously.

Is is well neere xxx yeares since that the Portingales brought it to these parts with great estimation, for to heale all maner of diseases, and especially the disease of the Poxe, in the which it hath wrought great effects, and the Water is given in this forme.

The sicke person beeing purged as is most convenient, must take one of the Rootes and cut them small unto the thicknesse and greatnesse of a three penny peece, and so being cut, shall weigh one ounce, and cast it into a newe Pot, and thereuppon shall poure three Pottels of Water, and so shall lye a steeping there xxiiii houres, and the Pot beeing stopt, let it seethe at a soft fire of kindled coales, untyll halfe be sodden away, one pottell and half remaine, this is to be knowne by the order of the Measure, as is aforesaid, in the Water of the Wood. And after that it is colde, let it be straigned and kept in a glassed Vessel. There must bee care taken, that it stand in some hotte or warme place neere to the fire, for that therewith it dooth preserve the vertue the better, and dureth longer time, before it corrupted.

The sick man being lodged in a close convenient chamber must take in the morning fasting, tenne ounces of the said water, as hotte as he can suffer it, and hee shall procure sweat, keep it two houres at the least. After the sweat he shall be made cleane, and shall take a Shirte and cleane clothes,

warme them, and shall lye downe agayne two or three oures in the bed quietly after hee hath swet. And [28] afterwarde let him aparrell himselfe, and beeing well warmed remayne in his Chamber, in the which he shall be kept from cold the open ayre, with al the pleasure of good company and conversation: he shal eate at a xi of the clock halfe a Chicken sodden, or a quarter of a Henne, with a little Salt. At the beginning of dinner he shal drinke a dish full of Broth, and foorthwith eate of the Pullet, eating at the beginning a little, and he shall ende with Marmelade. His drinke shall be of the water hee tooke in the morning, for that here is no more then one water, hee may at the beginning after the Broth is taken, beginne to eate Reasinges, without their little Graynes, of Prunes without their stones: their bread must be Crustie, well baked, or Bisket. If he will drinke in the daye time, hee may doo so with taking of a littlen Conserva, and drinke of the same water, and beeing eyght howres paste his Dinner, let him lye downe in his Bedde, and take other tenne ounces of the same water, the which beeing hotte hee may drinke, and procure sweat: two houres after he hath sweat, let hym be made clean, and take a cleane shirt, and cleane clothes warm, and after one hour let him sup with Conserva, Reasinges and Almondes, with some Bisket, and drinke of the selfe same water, and last of all eate Marmelade, upon the which he may not drinke. Thus he may continue xxx daies continually, without neede of any more Purgation then the first, and he may sit up, so that he goe well clothed, using in this time all contens and mirth, and keeping himselfde from all that may offend him.

After that he hath taken this water in this sorte, he must keepte good order, and good governement for fortie dayes continually. And he must drink no Wine, but water made of the China, that was before sodden, the whiche hee shall keepe after it is sodden, setting it to dry in a shadowie place, and that China being dry must b kept to make water for other 40 daies, to drinke after the taking of the first water: [29] (Fol. 15) seething one ounce thereof in three Pottells of water untyll one halfe be sodden away, this water let him drinke continually. And above all thinges let him keepe himselfe from women: and he must alwaies have care, that as well in the water of xxx dayes as in the water of the fortie dayes, that the China be steeped in the water xxiiii houres before it be sodden.

There be many diseases healed with this water, al kinds of evill of the Poxe, all olde Sores, it resolveth all swellinges and knobbes, it taketh away the paynes of the ioyntes which they call Arthetica Goute, and any other kinde of Goute that is in any pertculer member or place, and especially the Sciatica, it taketh away olde paynes of the head and the stomacke. It healeth all manner of runnings of Rewmes, it dissolveth Opilations, and healeth the Dropsie. It maketh a good colour in the face, it taketh away the Jaundices, all evill compexion of the Liver and rectifieth it, and in this it hath a great pregogative. And by this means these infirmities are healed. It healeth the palsey, all infirmities of the Sinewes, it healeth all diseases of Urine, it taketh away Melanchollie, and all infirmities comming of cold diseases. It dooth comfort the stomacke, it doth dissolve winds marvellously, and also Agues long and sharp, as quotidians: the taking of this water as it is convenient, so doth it roote them out, and take them away. The which thing it dooth by provoking of sweat, in this it dooth exceede all other Medicines, and some will say that in Pestilent Agues, by provoking swet, it healeth them. Is is dry in the second degree with very little heat, the which is seene by the other waters of the woode. And as Sarcaparilia which doth heate and dry, so this dooth not, nor leaveth any impression of heate.

Surely it is notable Medicine, in the which I have founde greate effectes for the Diseases whiche I have spoken of. [30]

Of the Sarcaparillia. (Smilax glauca)

The Sarcaparillia is a thing brought into our parts since the China.

It is xx yeares since the use thereof came to this cittie. It first came from the new Spaine, the Indians did use it for great medicine, with the which they did heale many and divers diseases.

Is is a plant which doth cast many rootes under the ground, beeing of a yeard long, of the colour of a cleere tawny, and sometines the rootes shootes so deepe, that to take them out all, it is needfull to digge a Mans lenght. It casteth foorth certein bowes full of knots, that quickly doe drie, and we know not that they have caried flowers or fruite at all.

After that the Sarcaparillia of the new Spaine was found, there was also found in the Hunduras, an other sort that was better, and of better effectes: it is knowne to be of the Hunduras, because that it is of colour Tawnie, and grosser then that of the newe Spaine, the which is white and somewhat like to yellowe, and more small, and so the Sarcaparillia that is most like to black is best.

It ought to be fresh, and in this is all the goodnes thereof, it is knowne to bee freshe by not beeing Worme eaten. For that at the freshe breaking of it longwise, in the midest it maketh a running out to the end, and casteth out no dust, and the heavier it is, the better it is.

The Spaniards did call it Sarcaparillia when they saw it, for the great likenes that it hath with the Sarcaparillia of these parts. I have it for certeine, that the Sarcaparilia of these parts, and of the Indians, is all one, and the very same that ours is. The which I have experimented many times, ours worketh the effect that the Sarcaparillia of the [31] (Fol. 16) new spaine doth, it is like unto that of the Hunduras, but it is of a bitter tast, and not verie sharpe, and the water that it yeildeth hath no more savour then barley water hath.

The use of this hearbe at the first did differ much from that which is now in experiment, for that they gave it as the Indians did, in the healing of their sicke folkes, surely it did worke verie great effectes. But the delicatenesse of our time doth require that is shoulde be used given as the water of the wood is. At the beginning they tooke of the Sarcaparillia much quantitie, more then halfe a pound did cut it small and break it, and cast it into a quantitie of water, and being well wet, they beate it in a Morter a good while, in such sorte that it was made like a Jellie, and then dyd strayne it, pressing it verie well, for there came out of it the likenesse of a thicke drinke. And of that they tooke in the morning hot, one good Cup full, and then the Patient clothed him selfe wel. And sweat two houres: and if in the day time they woulde drinke any thing, is shoulde be of the selfe same thicke drinke, so made by expression hot, and then they swet as much in the morning. This order they observe for three daies continually without eating or drinking of other meat, saving onely that thicke drink, taken out by pressing or straining of the Sarcaparillia: and after this sort I gave it at the beginning many times, and surely it wrought great effectes and many sicke people did better recover, then they doe now with this other fashion.

After there was invented an other forme and maner to give it, and is that which is now used, in this sorte. They take two ounces of Sarcaparillia, and wash it and cut it smal and then they put it in a newe earthen pot, and there uppon they poure three pottels of water, and sette it in the water to steepe twentie and foure houres, and after the Pot beeing well stopte, it must seeth on a soft fire of kindled coales, untill the two Pottels bee sodden away, and [32] the one remaine, the which may be knowne by the order of the measure, that we spake of, and when it is cold, let it bee strained in a glassed vessel, and upon the selfe same Sarcaparilia that is sodden, let there bee so much water powred in againe that the pot be filled, let it boyle a reasonable time and kept in a vessel glassed.

Now the sicke Man being purged, as is seemeth moste convenient, and placed in a warme Chamber, he must take in the morning ten ounces of the first water of the Sarcaparillia, and must sweate at the least two houres, and after sweate he must be made clean from his sweat, and take a warme shirt, and warme cloathes, and the like he must doe at night, eight houres after he hath eaten his dinner, changing his shirt and hot apparrell. Hee must dine at eleven of the clock, and suppe one hour after hee hath sweat, at night eating nothing but Reasings, Almondes, and Bisket, and drinking of the second water. Let him keepe this order fifteene daies, and if he be weake, give him a little rosted chicken increasing it in processe of time, at the least hee must keepe his bed nine daies at the first beginning, and the rest of the time in his chamber, kept from colde, and from ayre and on the fifteene day he must be purged, with a soft and an easie medicine, als likewise on the thirty day, in such sorte, that all the order that we have prescribed, be kept, as in the manner of the taking of the water of the wood is already declared. And likewise after the 30 daies, he must have good government, for other fortie daies, not drinking any wine, but simple water made of the said Sacaparillia, and keeping himselfe from women. This is the ordinarie manner in taking of the water of Sarcaparillia, which at this day is used. And because I have experience of other waies that bee of great secret, and of great effectes, I will write them heere, to the ende that all the vertues which are in the Sacaparillia, may be set downe and declared, seeing it is the Medicine that is moste used, and that wee doe see in it so [33] (Fol. 17) greate effectes.

I doe make a Sirupe, that many yeres hath beene celebrated, and had in estimation in this Citie and in al Spain, for that it is xxvi yeares that I did use it for the disease of the Poxe, and for other infirmities: the whych dooeth not heate, nor inflame, but with greate temperature, according to his graduation, it wortketh his good effectes. The fyrste, for whome this thing was ordained en devised, was for Pantelion de Negrolenoltes, who was cured of many Phisitions, and having taken the water of the woodde, and other Medicines, hee was well nere consumed: and with a greevous swelling fore upon his shinne bone, and great paines in it, he tooke it, and healed verie well. This sirupe I have used to many people, for the infirmitie that the Sarcaparilla doeth profite for, and the woodde, and for many other, and it hath a good working by degrees: for that the drinesse of the woode is taken away, and the heate of the Sarcaparilla and it is made in this forme.

There must bee taken two ounces of Sarcaparilla, and foure ounces of Paulo Sancto, whyche is the holy woodde, prepared as it is sayed, and three dozen of Acofeifas, (Zizyphus jujuba) a fruite of Spaine, without their stone, and two dozen of Prunes, without their stones, and halfe an ounce of the flowers of Burrage, and an other halfe ounce of Violettes and some graines of Barley made cleane, that is to saye: the huskes taken away. All these thinges lette them be caste into three pottelles of water, and lette them bee sodden on a softe fire, untill it come to one pottell, and then let it bee strained, and to tenne ounces of this seething, lette there bee putte one ounce of the Sirupe of Violettes. Let it be taken hotte in the morning, and at night in the order as is saied. In the rest of the water, kepyng sweete if there be any, and although there come little, yet they heale. They may eate a littel Chicken from the first day, with the rest of the diet, and drinke the simple water of the Sarcaparilla: [34] whiche is to bee made with halfe an ounce of Sarcaparilla, sodden in foure pottels of water, untill one or some what more, be sodden away.

This order dooeth heale all kinde of evill of the Poxe, and al the infirmities that we have spoken of, that the water of the woodde doeth heale, and the China, and the Sarcaparilla. And to repeate it, it shall be too long and to prolirious, because it is sufficiently declared before. For surely in thus simple water, and in the foresaied decoction, I have founde greate effectes, as well in the infirmities where is suspected the evill of the Poxe, as in large and importunate diseases, the which the common remedies of Phisicke hath not profited, although they proceeded not of the Frenche Poxe, it dooeth cure and heale them, as it is seene by the worke of him that use it.

There is an other Sirupe to bee made of the Sarcaparilla, which is: taking eight ounces of Sarcaparilla beeyng broken and cutte, and seeth it in foure potteles of water, untill three be sodden away, and the one remaine: and in the water as shall remaine, putte four pounds of Sugar, and make it a perfecte Sirupe. And of this Sirupe, take three ounces in the Morning, and three at Night, eatyng good meates, and Suppe little, and drinke onely the simple water of the Sarcaparilla, and goying abroade out of his house, doyng his businesse. There is healed there wyth many diseases of the sayed, without giving any molestation in the healing of them. And this muste bee taken till the Sirupe be all consumed.

Also this Sarcaparilla is taken in pouder, in this maner. They take the Sarcaparilla, and take away from it the harte within it, and drye it and grunde it, and they doe sifte it through a Seeve of Silke, and maketh it in pouder. Of this pouder is taken in the infirmitie of the Poxe, or spice of them, taking the waight of sixe pence of the pouder, and drinking it with the simple Water of the Saracaparilla, taking [35] (Fol. 18) it in the Mornyng, and at Night as muche when he goeth to bedde. He muste eate good meates, and drinke no Wine, but the simple water thereof. It shall doo well hee be purged that shall begin to use.

And although that this powder dooth heale many deseases large and temporall, once cure it dooth marveilously whiche in the salte Fleume of the handes and feete, in thys forme. The sicke man beeyng purged, and also without purgyng, if he can not otherwise doo, he shall take the pouder, as it is sayed, and in the salt Fleume, he shal put with a Feather, a little of the water of Sublimatum, watered with Rose water, that it be very simple, and after it is put in all partes, where the salte Fleume is, then let there bee put upon it a plaister, that is called of Wiliam Serventus, or Dia Palma spread abroad thinne upon Sattin of Taffeta, putte in all partes where the simple water of Sublimatum is put. This must bee doon everie day, for that in fifteene daies he shall bee perfectly whole. This dooth mundifie and dooth incarnate, and dooth skinne without having neede of anie other Medicine, ioyntly with the Powder and the simple water of Sarcaparilla whiche we have spoken of. This is of so great effecte, and experimented, as they shall see by the worke that shall use it, for surely they shall bee whole.

The use of the water of the Sarcaparilla is so greate at this day in this forme, as is sayed that it is applied to anye desease, and it is come to so much, that in any manner of Reumes of Runnings, or windinesse, the evill of women, of the Mother, or any other cause or occasion what soever, so that it bee not in Fevers or other sharpe diseases, for the whiche they take the simple Water of the Sarcaparilla: and this is at this day so put in use, that in like sorte you shall finde sodden water of Sarcaparilla beeing simply in many houses, as ordinarie water in earthen vesselles: and surely it dooth great effectes, and dooth remedie large and importunate deseases. Truth it is that to the persones that [36] bee hotte of complexion, it dooth heate them more then is conveniente, and so they can not drinke it, and moste of all if that the Liver be verie hotte, for that it heateth too much.

In womens diseases, as well of the Mother, as of colde humours, it dooth good effectes, and dooth marvellouslye dissolve windes, and in persons that bee subiecte to muche evilles, and especially of Rewmes, and olde greefes and diseases caused of evill humours and if they run this course, with the continuaunce thereof, they shall receive manifest profite and benefite, and it dooth heale all diseases whiche they never thought to heale of. His complexion is hotte and drie well neere in the second degree. All these waters must bee given in Sommer, or in the ende thereof: it is better that it exceede in heete then in cold.


Of the blood Stone, and of the Stone for the diseases of the Stone of the Kidneies and Raines.

They doo bring from the new Spaine two stones of great vertue: the one is called the Stone of the blood, the other is a Stone for the disease of the Stone in the Kidneies and Reines: the blood stone is a kinde of Jasper of divers colours somwhat darke, full of sprincles like to blood, beeing of colour redde: of the whiche stones the Indians dooth make certayne Hartes both great and small.

The use thereof, both here and there, is for all fluxe of bloud, of what partes so ever it bee, of the Nose, or of the Menstrues, or of the Piles, and of Woundes, or of that whiche is cast out at the mouthe. The stone must bee wet in colde water, and the sicke manne must taken him in his right hande, and from time to time wet him in colde water. [37] (Fol. 19) In this sort the Indians doe use them. And as touching the Indians, they have it for certaine, that touching the same stone, in some parte where the blood runneth, that it dooth restraine and in this they have great truste, for that the effect hath beene seene. It dooth profyt also havyng it holden, hanged, or tied in the same part where the bloud runneth, so that it touche on the fleshe. Of this stone we have seen great effectes, in staunchyng of blood. And some that doo suffer the Hemeroidal fluxe, have remedied themselves with makyng Rynges of this stone, and wearing them continually upon their fingers. And also in the Menstruall fluxe of women.

The other Stone, which is for the disease of the stone in the Kidneies or Reynes the finest of them are like unto Plasma of Esmeraldes, whiche is likened to greene with a Milkische colour, the greatest is the best: they bryng them made in divers formes and fashions for the Indians had them in olde time, some like to fishes, other like to the heddes of birdes, other like to billes of Popingaies, other like to rounde Beadstones, but all pearsed through, for that the Indians doo use to weare them hangyng for the effecte of the greefe of the stone or stomacke: for in these twee sicknesses it doth marvelous effectes.

The cheef vertue that it hath is in the paine of the stone in the Kidneies and Reines, and in expelling of Sande and stone. In somuch that a Gentleman whiche had one of them here, (the best of them that I have seen,) having put it to hys arme, hee dooth make him to expell and caste out muche sande, that many times hee dooth take it away, for that hee thinketh that it dooth hurte him for to put out so muche: and in taking it awaye, hee ceaseth to caste any from hym, when he feeleth the paine of the stone, and puttyng hym to againe, it dooth take it away incontinent, with expelling of muche Sande and small stones. I have seene it carried to persones that have beene greeved with great greefe, and [38] paines of the saide disease, and putting it to them, they doo foorthwith expell the sande and the little stones, and remain cleare thereof.

This stone hath a propertie hidden, by the which meanes he dooth great effectes, to preserve that they fall not in to the paine of the saide disease, and after it is come it taketh away, or diminisheth it. It dooth make the sande to bee expelled in great aboundance, and likewise stones. It taketh away the heate from the raines of the backe, it profiteth in greefes of the stomacke, put to it: and above all it preserveth from the saide griefe.

My Lady the Duchesse fort hat she had in shorte time three tymes exceeding paines of the stone, she made a bracelet of them, that she used to weare it at her arme, and sithence she put them to her arme, she never had more paines of the Stone, and so it hath happened to many other that had the like benefite, for the whiche they are much esteemede, and now they be not so soone had, as at the beginning: for that these stones onely the Gentlemen and richmen have them, and with reason, because they do suche marvelous effectes. An other stone there is that dooth heale the salte Fleume, the whiche I doo know by heresaye, but I have seene none of them.

Of the Wood for the evils of the Reines, and of the Urine. (Haematoxylon campechianum?)

Also they do bring from the new Spaine, a certeyne wood that is like unto the wood of a Peare tree grosse and without knots: the which they have used therof many yeres in thy parts, for the paines of the Raines of the Stone, and for the infirmities of the Urine. The firste time that I sawe it used (may bee aboute xxxv yeares past) there was a Pilot that was sicke of the (39] (Fol. 20) Urine and of the Reines, and after that he had used it, he was whole and verie well. And sithence that time I have seene that many have brought it from the new Spaine, and they doe use it for these remedies.

For them that doeth not pisse liberally, and for the paynes of the Reines and of the stone, and for them that doeth pisse with paine, and for them that dooeth pisse little. And now the thyng hat extended for opilations, for that the water thereof doeth cure and heale them, and also of the Lunges and the Liver, and this hath beene founde within these fewe yeres, and they do finde in to notable profit. The water is made in this forme.

They doe take the woodde and doe make it in smalle peeces verie thinne, and small as it is possible, and they putte them into cleare water of the Fountayne, whiche is verie good and cleare, and they leave it so untill the water bee sokened into it: and in putting the woodde into the Water, within halfe an houre the water doeth beginne to change it selfs into a blewe colour verie cleare, and the longer that it lieth in the Water, so muche the Blewer it turneth, although that the woodde bee of a white colour. Of this water they doe drinke continually, and there with they use to water their wine, and it doeth marvellous and manifest effectes, without any alteration, so that it is needfull but onely good government and regimente. The Water hath no more savour then although that there were nothynge caste into it, fort hat the woodde doeth channge nothing. His complexion is hotte and dry in the first degree.

Of the Peper of the Indias. (Capsicum annuum)

I wil not let to speake of the Peper that they dooe bring from the Indias, that not onely it serveth for medicine, but is is moste excellent, the which is knowen in all Spayne, for there is no Gardeine, nor Orchard, but [40] that it hath plentie thereof in it, for the fairenes of the fruite that it bringeth forth.

Is is a greate Plante, in so muche that I have seene in this Citie some that was equall with some Trees. It doeth caste the leaves Greene, after the fashion of Basill of the biggest sorte. And it casteth out certaine white flowers, of the whiche commeth out the fruite, the which is in divers formes: some Pepper be long, other round, others of the making of Mellons, other of Cherries, but all bee at the beginning when they bee not ripe verie Greene, and beeing ripe verie redde, and with a gracious and good coullour.

They are used in all manner of meates and Potages, for that it hath a better taste then the common Pepper hath. Made in peeces, and caste into the brothe it is an excellent sauce, they doe use it in all that which the aromaticke spice is used, which is brought from Maluco, and Calicut. It doeth differ from that of the East Indias, fort hat costeth many Duccattes: the other doeth cost no more but to sowe it, for that in one plante you have spice for one whole yeare, with lesse hurt and more profite.

It doeth comforte muche, it doeth dissolve windes, it is good for the breaste, and for them that bee colde of complexion: it dooeth heale and comforte, strengthenyng the principall memberes. Is is hotte and dry, well neere in the fourth degree.

They doe bring from divers partes of our Indias many purgative Medicines, that hath beene founde and discovered with the time, the which their workes and effectes are greate: of the which I will give here a short relation, that it may bee a foresight, for to treate of the Roote of Mechoacan, which was our principall intente nowe to write of.

Of the Cannafistola. [41] (Cassia vorm als Senna occidentalis)

There doeth come from the Ilandes of Sancto Domingo, and from Sancte Iohn de Puerto Rico greate quantitie of Canafistola, and it is somuche, that not only alle Spayne is provided of it, but all Europe, and well neere all the worlde: for that unto Levant from whence was accustomably brought, now there goeth moe Shippes laden with it, then come with Iron from Biskey. That which commeth from our Indias, is much better in comparison then that which is brought from the East Indias to Venis, and that which the Galleons doe carry from thence to Genova, and from Genova to Spayne, and when the Merchantes brought it hither, it could not bee good, for that it was verie smal, and also it was not ripe, and with so long time and continuance it became so corrupted, that it did profite little.

This of ours that they bring from Sancto Domingo and Saincte John is ripe, greate, full, weightie, honilyke, and fresh. In so much that many times it commeth in sixtie dayes after is is gathered, and beeing freshe, it is of a gratious and good taste, and not of so horrible smell, as that of Levant is, and so it doeth his woorke farre better, and with more falicitie.

This Canafistola, and the woorke thereof if of greate securitie, it purgeth gently, without any alteration. And doeth avoyde principally Choller, and after Fleume, and that which is in the waies and the Guttes. It doeth temper them much that take it, also it purifieth the blood, it doeth many goed workes in all kinde of diseases, in especially in the paines of the Reines, and of urine, being taken two houres before supper. And in reumes it doeth muche profite, being taken two houres after Supper, and easilie it doeth cure the evilles of the breast, which have beene of long continuance, griefes of the side, being taken with Syropes for the breast: and being applyed outwardly with the Oyle of sweete Almondes, it taketh away the grievous [42] diseases of the Lunges, and griefes of the reines. Is is good in hotte Fevers, and using it continually before supper or dinner, it staieth the ingendring of the stone, it taketh away the drieth: it is moist in the first degree, it declineth to heate, although it be little, it is dissolvative, it clarifieth the blood, and delayeth the sharpnesse therof, and of the red collour. There have beene in the Indias since it was dicovered some thereof so weighty, that one codde waieth five shillinges being taken out by the Seeve, and foure ounces in weight the whole cane.

Of the Purgative Nuttes. (Moringa oleifera)

At the beginning when they discovered the Indias, they brought from Sancto Domingo, certaine Nuttes being three cornered, with the which the Indians did purge themselves, and were unto them a familiar purgation. And afterwardes the Spaniardes, for necessitie did purge themselves with them, with hazarde ynough of some of their lives, for with the use therof, many thought to lose their lives: for that it is a strong purge, and although that it doeth make a great excesse of stooles, yet doeth is also provoke vomitte verie strongly, and with muche violence, with greate faintnesse and heavinesse. Afterwarde some did rectifie them by tosting of them, and then they bee not so violent, nor so stronge, neyther woorke with so much cause of faintnesse. Thet doe purge Fleume very strongly, and after cholor. Is is an excellent medicine for the Colike, it doeth dissolve windes, and putte in a glister it doeth evacuate reaseonably.

The maner colour of them is as of our Nuttes, with a thinne rinde, of the colour of a cleare Baye, they are three cornered, the carnell within is white, and sweete, inso muche that for their sweetenesse, many have beene mocked [43] (Fol. 22) therwith. The Phisitions do call them commonly Ben, of which there are two sortes, one they call greate, and the other little. The great Ben be these Purgative Nuttes, the little Ben bee as great as our Peason, of the which in Italie they make that oyle of sweete smell, which they call Oyle of Ben, with the which they doo annoint their heare, beards for delicatenes. The complexion is hotte in the beginning of the thirde degree, and dry in the second. Their weight is of halfe a dramme unto one, but they must be ¨ tosted.

Of the purgative Pinions.

They doo bryng from the newe Spayne certeyne Pinions of Carnels, wherwith the Indians dyd purge themselves: they bee like to our Pinions, whiche do growe out of our trees, beeing greate after the fashion of the wheate of the Indians the shale is not so harde as ours is, they are somewhat more black, they be round, within very white, fattie, and sweet in tast. They do purge valiantly Fleame and Collor, and any maner of watrishnes, they are more easie Medicine, then the Nuts be, they doo purge by stoole, and by vomit, and if they be tosted they doo not purge som uche, nor with so much faintnes. They do purge of their own nature grosse Humors: it is a Purgation much used amongst the Indians, beeing grounde and dissolved with Wyn, having first taken preparatives that do attennuate the humor, that a man doth pretend to evacuate, and using a convenenient diet, they take of them five or sixe more or lesse, conformable to the obedience of the stomacke, of him that shall taken them.

Ordinarily they do toste them: for so they be more gentle and lesse furious. Is is needefull that hee which dooth take [44] them, be kept as one being purged.

They be given in large infirmities, and where there be grosse humours: they be hot in the third degreed, and drye in the second with some fatnes, which dooth take away somewhat of the drynesse.

Of the purgative Beanes. (Dolicholus precatorius, synoniem Rhynchosia precatoria)

From Cartagena, und numbre de Dios, they bring certayne Beanes lyke to the fashion of ours, saving that they be somewhat lesse, and of the colour and making of ours, they have in the middest of the Beane thath doth devide the two halves, one little thinne skinne, like to the skinne of a oynion.

They doo take them from their shale, and from the inner thinne skinne, and toste them and make them into pouder, and take them with Wine: and being made into pouder and mingled with sugar, one spooneful of the pouder is taken, and uppon that a little draught of Wine. They do purge without molestation Choler and Fleame, and grosse mixt humours. And amongst the Indians they are of great estimation, for the easinesse that they have in the taking of them. Many Spaniardes doe purge with them with muche securitie, and it is a Medicine more easie and gentle than that aforesaide.

I have seene many that have come from those parts, purge them therewith, and it succeedeth with them verye well, and purgeth without griefe.

But they must advised that there be taken from them that little skinne that is in the middest of the twoo halfes of the Beanes. For if they take that, the strenght of it is so much greater and vehement of Vomites and stooles, that they put in great hazard him that shall take them. And also they must have care to toste them, fort hat it dooth prepare them, and delayeth much of the sharpenes, and fiercenes, [45]( Fol. 23) which is generall in this Medicine, and in all the rest, for that to tost them is the true preparation of them. After the taking of any of the foresiade Medicines, the Patient must not sleepe at al; it is needful that he keep great watch being purged, and in all things, which a man purged may be convenient.

The Beanes be given prepared, in Fevers being large and importunate, and in diseases of mixt humours, beeyng grosse, and in the paynes of the ioints they are an universall Purgation: they be hotte in the second degree, dry in the first, there bee given of them from foure to syxe, tosted more or lesse as the obedience and sufferance of the belly is of him that shall take them.

Of the milke Pinipinichi. (Euphorbia centunculoides)

In all the Coast of the firme Lande they take out a certeyne kinde of milke, from little trees, like to Appletrees, which the Indians call Pinipinichi, of the whiche cutting one bough, there commeth foorth whereas it is cutte, a certeyne kinde of milke somewhat thicke and clammye, and taking three of fowre drops therof, it doth purge valiantly by the stoole principally Cholerike Humors and Citrine water, and it doth work with much vehemency and force.

It must be taken in Wine, or dried into pouder in litle quantitie, fort hat the worke thereof is of most strenght. It hath one property, that in eating or drinking of broth of wyne or other thing foorthwith it worketh no longer, and he that doth take it hath neede to keepe good watch, and good order. It is hot and dry in the third degree.

All these Medicines which we have spoken of be violent [46] and of great force, they have not beene much used sithence the Mechoacan hath come, fort hat in it there is founde a worke more sure, and unto this not only we, but all the Indians have run, as unto a purge most excellent of the which we will treate now.

Of the Mechoacan. (Ipomoea pandurata)

The Mechoacan is a roote, that it may bee about xxx yeares that it was discovered, in the Province of the newe Spaine, in the Indias, of the Occean Seas, it is brought from a Country that is beyonde the greate Cittye of Mexico, more then 40 leagues, and is called Mechoacan the whiche, Syr Fernando Curtes did conquere, in the yeere of our Lorde 1524. This is a countrie of much riches of Gold and chiefly of silver, and it is understood that in all that Country, is much silver. For more then 200 leagues, here those Mynes be so celebrated, and of so great riches that the bee called the Cacatecas, every day they discover in the lande very rich mines of silver, and some of Golde. Is is a Countrey of good and wholsesome ayre, and dooth bring foorth healthfull hearbs for to heale many diseases, insomuch that at the time the Indians had be government therof, the inhabiters there rounde about that Province, came thether to ehale their deseases infirmities. For the said causes it is a countrie verie fruitfull, and of great aboundance of bread, wilde fowle, and fruites. It hath many Fountaines, and some of sweet waters, which have much aboundance of fish, the Indians of that country are of tauller grouth, of better faces than the Borderers are, and much more healtfull.

The principall place of that Province the Indians doo [47] call in their language Chincilia, and the Spaniardes do cal it as they cal that Realme Mechoacan, it is a great towne of Indians situated neare to a lake, which is of sweet water, abounding with verie much Fish. The same Lake is in fashion of the making of an horseshoe, and in the midst therof standeth a towne, the which at this day hath greate trade of buying and selling, for the greate Mynes of Plate that are in all that country.

As soone as that Province was gotten from the Indians, there went thither certaine Friers of Saint Frances order, as in a Countrie so far distaunt from their naturall soyle, some of them fel sicke, amongest whom the Warden who was the chief Frier of the house was one, with whom Caconcin Casique an Indian Lorde, a man of greate power in that Country, hat verie great freendship, who was Lord of all that country. The father Warden had a long sicknes and was brought in great danger of life: the Casique as hee sawe his disease proceede forwarde, sayde that hee woulde bring him an Indian of his, which was of Phisition, with whom he did cure himself, it might be, that he woulde give him remedie of his disease. The which being heard of the Frier, and seeing the little helpe that he had there, and the want of a Phisition, with other things of benefite, he thanked him, and desired him, that hee would bring him unto him: who being come, and seeing his disease, sayde to the Casique, that if he tooke a pouder, that he woulde give him of a roote that it woulde heale him. The which beeing knowen to the Frier, with the desire that hee had of health, he accepted his offer, and tooke the pouder that the Indian Phisition gave him the nexte day in a little wine, wyth the which he did purge so muche, and without paynes, that the same day he was much lightned, and much more from that time forward, in such sort that he was healed of his infirmitie. The rest of the Friers which were sicke, and some Spaniardes that were sicke also, did follow [48] the father Wardens cure, tooke of the selfe same pouder once of twice, as oft as they had neede of it, to heale them. The use of the which went so well with them, that all they being healed, the Friers did send relation of this, to the father provincial to Mexico wher he was, who did communicate it with those of the country, giving to them of the roote and confirming them that they should take it, because of the good relation, that hee had from those Friers of Mechoacan. The which beeing used of many, and seeing the mervellous workes that it did, the same of it was extended all abroad, so that in short time, all the country was full of the good works and effectes of thereof, banishing the use of Ruibarbe of Barberie, and taking the name thereof calling it Ruibarbe of the Indias, as al men do now commonly call it. And also it is called Mechoacan, for that it is brought from thence, gathered in the Province called Mechoacan. And not onely in Mexico, and in that countrie it doth take it as the most excellent purgation, and best of al other, but also in Peru, and in all other partes of the Indias, they use no other thing, neyther purge they with any other purge, and they take it with so much trust en easines that when they take it, they thinke to have certainely their health, for they carrie it from the new Spayne, as Merchandize of verie great price.

It is about thirtie and foure yeares past, when I saw it heere the first time, when one Pasquall Catana a Genoves came from the newe Spaine, who fell sicke at his comming, and as I did cure him, at the time that I woulde purge him, he saide to me that he brought a Ruibarbe from the newe Spaine, that was a verie excellent Medicine, wyth the which all they of Mexico did purge themselves, saying, that is was called Ruibarbe of Mechoacan, and hee had beene purged many times therewith, and it had succeeded verie well with him, and if he should take any purge, he would take that, of the which hee had experience. [49] (Fol. 25) But I caused him utterly to forsake the use of such like new Medicines, of the which there was nothing written nor known. And did perswade with him to purge with the medicined that we had heere, of the which there was so great experience and knowledge, in written Authors. And he did graunt to my wordes, and purged himselfe with a purgation that I gave him, even as it was convenient for his disease. By the which although that ther did follow unto him notable lightnesse and profite: yet hee was not cleare of the disease in such sort, but that it was necessarie to purge him an other time. And when we came to the second purgation, he would take none other but his owne Ruibarbe of Mechoacan, with the which he did purge so well, that hee remained whole, without any disease. And although that this effecte did like me well: neverthelesse I did not remaine satisfied, untill many other that came at the same time, and fell sick, did purge with the saide Mechoacan, and it went verie well with them, because they were accustomed to purge therewith in the newe Spaine: and seeing the good workes and so many thereof I began to consider of it, and to purge many therewith, giving credite to the good effectes that it wrought.

And so with these that I did make experience of here, as also with the relation, and great credite of them, that came out of the newe Spayne (in somuch that the use therof hath spred abroade, that it is a common thinge in all the worlde and they doe purge therewith not onely in the new Spaine and the Provinces of the Peru, but also in our Spaine, all Italie, Almaine and Flaunders) I have sent realtion therof, well neere to all Europe, as well in Latine, as in our native tongue.

The use thereof is so muche, that they bring it for chiefe Merchaundise, in great quantitie, and it is solde for greate summes of mony: In somuch that a seller of Drugges tolde me, besides that which he had sold for the Citie, he had sold [50] foorth of the citie the last yeere, more than ten kintalles of it which is a thousand pound weight, so that nowe they aske for Ruibarb of the Indias, for that it is so familiar, that ther is no husband man that doeth not use it, as a most sure medicine, and of great effectes, because for that kinde of purgation, there is no neede of a Phisition, as being that, unto which all men give most credite, as a thing determined and approved for good.

I have talked with many of them that have come from the newe Spaine, and in especially with them that have beene in Mechoacan, concerning the fashion of the plant that this roots is of, and what forme and Figure it hath, the which they doe bring from the Country, within 40 leages of beyonde Mechoacan, from a countrie which is called Colima, and they have so little care therein, seeing that their principall intent is unto their interest and gaine, that they know no more thereof, but that the Indians in Mechoacan doo sell it them, the rootes being drie and cleane, as hither they doe bring them, and the Spaniardes doe buy them, as a kinde of Merchandise, and so send them to spaine.

And surely in this we are worthy of great reprehension, that seeyng that there are in the newe Spayne, so manye Hearbes, and Plantes, and other thinges Medicinable, of so much importaunce, there is not any that writeth of them nor is it understood, what vertues and formes they have, for to accord them with ours: so that if men had a desire to search out, and experiment so many kinde of medicines, as the Indians did fell in their Market places and Faires it would be a thing of great profite, and utilitie to see and to knowe their properties, and to experiment the variable and greate effectes, which the Indians doe publishe and manifest with great proofe amongest themselves, whych they have of them: we of our parte without any consideration doe refase it, and suche as doe knowe their effectes, will not give [51] us relation, nor knowledge what they are, nor write the efficacie and manner of them.

And going to searche after het Place of the Roote Mechoacan, a Passenger that was come from that Provincie, did advertise mee that a Frauncis Frier, that was come from the Countrey, had brought in the shippe where hee came, the proper Hearbe of Mechoacan greene, in a great barrell, and with much care, which he brought from beyonde Mechoacan, and that hee had it in the Frierie of S. Francis of the City. And hearing thereof I did receyve great contentment, and so I went foorthwith to the Frierye, and at the doore of the Infirmerie, or house for the sicke people of this Frierie, there was a thing like to halfe a Pipe, in the which there was an hearb very greene, which they saide was the Mechoacan, that the Frier had brought from the newe Spayne, not with litle labour. Is is an hearb that groweth creeping up by certeye litle Canes, it hath a sadde greene colour, it carrieth certeyne leaves, that the greatnesse of them may be of the greatnesse of a good Porenge dish which are in compasse round, with a little point, the leafe hath his littel Sinewes, it is small, well neere, without moysture, the stalke is of the colour of a cleere Tawnie.

They say that is casteth foorth certeyne Clusters with little Grapes, of the greatnesse of a Coriander seede which are the fruite, and doo ware rype by the Moneth of September: it casteth out many Bowes, which dooth stretche a long uppon the Earth, and if you put any thing neere to it, it goeth creeping uppon it. The Roote of the Mechoacan is insaverie, and without byting, or anye sharpenes of taste. That which wee doo see at this present of our Mechoacan, is a roote which they bring from the newe Spayne, from the Province of Mechoacan, made in greate and little peeces, of them cutte in peeces, of them broken with their handes. It is a white Roote, somewhat strong, [52] and mighty, it appeareth that the peeces be of a great root, without any hart.

The conditions, or elections that it must have, for to bee good and perfect is: that it be freshe: which may be known if that it be not worme eaten, nor balck and that it be somwhat white: but the very white is not so good, and if it be somwhat russet, so that it be the uttermost part of the root, for that the inner parte is somewhat white. In the tasting or chewing of it, it is without savour, or any manner of byting tast.

It importeth to make his worke the better if so be that it be fresh, for that the fresher it is, the better it is, and the greater thee peeces are, the better they are conserved. And it is true, that that which is brought in pouder, is not so good, for that it dooth putrifie, loose much of the vertue, and operation. As also we doo see, if we make pouder, and keepe it, it dooth not make so good worke, as when the roote is ground, and then fortwith taken. The root being old doth turne black, and it wil be worme eaten with holes, and become very light. It will keepe wel rouled in Seere cloth. Is is gathered in the moneth of October, and it never loseth his leafe.

The complexion thereof is hotte in the first degree, and drye in the seconde, for that it hath subtill partes, with some bynding, whereby is seemeth that this woorke being doon, it leaveth the interiour Members strengthned, without debilation and weakenesse, which the other Purgative medicines do leave them in: but rather those that doo purge themselves therewith, doo remayne after they be purged more strong and harde, then before they were purged. It hath no neede of rectification, for that wee doo not see in this roote any notable hurte, onely the Wine is unto it a corraboration for the woorke, for being taken with Wine, it maketh a better woorke, then with other Licour for that it dooth not cause vomite, and it woorketh the better. [53] (Fol. 27) It is given at all times and in alle Ages, it dooth hys woorke without molestation, and without the accidentes that the other medicines solvative are woont to procure. It is a Medicine easie to bee taken for that it hath no evil tast. Onely it hath the savour of that with the whitche it is taken, for that it is of it selfe without savour, and so it is easie for Children, for that they may take it without feeling what it is: it is so lykewise for persons that cannot take medicines, for it hath neyther small nor taste. I have purged therewith many Children, and many very olde persons have given it to men of more then 80 yeares of age, and it maketh in them very sure and good woorke with no maner of alteration or chaunge of body, and without being debilited or weakened.

This Roote dooth avoyde cholerike humours, grosse, mixt, and also flegmatike humors, of what kind soever they be, and humors putrified and rotten, and of both colours: it dooth evacuate the Citrine water, of them that have the Dropsie, with much easines. The principall respect thereof is to the Liver, making it cleane, and comforting it and the Members neere adioyning to it, as the stomacke and the inner partes. It dooth cure all Opilations of the same partes, and all diseases caused of them: As the Dropsye, the Jaundies, and ioyntlie with his good woorke it rectifieth the evill complexion of the Lyver, is dessolveth windinesse, and with easinesse it expelleth it, and dooth open all the hardnesse of the Liver, and of the Lunges, and of the stomacke. It taketh away olde greefes of the heade, and mundifieth the brayne and the Synewes, and emptieth out the humors that bee in the head, or partes thereof. In the disease called the Lamparones, whiche is the Kinges Evill, it maketh a good woorke: in old greefes of the head called the Pegrim, and the Falling sicknesse, and in all Distillations, or olde runninges in paines of the Joynts, both perticuler and universall, as in the Gout Arthetica, [54] in paynes of the stomacke, emptying the cause, and consuming windines. Also in paynes of the Urine Bladder, in paynes of the stone and Colicke, of what kinde soever it bee, it maketh a marvellous woorke. It cureth the paynes of women, and especially the Mother, by emptying and taking away the cause, as namely those causes which come of cold humors windinesse, and in the griefes of the brest as of an olde cough shortnes of breath, for using this roote oftentimes it taketh it away, and healeth it. Also in greifes (*) of the Reines caused of grosse Humors, for it dooth emptie and expell them.

In griefes of the Poxe it maketh a great worke. And it seemeth that for these griefes our Lord did ordeyne it, emptying the humors of them, whiche for the most parte are cold, and especially when they be waren olde of long time, it purgeth them and dooth expel them without any paynes, by multyplying the taking thereof, as many times as is necessarie, for that in these infirmities that bee olde, and of long continuaunce, one evacuation is not sufficient, but it is necessary to have many evacutaions, which may be done without daunger with this Roote: and it is not to bee marvelled at, if that with one evacuation therewith dooth not follow the healthy that is wished for, but that many times it is needful to make often repetition, to the intent to roote up and expell the evil, and noughtie humors, that are the cause of the saide disease.

This root dooth marvellously emptie footh the cause of the large Fevers, and importunate, and all Fevers compounded, and chiefly in olde Fevers, as Tertians, Quotidians, flegmatike, and in such diseases as commonly come of opilations, using thereof at the time that is needefull, for that in the like largen and importunate diseases, the Phisition must not be content with one evacuation, but with many, digesting by little and little, and avoyding out by little and little, seeing that the avoiding out is done with such assuraunce [55] (Fol. 28) by his Medicine so blessed.

He that hath neede of it must have a good heart, with trust that it will profite him much, which hetherunto wee have experimented in so many, that with just litle al credit may be given to the good workes therof. We see with how much easines without any accidents it worketh the effects that we have spoken of it is looked for, that every day wil bee discovered greater matters, that may bee added unto these.

The rule and order that must be kept in the administration, and giving of the Pouders, made of the roote of Mechoacan, was learned of an Indian Phisition that we have spoken of, and since it hath been used in divers und sundry fashions.

The first thing that is required of him that shal take this Pouder is that he do prepare himself with good diet, good order, keeping him selfe from all thinges that may offende health, and to use these meates which are most convenient for him, to dispose they humor and principally hee pretentendeth to avoide out, with some Syrope, that may have the same respect that the humor is disposed unto the way to be prepared where he may go out. And for this it is good that he take the counsel of a Phisition: he must use glisters if the Belly be not obedient at the least the day before he shal take it, and if by chaunce he shall neede litting blood he shall doe it with the iudgement and opinion of a Phisition. The body so prepared and readie to be purged, he shal take this roote chosen as we have said, and it must be grounde, making pouder of it, of an indifferent finesse, and way of it the quantitie that must be taken as wee shalt speake of, and put it into white Wine, which is Sacke, as much in quantitie as is needfull for to drinke, and it must be taken in morning.

Wyne is the best licour that it can bee taken withall, and so it is used generall in the Indias, for the Wyne as wee have said, doeth corroborate and give strength to these [56] pouders, and because there be some that can drink no wine, in such case they may give it in sodden water, wherein Sinamon hath beene boyled, or Anis of Fenelle seede, and if the pure wine doe offend them, it may be delayed with any manner of Water, but the quantitie of the Wine that shall be taken, is so little, that it cannot offende, nor molest anie person.

It may be delaied with Endife, or Langdebeefe water, and because this medicine is not given in sharp Agues, but in large and temperate diseases, it doth beare the wine better then an other licour.

Also they give these Pouders with Conserva of Violets, and with Syrope of Violets, and it is a good practice: for with this colde and moisture, it doeth corren the little heate and drought that the patient hath, and let them drink upon it Wine watered, or some water as aforesaid.

There is made of this Pouder Pilles formed with electuary of Roses, and surely they make a very good worke purge well.

Also they doe put it in paste of Water bread, or in Marchpaines, and as it hath no evill savour, so they doe not feele it. It serveth much for children and for them that cannot take the like thinges.

The Pilles that must be made of this pouder must be very little, somewhat greater then the Corianders seede, that they may dissolve the rather and not heat, and so they work more quickly and better.

They may be given in the morning and at night: these pouders be recived with most prosperous successe, beeing made up with Syrope of Roses of nine infusions, mingling the quantitie that therof shal be taken in two ounces of Sirope, and surely this mixture dooeth make a mervellous woorke, for that it doth strengthen, and inforce muche the worke of the Pouders.

It avoydeth Cholerike, grosse and fleugmatike humors [57] (Fol. 29) and permixt, and the fearcenes of the blood, and so it is a greate medicine and of mervellous woorke: It avoideth also most strangly the Citrine water of them that have the Dropsie, frequenting it many times, giving betweene one purge and another, the whitch may corroborota and make strong the Liver an Broth it is taken many times, and maketh good worke.

This medicine or purge must bee taken in the morning earely, and after it is taken, they may sleepe halfe an houre upon it, before it doe purge, for that the sleepe doeeth staye the Vomit, and the natural heate shal make a better work in the medicine.

He that shall take these Pouders, if he doe feare them, or any other Medicine purgative, and if he feare Vomit, may use this one remedy, of the which I have large experience, and is, when hee hath taken this purge or any other, let him take the Yolke of an Egge rosted hot, broken betweene his Fingers, and put it into a course Linen Cloth, and so rounde let him put it into a Throate Pit, and let him holde it there, untill that hee doe beginne to purge, for that surely, it will staye the Vomiting and also the Fumes that doe rise of the purge, and this is no small content. After that hee hath somewhat slept, of hee can at the time that it beginneth to woorke, let him not sleepe nor eate, nor drink anything but bee in place where the ayre doe not offend him, nor with much companie, for that all the intent shal bee for to purge, staying all thinges that may let the anoiding out. And he shall be advertised, that one of the greatest excellencies that this purge hath, is, that it is in the handes of the sicke person to avoide out what quantitie of humour hee will, the which is a thing that they of old times did consider much of. And waying which was surest of purging or the letting of blood, they doe not aleage any other cause more principall, than that the letting of blood is more sure. For asmuch as in the letting of blood wee may take [58] out what quantitie of blood we lift, not in the purge, which once being taken, it is not in the handes of the Phisition, nor the sicke person to let it to doo his wooke(*): which quantity is not in this our purge of the roote of Mechoacan, seeing that with taking of a little broth, or eating any maner of thing, the working of it ceaseth, and it worketh no more, and so it cannot exceede nor hurt the patient.

Surely it is to be holden of much price, that there is founde a kinde of purge with so much assurance, and that so mightily doeth his worke, and is at the will of him that doeth take it. After it hath done what to the patient seemeth good, and sufficient, then with a little Broth which he eateth, it shall worke and purge no more.

After that the sicke person or Phisition perceiveth that it hath made an ende of his working, and hath purged that which is convenient, then they must give him somewhat to eate, taking at the beginning of his Dinner a Dishefull of Broth, and after a little while let him eate of a Hen, and in the rest let him governe himself as one that is purged as wel in his drinke as in his meate, as also in the keeping that hee shall have of his person. For that day that he doeth take it, let him take hoede that hee sleepe not in the day tyme nor drinke till Supper, the which Supper shall bee light and of some good meates.

The next day let him take a washing Medicine, and some conserva, and from that time forwarde let him keepe good order and good government, in all that is convenient for him.

And if that with once taking of these pouders, the sicke man doe not heale, nor avoide from him that which is needfull for to be voyded, he may take it againe, as many times as the Phisition shall see convenient wherein he shal have care after that the sicke man is purged, to comfort and to aller the principall members.

And in this I can holde no precise opinion, for that there [59] (Fol. 30) be divers and variable diseases, and it is needful for them to have divers remedies, my intent is no more then to write the use of the Roote of Mechoacan, as a thing of so greate importance, and of a purge and remedie so excellent, as nature hath given unto us.

And if processe of time have taken from us the true Myrre, and the true Balsamo, and other medicines that they of old tyme had, of the whiche in our tyme there is no memorie, and with the tyme are lost: yet time it selfe in place of them hath discovered and given so many and so sundry things as wee have spoken of, as our Occidental Indias doo send us. In especially the Mechoacan, a purge most excellent and gentle, which doth his worke which such assuraunce being white in colour, pleasant in savour, and in smel easie to take, without any lothsomnes in working, and without that horriblenes, that other purges have, without those accidents and fayntnes that come at the time, that they bee taken without that disquietnes which it maketh when it woorketh.

This Roote hath over and above that which is sayde, other properties, and hidden woorkes that we doo not reach unto, which with the time and use of them shalbee knowne and discovered every day.

The weight of quantitie that is given of the Powder, made of the Roote of Mechoacan, it is conformable to the obedience of the belly, of him that shall take it. Some there be that doo purge with little quantity. I knowe a Gentleman of this Realme, that with the weight of halfe a Roial, which is iii drachme dooth purge very well, there are other that have neede of the weight of xii drachme and others of the weight of xviii drachme and in this everie one ought to measure the quantitie, as he hath his belly in obedience, more or lesse. Even so they ought to limit the quantitie conformably to the age of the Patient. For that the Childe hath neede of lyttle, the Boye of more, and the strong man of much more, and the [60] Leane of lesse, and for this cause the Phisition must measure the quantitie as hee seeth it convenient. Because to the Childe hee shall give the weight of iii drachme and to the Boy the weight of vi drachme and to the Man the weight of xii drachme which is commonly so taken, but to the Woman it is not convenient to give lesse then the weight of twelve pence, and in this there may be had a consideration, seeing that it is in the hand of the Phisition to take away his worke when he doth see that it excedeth, it is better to give a little too much, considering that with taking of a fewe suppinges of broth if it doth exceede, the excesse may be remedied.

This is the summe which I have understoode unto thys day of the Roote, which they bring from the Province of Mechoacan, and when I shall know more of it, I will write as the time and the use thereof shall give occasion.

Of the quicke Sulphur. (zwavel, S, atoomnumer 16, een geel niet-metaal)

When I made an ende of wryting of these last lynes, Barnardine of Burgus the Potecarie, a man learned and expert in hys Arte, did shewe mee in his shoppe a peece of the quicke Sulphur brought from one Indias, a thing moste excellent as ever I sawe, and in our tyme the like hath not been seene. It was bright lyke Glasse, of the colour of fine gold taking a little of it, and casting it into the fyre, it dooth cast from it a verie greate smell of Brimstone lyke to greene smoke, and the peece it selfe smelling (therunto) hath no smell.

They brought it from Quito which is a place in the province of Peru from a Myne there was found in certeyn Hilles, nere unto the mines of gold. And it is not in vayne that the Alcumistes doo say, that the matter of Gold, is the Quickesilver, and the Sulphur, that is to say, the Quickesilver [61] (Fol. 31) the matter, and the Sulphur the former and maker. And so this which I saw, was like to a peece of Gold most fine.

They bring from Nicaraga, other Sulphur, but it is russet, like to Ashes, congealed without colour of brightnesse, which is found high unto the Volcan of Nicaraga, the which being cast into the fire doth cast from it the smell of Brimstone, but it is a peece of earthe, and in nothing is like to that of the Province of Quito, more then in the smell, neyther hath it that colour of Golde, nor that brightnesse that the other hath which is of Quito.

The same being applied in things, that are cenvenient for Medicine, woorketh marvellous effectes: chiefly being grounde, and dissolved with wine, and applied in the night to them, that have their face redde inflamed that bee like to Lepers, using it certeyne nightes, after they have beene at the stoole, it taketh the rednesse away, and healeth it marvellously, of the which I have great experience. It healeth the Skabbes, beyng dissolved with oyle of Roses. Taking the weight of sixepence in an Egge, it healeth the Cholike, and the Palsey. It is good for the paine of the Stone, and being taken, it healeth the Jaundies.

It is hotte and drie excessively, which appeareth by the frienschip that it hath with the fire, for being touched with it, it inflameth maketh a flame. It is the principal matter, of that Divelishe invention of Gunpouder, which hath beene the cause of so many evils, and hurtes.

Of the wood Aromatike.

Also the sayde Barnardino de Burgus shewed mee a Wood, which to my seeming, I thought to have beene the holy wood, that I meane of Saint John de Puerto Rico, the whiche was of this manner, and [62] forme.

Being in the house of a principal Merchant of this city, making a Medicine in a Chimney, where they did burne of that wood, the smoke that came out of the wood did smell much, gave a very sweet savour, of the which he marvelled much, asked from whence they had cast thither that good smell. They of the house told him, that the good smel was of the wood that they did there burne, and it was that which cast that good smell. He tooke a sticke of the Wood, and from it plucked a slip of the same, which had no smell nor savour, more than other common wood had, then he tooke away a little of the rinde, and smelled unto it, and tasted it, and he found a sweete smell most excellent in it, and a Savour nor more nor lesse then of Maces, or Nutmegges and much more sharpe, and more sweete, and of a more pleasant smell and tast, then any Cinamon that is in the world, and whit more livelinesse, and sharpenes of tast then the peper. I tasted it at the taking away of the rinde from the said wood, of the which he had a great peece of timber, and surely there is not anything of so sweet smell and tast, of anything which we have that with so much pleasantnes of smell, and with such livelines sendeth foorth a savour as this did penituate mee, insomuche that tasting a littel of it, I carried all that day the sweete smell and savour in my mouth, beeing mervellous, as though I had carried there a peece of Nutmegge.

Of this wood they sayde, that a Maister of a Shyppe of his, did cut a great quantitie, comming by the Hahana, (Havana?) and in a Mountaine, they cut much of it, for the shippes provision, and that which did remaine they carried to the Owners house, there wast it, as I have said. Wherby I do consider howe many trees and plants there bee in our Indias, that have great vertues for medicines, that in the fuell of the Chimney they spend wood, of sweet odoriferous savour, the rinde of the which being made into pouder, there might bee [63] (Fol. 32) done very great effects with it for comforting the heart and the stomack, and principal members, without seeking after the spicerie of Maluca, and the medicines of Arabia, and them of Persia. Seeing that in the fieldes untilled, and in the Mountaines and Desertes our Indias do yeeld them unto us: the fault is ours that we do not follow after them, nor seeke to doe the diligence that is convenient, for to profite our selves in these mervellous effects, the which I trust that time being the discoverer of all thinges, and good diligence and experience withall will discover unto us to our greate profite.

The ende of the first parte.

God be praised. [64]


The Second parte of this Booke of of the things that are brought from our Occidentall Indias, which serve for the use of Medicine, wherein is treated of the Tabaco, and of the Sassafras, and of the Carlo Sancto, and of many other hearbes & plants, seedes and licoures, that newly are brought from those partes, of great vertues and mervellous effectes.

Written by Doctor Monardus, Phisition of Sevill. [65]

To his Maiestie.

Theso dayes past I wrote a booke of all thinges which come from your Occidentall Indias, serving for the use of Medicine, and surely it hath beene taken in that estimation, that the thinges which in it are intreated of doe deserve. And seeing the profite that it hath done, and how many have beene remedyed and healed with those remedies, I dyd determine to proceede forwardes, and to write of the thinges, which after that the first part was written, have come from those countries of the which I have understood, that no lesse utilitie & profite shal come, then of those which are past, for there shalbe discovered newe thinges and secrets, which will bring admiration, never tot his day seene nor knowne before. And seeing that these medicinall thinges which we doe treate of, and the Realmes, and Countries from whence they come, belong unto your Maiestie, and he also that writeth of them, is yout Maiesties subject: I doe desire your Maijestie, to receive this travell into your protection, and that the rewarde may be such, as for the like works dedicated to your Maiestie is accustomed to be given,

Your Maiesties Subiect

Doctor Monardus. [66]


Of the Tabaco, and of his great vertues. (Nicotiana tabacum)

This Hearbe which commonly is called Tabaco, is an Hearbe of much antiquitie, and knowen amongst the Indians, and in especially among them of the newe Spaine, and after that those Countries were gotten by our Spaniardes, being taught of the Indians, they did profite themselves with those thinges, in the woundes which they received in their Warres, healing themselves therewith tot heir great benefite.

Within these few yeeres there hath beene brought into Spayne of it more to adornate Gardens with the fairenesse thereof, and too give a pleasaunt sight, then that it was thought to have the mervelous medicinable vertues which it hath, but nowe we doe use it more for his vertues, than for his fairenesse. For surely they are such which doe bring admiration.

It is growing in many partes of the Indias, but ordinarilie in moyst and shadowie places, and it is needefull that the grounde where it is sowen, be well tilled, and that it be a fruitefull grounde, and at all times it is sowen in the hot Countries. But in the colde Countries is must bee sowen in the Moneth of Marche, for that it may defende t selfe from the frost. [67] (Fol. 34)

The proper name of it amongst the Indians is Picielt. For the name of Tabaco is given to it by our Spaniards, by reason of an Island that is named Tabaco.

Is is an hearbe that dooth growe and come to bee very greate: many times to bee greater then a Lemmon tree. It casteth foorth one steame from the roote which groweth upright, without declining to any parte, it sendeth foorth [68] many Bowes, straight, that well neere they bee equal with the principall steame of the tree: his Leafe is wel neere like to the Leafe of a Citron tree, they come to bee verie greate, and be of colour greene, the Plant is heavie, they be in the Garden as Cytrons and Orenges are, for that all the yeere they are greene, and have leeves, and if any whyter they be those that are lowest. In the highest parte of all the Plante, there doth growe out the flower, the which is after the manner of white Campanillia, and in the middest of Carnation colour: it hath a good shew when it is drie, it is like to blacke Poppie seede, and in it is shut up: the seede is very small, and of the colour of a darke Tawny.

The Roote is great, conformable to the greatnesse of the Plante, devided into many partes, and it is like to wood in substaunce, the which beeing parted, it hath the hearte within, like unto the colour of Saffron, and beeyng tosted, it hath somme bitternes with it. The Rinde commeth away easilie, we knowe not that the roote hath any vertue at all:

Of the Leaves onely we know the vertues, which we will speake of, although that I beleeve that the roote hath medicinall vertues enough, the which time shall discover. And some will say that it hath the vertue of Ruibarbe, but I have not experimented it as yet, they doo keepe the leaves after they be drie in the shadow, for the effects that we wil speak of, and they be made into pouder, to be used of them in place of the Leaves, for it is not in all partes. The one and the other is to bee kept a great time, without corrupting.

The complexion thereof is hot and drie in the second degree, it hath vertue toe heate and to dissolve, with some bynding and comforting, it gleweth together sodereth the fresh wounds and healeth them: the filthy wounds sores it doth cleanse and reduce to a perfect health, as it shal be spoken of herafter, and so likewise wee will speake of the vertues of these hearbes, and of the thinges that they are good for every one perticulerly. [68] (Fol. 35)

This hearbe Tabaco, hath perticuler vertue to heale griefes of the heade, and in especially comming of colde causes, aad (*) so it cureth the headake when it commeth of a cold humor, or of a windy cause. The leaves must be layde hotte to the griefe, and multiplying them the tynie that is needful untill the griefe be taken away. Some there be that doo annoynt them with the Oyle of Orenges, and so they performe a verie good woorke.

If any manner of griefe that is in the body or any other part thereof it helpeth, proceeding of a cold cause, applyed thereunto, it taketh it away, not without great admiration.

In griefes of the brest it worketh a marvellous effect and inespecially in those that doo cast out matter and rottennes at the mouth, and in them that are short breathed, in anie other olde evilles making of the hearbe a decoction, or with Sugar a Syrope, and being taken in little quantity, it doth expel the Matters, and rottennes of the brest marvellously, and the smoke being taken in at the mouth, doth cause that the matter be expelled out of the brest of them that doo fetch their breath short.

In the griefe of the stomack, coused of colde, or winde, the leaves being put very hot, it doeth take ita way, and dissolveth it by multiplying the use, until it be taken away. And it is to be noted, that the leaves are to be warmed better then any other, amongst Ashes or Embers very hotte, thrusting the hearbes into them, and so to warme them wel, although they be layde to with some ashes, they make the worke better, and of more strong effectes.

In Opilations of the stomacke, and of the inner partes principally, this hearbe is a great remedie: for that it dooth dissolve, and consume them, and this same it dooth in any other maner of Opilations or hardnes that are in the belly, the cause being of a colde humor of windines.

They must take the hearbe greene, and stampe it, and with those stamped leaves rubbe the hardnes a good while, [69] and at the tyme as the hearbe is in the Morter a stamping, let there be put to it a fewe droppes of Vinegar, that hys worke may be made the better: and after the place is rubbed where the paine is, then lay upon it one leafe or two leaves of the Tabaco being hotte, and so let it alone til the next day, and then do the like againe, or in place of the leaves use a Linnen cloth wet in the hotte iuice. Some there bee, that after they have rubbed it with the stamped leaves, do annoint it with oyntments, made for the like evils, and upon it they lay the leaves for the iuyce of the Tabaco. And surely with this cure they have desolved great and hard opilations, and very old swellings. In the griefe of the stone of the kidneies and Reines, this hearbe woorketh great effects, by putting the Leaves into Ashes, or Embers, hotte, that they may warme wel and then being laid upon the griefe, multiplying the use of it as often as it is needefull. It is necessarie in the seethinges that are used to bee made for Glisters to put into them with the other things, the Leaves of this hearbe, for that they shal profit much: and likewise for Fomentations and Plaisters, that they shall make.

In griefes of windesthey woorke the like effect, taking away the paines that come of the windinesse, applying the leaves after the same sort as is above saide.

In the griefe of women, which is called the evill of the Mother, laying too one leafe of this hearbe Tabaco very hotte, in the manner as it is saide, it dooth manifestly profit and it must bee layde uppon the Navell. And under is some do use to put first of all, thinges of good smell uppon the Navel, and then uppon that they lay the leafe. In that which they finde most profite, is to lay the Tacamahaca, or the oyle of liquid Amber, and Balsamo, and Caranna, or any of these unto the Navel, and to keep it to it continually, that it may cleave unto it, and this worketh manifest profit in griefes of the Mother. [70] (Fol. 36)

In one thing, the women that dwel in the Indias do celebrate this hearb, that is in the evil breathing at the mouth of children when they are over filled with meat, and also of olde people, anoynting their bellies with lampe oyle, and laying some of those leaves in ashes hotte to their bellies, also to their shoulders for it doth take away their naughtie breathing, and maketh them go to the stoole, applying it unto the fundament at what time it is needfull, and if the leaves be ashed it is the better.

Wormes, of all kindes of them, it killeth, and expelleth them marvellously, the seething of the hearbe made into a Syrope delicately, being taken in very litle quantitie, and the iuyce thereof put on the navel. It is needful after this be done to give a Glister, that may avoide them, and expell them out of the guttes.

In griefes of the Joyntes comming of a colde cause it maketh a marvellous worke, the Leaves of this Tabaco being laid hotte upon the griefe: the like doth the Juyce layd upon a little cloth hotte, for that it doeth dissolve the humor, taketh away the paines therof. If it come of a hot couse it doth hurt, saving when the humor hath bene hot, the subtill part is dissolved, and the grosse remaineth, then it doeth profite as if the cause were colde, and it is to be understood, that the leaves being layde where as is griefe of the sayde cause, in any part of the bodie, it profiteth much.

In swellings or in cold Impostumes, it doth dissolve and undoe them, washing them with the hot Iuyce, and laying the beaten leaves, after they be stampt, or the leaves being whole of the said Tabaco, upon it.

In the Toothache, when the griefe commeth of a colde cause or of colde Rumes, putting to it a little ball made of the leaves of the Tabaco, washing first the tooth with a smal cloth wet in the Juyce, it taketh away the paine, and stayeth it, that the putrifaction goe not forwarde: in hot causes [71] it doth not profite, and this remedie is so common that it healeth everie one.

This hearbe doth mervellously heale Chilblaines, rubbing them with the stamped leaves, and after putting the hands and feete in hot water, with Salt, and keping them warme: this is done with great experience in many.

In venom and venomous wounds our Tabaco hath great commendation, which hath beene knowne but a short time since: for when the wilde people of the Indias, which eate mans fleshe doe shoote their Arrowes, they annointe them with an hearb or composition made of many poysons, with the which they shoote at al things that they would kill, and this venom is so strong, and pernicious, that it killeth without remedie, and they that bee hurte die with great paines and accidents, and with madnes, unlesse that there be found remedy for so great an evill. A fewe yeeres past they laid to their wounds Sublimatum, and so were remedied, and surely in those partes they have suffered much with this vexation of poyson.

A little whiles past, certain wilde people going in their Bootes to S. John De puerto Rico, to shoote at Indias, or Spaniards (if that they might find them) came to a place and killed certain Indians Spaniards, did hurt many as by chaunce there was no Sublimatum at that place to heale them, they remenbred to lay upon the wounds the Juice of the Tabaco, the leaves stamped. And God would, that laying it upon the hurts, the griefs, madnes, accidents wherwith they died, were mittigated, and in such sorte they were delivered of that evill, that the strenght of the Venom was taken away, the wounds were healed, of the which there was great admiration. Which thing being knowen to them of the Ilande, they use it also in other hurtes and woundes, which they take when they fight with the wilde people, nowe they stand in no feare of them, by reason they have [72] (Fol. 37) founde so great a remedie, in a case so desperate.

This Hearbe hath also vertue against the hearbe called of the Crosseboweshooter, (Aconitum?) which our hunters doe use to kill the wilde beastes withall, which hearbe is Venom most stronge, and doeth kill without remedie, which the Kinges pleasure was to proove, and commaunded to make experience therof, and they wounded a little dogge in the throate, and put forthwith into the wound the hearbe of the Crosseboweshooter, and after a little whyle, the powred into the selfe same wound that they had onnointed with the Crosseboweshooters hearbe, a good quantitie of the Juice of Tabaco, and layde the stamped leaves upon it, and they tied up the dogge and he escaped, not without great admiration of all men that saw him. Of the which. The excellent Phisition of the Chamber of his Maiestie, Doctor Barnarde in the margent of this booke, that sawe it, by the commaundement of his Maiestie, writeth these wordes: I made this experience by the commaundement of the kinges Maiesty. I wounded the dogge with a knife, after I put the Crosseboweshooters hearbe into the wound, and the hearbe was chosen, and the dogge was taken of the hearbe, and the Tabaco and his Juyce being put into the wounde, the dogge escaped and remained whole.

In the venomous Carbuncles, the Tabaco being applied in maner as is aforesaid doth extinguish the malice of the venom, doth that which all the workes of Surgerie can doe, untill it be whole. The same effect it worketh in bytings of venomous beastes, for it killeth extinguisheth the malice of the venom and healeth them.

In woundes newely hurt, and cuttes strokes prickes or any ather manner of wounde, our Tabaco worketh marvellous effectes, for that it doeth heale the mand maketh them sound. The wound must be washed with wine, procure to annoynt the sides of it, taking away that which is superfluous, then powre into it the Juice of this hearbe, and [73] lay upon it the stamped leaves, and being wel bound it shall continue on untill the next day that thou shalt return to dresse it. After the same fashion the pacientes shall keepe good order in their meate, using the diet necessary, and if it be needful of any evacuation by stoole, the cause being greate, let he done what shall be convenient. And with this order they shalbe healed without any need of any more Surgerie then this hearbe only. Here in this Country, in this City they know not what other to doe, having cut or hurt themselves, but to runne to the Tabaco, as to a most ready remedie. It doth mervellous workes, without any need of other Surgery, but this only hearbe. In restraining the fluxe of blood of the wounds it procureth most marvellous workes, for that the Juyce and the Leaves being stamped, are sufficient to restraine any fluxe of blood.

In olde Sores it marvellous the woorkes and the effects that this hearbe doet, for it healeth them wonderfully, making cleane and mundifying them of al humors that are superfluous, and of the rottennes, that they have, bringeth up the flesh, reducing them to perfite health, the which is so common in this Citie, that every man doeth knowe it: and I having ministred it to many people as well men as women, in greate number, and being grieved often, and of twentie yeeres, have healed olde rotten sores in legges, and other partes of the body, with this remedie only to the great admiration of all men.

The order of the cure that is to bee wrought with thys hearbe, is this following. For the old rotten sores although they bee cankered, let the sicke man bee purged with the counsell of a Phisition, and let him blood if it bee needefull and then take this hearbe and pounde it in a Morter, and wring out the Juyce, and put it into the sore, and then after the maner of a playster lay the stamped leaves upon it, which are the Leaves that the Juyce is taken out of, and this doe once everie day eating gooed Meates, and not exceeding [74] (Fol. 38) in any disorder, for the other wise it will not profit.

And doing this it wil make cleane the evil flesh that is rotten, and superfluous, untill it come to the whole flesh, it is not to be marvelled at, if the wounde be made very great, for the evil must be eaten up, until it come to the good, and in the same cure putting in lesse quantitie of iuyce, it wil incarnate, and reduce it to perfit health, in such sort, that it accomplisheth all the woorkes of Surgery, that all the Medicines of the world are able to doo, without having neede of any other manner of Medicine.

This woorke dooth cure old Sores, with very great admiration: and not only in men, but in bruite beastes also. As at his day in all partes of the Indias, where there are any cattell having wounds or gaules: and the countrey being hotte and moyst over muche, dooth soone rotte them, and very quickly they come to bee cankered, and fort his cause many great cattel doo die: To remedy this and the wormes that doo increase in the sores, they had for remedy to put into the sores Sublimatum, for that in this remedy they dyd finde more benefite then in any other, that they had used. And for that the Sublimatum beares there so high a price, many times it was more worth then the cattell that it healed. For this cause and for having founde in the Tabaco so muche vertue too heale newe woundes and rotten, they did accorde and agree togeather to use the Tabaco, in the healing of beastes, as they had done in the cure and remedy of men, powring the Juyce of the Tabaco into the wounds, washing them therwith, laying upon them the stamped leaves of the Tabaco, after that the Juyce is taken from them. And it is of so great efficacie and vertue, that it killeth the wormes, and maketh cleane the sore, eating away the evill fleshe, and ingendering newe untill it be whole, as in the other thinges which wee have spoken of. The like it doth in the gaules of the beasts of Cariego, the juice being powred in, the beaten leaves wherout the iuice [75] commeth of the Tabaco, as it is sayde: although they be cankered it doth make them cleane, and incarnate them, and cureth and helpeth them. And so the Indians doo carrie it, when they iourney for this purpose and effect, and it procureth the like profit that the iuyce dooth.

I sawe a man that had certeyne old sores in his nose, wherby he did cast out from him much matter, which dayly dyd rotte and canker inwarde, and I caused him to take at his nose the iuyce of this Tabaco, and so he did: and at the seconde tyme, he caste out from him, more then twenty litle wormens, and afterwards a fewe more, untyl that he remained cleane of them, and using it certayne dayes, hee was healed of the sores, that he had in the inner part of his nose: and if he had carried any longer, I thinke that there had remained nothing of his nose, but all had beene eaten away, as it happeneth to many, which we see without them. And beeing wryting of this, a daughter of a Gentleman of this Cittie, had many yeres a certayne kinde of dry skabbes, or wel neere skurvie in her head. I had her in cure and did unto her many beneifits universal, and perticuler: and also Maisters of Surgerie had done their diligence, and all did not profite.

And a gentlewoman, which had the charge of her, as shee heard mee speake one day much good of the Tabaco, that it was good, profitable, for so many infirmities, she sent for it, and did rubbe hard the disease thet the wench had, that day shee was very evill as though shee had beene foolishe: and the gentlewoman did not let (in seing her after that sort) to rubbe her harder, and then the wench did not feele so much griefe, but the dry skabbes began to fail, and the white scurffe of her head in such sorte, that it made cleane and healed her head, with dooing so certeyne dayes, so that shee was healed of her skurvie disease very well, without knowing what she did.

One of the mervelles of this hearbe, and that whiche [76] (Fol. 39) bringeth most admiration, is, the maner howe the Priest of the Indias did use it, which was in this manner: when there was amongst the Indians any manner of businesse of great importaunce, in the which the chiefe Gentlemen called Casiques or any of the principall poople of the Countrye, had necessitie to consult with their Priestes in any businesse of importance: then they went and propounded their matter to their chiefe Priest, foorthwith in their presence, he tooke certeyne leaves of the Tabaco, and cast them into the fire, and did receive the smoke of them at his mouth, and at his nose with a Cane, and in taking of it, hee fell downe uppo the ground, als a Dead man, and remaynyng so according to the quantity of the smoke that he had taken when the hearbe had done his woorke, he did revive and awake, and gave them their aunsweares according to the visions, and illusions which he sawe, whiles hee was rapte in the same manner, and he did interprete to them, as to him seemed best, or as the Divell had counselled him giving them continually doubtfull aunsweres, in such sorte, that howsoever it fell out, they might say that it was the same, which was declared, and the answere that he made.

In like sort the rest of the Indians for their pastime, do take the smoke of the Tabaco, to make themselves drunke withall, and to see the visions, and things that represent unto them, that where in they do delight: and other times they take it to know their businesse, and successe, because conformable to that which they have seene, being drunke therewith, even so they iudge of their businesse. And as the devil is a deceiver, hath the knowledge of the vertue of hearbs, so he did shew the vertue of this Hearb, that by meanes thereof they might see their imaginations, and visions, that he hath represented unto them, and by that meanes deceive them.

To have hearbes that have the like vertue, is a common [77] thing, and in the booke of the Phisition, Dioscorides dooth say, that one Dramme of the roote of Solatro, beeyng taken in wine, which roote is very straunge and furious, provoketh sleepe greatlie, and maketh him that taketh it, to dreame of thinges variable, and dooth represent unto hym terrible imaginations, and visions. Others doe give delectation and pleasure. Of the Anis seed they say, being eaten at the houre, when that any shal sleep, it maketh a pleasant, and delectable dreame. The Radish doth make them greevous and verie heavie, so likewise of many other hearbs, which would be over large to speake of, as of this matter, the auncient writers report.

Diego Gratia de Guerta, in the booke that hee wryteth of the Spicerie and drugs of the Orientall Indias, reporteth that in those parts there is an hearb which is called Bague, which being mingled with thinges of sweet smell, there is made of it a confection of excellent smell taste: when the Indians of those partes, will deprive themselves of iudgement, and see visions that give them pleasure, then they take a certayne quantitie of this confection, and in taking of it, they remaine deprived of all iudgement, and while the vertue of theyr Medicine dooth endure, they receive muche delight, and see thinges, whereby they receive pleasure, and be glad of them. There was a mightie Emperor, being Lorde of may Realmes, syde unto Martine Alfonso de Sosa, who was vice Roy of the East India, that when he woulde see Realmes, and Citties, and other thinges, of the which he did receive pleasure, that hee should then take the Bague, made in certeyne confection, and that in dooing so, he did receive pleasure. The use of this confection is very common, and very muche used amongst the Indians of those parts, and they do sel it in the publike market, for that purpose.

The Indians of our Occidental Indias, doo use [78] the Tabaco to take away wearinesse, and for t make lightsomnesse in their Labour, for in their daunces they bee so muche wearied, and they remaine so wearie, that they can scarcely stirre: because that they may labour the next day, and returne to that foolish exercise, they recive at the mouth and nose the smoke of the Tabaco, and remaine as dead people: and being so, they be eased in such sorte, that when they be awakened out of their sleepe, they remaine without wearinesse, and may returne to their labour as much as before, and so they doe alwaies, when they have need of it: for with that sleepe, they receive their strenght, and be much the lustier.

The blacke people that have gone from these partes to the Indias, have practised the same maner use of the Tabaco, that the Indians have, for when they see themselves weary, they take it at the nose, and mouth, and it happeneth unto them, as unto our Indians, lying as though they were dead three of foure houres, and after they remayne lightened, without wearinesse, for to labour againe: and they do this with great pleasure, that although they bee not weary, yet they are verie desirous to doe it: and the thinge is come to such effecte, that their Masters chasten them for it, and doe burne the Tabaco, because they shoulde not use it: wheruppon they goe to the desertes, and secrete places to doe it, because they may not be permitted, to drinke themselves drunke with Wine, and therfore they are gladde to make themselves drunken with the smoke of Tabaco. I have seene them doe it here, and it happened to them as is saide. And they say, that when they come out of the same traunce or dreaum they finde themselves very lusty, and they reioyce to have beene after the same sort and maner, seeing that therby they doo receive no hurt.

These barbarous people do use the like things to take away wearines: and not nly this custoem is used in our Occidental [79] Indias but is also a common thing in the Oriental Indias. And also in the Portugall Indias, for this effecte, they doe sell the Opio in their Shoppes, even as they sell Conserva, with the which the Indians use to ease themselves, of their labour that they take, and to be merrie, and not to feele paines of any greate labour of the bodie, or mynde that may come unto them, and they call it here amongst themselves Aphion. This Aphion the Turkes doe use for this effecte. The Souldiers and Captaines that goe to Warres, when they labour much, after the time that they be lodged, that they may take their rest, they receive Aphion, and sleepe with it, and remaine lightened of their labour. The most principall people take Bague, and it hath a better taste, and a better smel, for there is put to it much Amber, and Muske and Cloves, and other spices. And surely it is a thing of admiration, to see howe these Barbarous people doe take such Medicines, and how many of them do take them, and that they doe not kill them, but rather they take them for health and remedie for their necessities.

I sawe an Indian of those partes, that in my presence did aske an Apothecarie for a quart of Opio, and I demended of him wherfore he would have it?and he tolde me that he tooke it to put away wearines, when he felt himself over much grieved, and afflicted with labour, and he tooke the halfe of that which he caried, for the Apothecary gave hym more then a pinte for twelve pence, and therewith he slept so soundly, that when he awoke from sleepe, hee founde himselfe verie much eased of his wearinesse, in such sorte, that he might continue his labour. I mervelled at it, and it seemed to me a thing of Mockerie, seeing that five of sixe graines, bee the most that wee can give to a sicke Person, how a stronge soever hee bee, which beeing very well prepared, doeth cause many times Accidentes of Death. And many yeeres after standing in the Shoppe of [80] (Fol. 41) an other Apothecary of this Citie, there came an other Indian, of the same Orientall Indias, and he asked of the Apothecarie fors ome Opio called Aphion, the which Apothecarie understoode him not. And I remenbring my selfe of the other Indian, caused him to showe unto the Indian Opio, in shewing it to him, hee said that it was that which he asked for, and he bought a quarter of a Pinte of it, and I asked of the Indian, wheresore he would have it and hee tolde me the same that the ther Indian did, that it was because he might labour: and ease himselfe of his wearinesse, for that hee did beare burdens, and shoulde helpe to discharge a shippe: wherefore he sayde hee woulde take the one halfe, that he might therwith labour, and the other halfe after he had laboured, that therwith he might take ease, and rest. Then I gave credite to the first Indian, of that he sayd unto me and since I have beleeved that which I have seene and read, in those partes to bee a thing in common use, for the like effectes. And truely it is a thing worthy of greate consideration, that five graines of Opio do kill us, and threescore doe give them health and rest.

The Indians doe use the Tabaco, for to suffer drieth, and also to suffer hunger, and to passe daies without having neede to eate or drinke, when they shal travel by any desert of dispeopled countrie, where they shal finde neither water, mor meate. They receive thereof little balles, which they make of the Tabaco. For they take the leaves of it, and chew them, and as they goe chewing of them, they goe mingling with them certaine pouder made of the shelles of Cockels burned, they mingle it in the mouth altogether until they make it like dowe, of the which they frame certaine little Balles, little greater then Peason, and lay them to drie in the shadow, and after they keep them, and use them in this forme following.

When they use to travel by the wayes, where they finde [81] not water nor meate, they take a little ball of these, and put it betweene the lower lippe and the teeth, and goe chewing it all the time that they travell, and that which they chew, they swallow downe, and in this sort they iourney three or foure dayes, without having neede of meate, or drinke, for they feele no hunger, drieth nor weaknesse, nor their travel doth trouble them. I thinke that to iourney after this sort, is the cause they goe chewing continually the little balles: for they bring Fleume into the mouth, and swallow it into the stomacke, the which doth retaine the naturall heate, which it doth consume, and so they maintain themselves therby, the like wherefor wee see to happen in many beastes, for that a great part of the winter, they be shut up in their Caves, and hollowe places of the earth, and passe their time there without any meate, for that they have to consume the naturall heate, of the fatnes, which they had gotten in the Summer. The beare being a great and fierce beast much time in the Winter remaineth in his Cave, and liveth without meate or drink with onley chewing his pawes, which perhaps he doeth for the sayd cause. This is the substance which I have gathered of this hearb so celebrated and called Tabaco for t hat surely it is an hearb of great estimation, for the excellent vertues that it hath, as wee have sayde. [82] (Fol. 42)


Heereafter followeth a further addition of the Hearbe called Tabaco, otherwise called by the Frenchmen Nicotiane. Which hearbe hath done great cures in the Realme of Fraunce and Portugall, as hereafter at large may appeare in this Treatise following.

NICOTIANA, although it bee not long since it hath been known in Fraunce, notwithstanding deserveth palme and pryce: and amon all other medicinall hearbs, it deserveth to stande in the firste rancke, by reason of his singuler vertues, and as it were almost to bee had in admyration as of auncient tyme, or of late dayes have written the nature of plantes, did never make mention thereof, I have therfore learned the whole historie touching the same, which I learned of a gentlemen my very friend, the first author, inventer, and bringer of this hearb into France: wherfore I thought good to publish it in writing for their sakes, that have so often hearde speaking of this saide hearbe, and yet neyther knewe the hearbe nor the effects thereof.

Thys hearbe is called Nicotiana, of the name of him that gave the firste intelligence thereof unto this Realme, as many other plantes have taken their names of certeyne Greekes and Romaines, who havyng beene in straunge Countries (for service of their common Weales) have brought into their countries many plants, which were before unknowne. Some have called thys Hearbe the Queenes Hearbe, because it was firste sent unto her, as heereafter [83] shalbe declared by the Gentleman, that was the first inventer of it, and since was by her given to divers for to sow, whereby it may bee planted in this lande. Others have named it the great Priors hearbe, fort hat he caused it to multiply in Fraunce, more then any other, for the great reverence that he bare tot his hearb, for the divine effectes therin contayned. Many have given the name Petum which is indeede the proper name of the Hearbe, as they which have travelled that Country can tell. Notwithstanding, it is better to name it Nicotiane, by the name of him that sent it into Fraunce first, to the ende that he may have the honour thereof, according to his desert, for that hee hath enriched our Countrie, with so singuler an Hearbe. Thus much for the name, and now hear then further for the whole Historie.

Maister John Nicot, Counseller to the King being Embassadour for his Maiestie in Portugall, in the yeere of our Lorde 1559, 60, 61, went one day to see the Prysons of the King of Portugall: and a Gentleman being the keeper of the said Prisons presented him with this hearb, as a strange plant brought from Florida. The same Maister Nicot, having caused the said hearb to be set in his Garden, where it grewe and multiplyed marvellously, was upon a tyme advertised by one of his Pages, that a yong man, of kinne tot hat page made a say of that hearbe, used both the hearbe and the Juyce together, upon an ulcer, which he had upon his cheeke neer eunto his nose comming of a Noli me tangere, which began to take roote already at the griffles of the Nose, wherewith he founde himselfde marvellously eased. Therefore the saide Maister Nicot caused the sicke young man to bee brought before him, and causing the said hearb to be continued to the sore eight or ten daies this saide Noli me tangere, was utterly extinguished and healed: and he had sent it, while this cure was a woorking to a certeyne Phisition of the King of Portugall one of the greatest [84] fame to examine the further working effect of the said Nicotiane, and sending for the same yong man at the end of ten dayes, the sayde Phisition seeing the usage of the said sicke young man certified that the saide Noli me tangere was uttlery extinguished, as in deed he never felt it since.

Within a while after, one of the Cookes of the sayde Embassadour having almost cutte of his thombe, with a greate Chopping knyfe, the Steward of the house of the sayde Gentleman ran to the saide Nicotiane, and dressed him therewith five or sixe tymes, and so in the ende thereof hee was healed: from that tyme forwarde this hearb began to bee famous throughout Lisheborn, where the court of the king of Portugall was at that present, and the vertue of this saide hearbe was extolled, and the people began to name it the Ambassadours hearbe. Wherefore there came certeine dayes after, a Gentleman of the Countrie, Father to one of the Pages of the Ambassadour, who was troubled with an ulcer in his Legge, having had the same twoo yeares, and demaunded of the sayde Embassadour for his hearbe, and using the same in such order as is before written, at the end of tenne of twelve daies he was healed. From that tyme forth the fame of that same hearbe increased in such sort that many came from al places to have some of it. Among al others there was a women that had her face covered with a Ringworme rooted, as though she had a visour on her face, to whome the saide L. Embassadour caused the hearb to be given, and told how she should use it, and at the ende of eight or ten daies this woman was throughly healed, who came and presented her selfe to the Embassadout, shewing him of her healing.

After there came a Captayne to present his sonne sicke of the kinges evill to the saide L. Embassadour, for to sende him into Fraunce, unto whom there was a saye made of the sayde hearbe, which in fewe dayes did begin to shewe [85] great signes of healing: and finally he was altogether healed therby of the kinges evill.

The L. Embassadour seeing so great effectes proceeding of this hearbe, and having heard say that the Lady Montigue that was, died at Saint Germans, of an ulcer bred in her brest, that did turne to a Noli me tangere, for the which there coulde never remedy be found: any lykewise that the Countesse of Ruffe had sought for al the famous Phisitions of that Realme, for to heale her face, unto whom they could give no remedy: he thought is good to communicate the same into France, and did sende it to king Frauncis the seconde, and to the Queene Mother, and to many other Lords of the Court, with the maner of ministring the same, and how to apply it unto the said diseases, even as he had found it by experience, and chiefly to the Lorde of Iarnac, Gouvernour of Rogel, with whom the said Lorde Embassadour had great amity for the service of the king. The which Lord of Iarnac told one day at the Queenes table, that he had caused the saide Nicotina to be distilled, and the water to be drunke, mingled with water of Euphrasie, other wise called eiebright, to one that was short breathed, who was therwith healed.

This hearbe hath the stalke greate, bearded and slimie, the leafe large and long bearded slimye, it groweth in branches halfe foote to halfe foote, and is very ful of leaves, and growthe in height foure of five foot. In hot countries is is nyne or tenne monenthes in the yeere laden, in one selfe tyme, with leaves, flowers Coddes, ful of rype graynes, which is when they are waxed blacke and to be ripe, which is when they are yet greene. It sproutes foorth neere the roote muche, and revyneth by a great quantitie of buddes, notwithstandig the graine is the least seede in the worlde, and the rootes be like small threeds.

Nicotine doth require a fat grounde finely digged, and in colde Countreyes very well dunged, that is to saye, a [86] (Fol. 44) ground, in the which the dung must be so wel mingled and in corporated, that it be altogether turned into earthe, that there appear no more dung.

It requireth the south Sunne, and to be planted by a wal, which may defende it against the North winde recovering the heat of the Sunne against it, being a warrant unto the said hearbe against the tossing up of the winde, because of the weaknes and highnes thereof.

It groweth the better being often watered, and reviveth it selfe by reason of the water in time of droughts. It hateth the colde, therefore to preserve it from dying in the Winter time, it must either be kept in caves made of purpose within the said gardens, or els covered with a double matte, and a Penthouse of Reede made on the Wall over the hearbe, and when the South Sunne shineth, the dore of the place must be opened where the hearbe is on the Southside.

For to sowe it, there must bee made a hole in the ground with your finger, as deepe as your finger can reache, then cast into that hole 40 or 50 graines of the sayde Seede together, stopping againe your hole, for it is so small a Seede, that if there bee put in the hole but three of foure graynes thereof, the earthe would choke them, and if the weather be drye the place must be watered lightly during the time of fifteene dayes after the sowing therof: it may also be sowen like unto Lettis and other such hearbes.

And when the hearbe is out of the ground, for so muche as everie graine thereof will bring foorth his Twigge, and that the little threeds of the Roote are the one within the other, you must make with a greate knife a greate compasse within the earth rounde about the syade place, and lift up the earth together with the Seede, and cast it into a payle of water so that the earth be separated, that the little twigges may swimme about the water, then shal you take them without breaking, the one after the other, [87] and you shal plant each of them again by themselves, with the selfe same earth, and shall set them three foote from the wall leaving foure foote space from one Twigge to another, and if the earth which is neere unto the wall, be not so good as it ought to bee, you shall prepare and amende it as aforesaide, helping the sayd Twigges so removed by often watering.

The time to sowe it is in the middest of Aprill, or at the beginning: As touching the vertues, it will heale Noli me tangere, alle olde Sores and cankered Ulcers, hurts, Ringwormes, great Scabbes, what evill soever be in them, in stamping the leaves of the said hearbe in a cleane Morter, and applying the hearbe and the Juyce together uppon the griefde, and the parties must abstaine from meate that is salt, sower, and spices, and from stonge wine, except it be well watered.

The leafe of this hearbe being dried in the shadow, and hanged up in the house, so that there come neither Sunne, winde, nor fire therunto, and being cast on a Chaffyng dish of Coales to bee burned, taking the smoke thereof at your mouth through a tonnel or cane, your head being wel covered causeth to avoide at the mouth great quantitie of flumy and flegmatike water, wherby the body wil be extenuated and weakened, as though one had long fasted, thereby it is thought by some, that the dropsie not having taken roote, will be healed by this Perfume.

Moreover the inhabitantes of Florida doe nourish them selves certaine times, with the smoke of this Hearbe, which they receive at the mouth througe certayne coffins, such as the Grocers doe use to put in their spices. There be other oyntments prepared of the saide hearbe, with other simples, but for a truth this only simple hearbe, taken and applyed as a foresaide, is of greater efficacie, notwithstandig one may make therof an oyntment, which is singular, to cleanse, incarnate, and knit together all maner of [88] (Fol. 45) woundes: the making of the sayde Oyntmentes, is thus. Take a pounde of the freshe Leaves of the sayde Hearbe, stampe them, and mingle them with newe Waxe, Rosine, common oyle, of each three ounces, let them boyle altogether, untill the Juice of Nicotiane be consumed, then adde therto three ounces of Venise Turpentine, straine the same through a Linnen cloth, and keepe it in Pottes to your use.

Los, here you have the true Historie of Nicotiane, of the which the sayde Lorde Nicot, one of the Kinges Counsellers first founder out of this hearbe, hath made mee privie aswel by woorde as by writing, to make thee (friendly Reader) partaker thereof, to whome I require thee to yeeldas harty thankes as I acknowledge my self bound unto him for this benefite received. [89]

The Sassafras. [90] (Sassafras albidum)

Of the tree which is brought from the Florida, called Sassaftras.

From the Florida which is the firm Lande of our Occidentall Indias, lying in xxv degrees, they bryng a Woodde and Roote of a Tree that groweth in those partes, of great vertues, and great excellencies, healing therwith greievous and variable diseases.

It may bee three yeeres past, that I had knowledge of this Tree, a Frenchman which had beene in those partes, shewed me a peece of it, and told me mevels of the vertue thereof, how many and variable diseases were healed with the water which was made of it. I gave at that tyme no credit to him for that in these things of Plantes, and hearbes, which are brought from other places, they say much, and knowe little, unlesse it be by a man that hath experience of them, with care and diligence. The tree and the partes thereof lyked mee well, and I iudged that, which know I doe finde to be true, and have seene by experience. He told mee that the French men, which had been in the Florida at that time, when they came into those parts, had beene sicke the most of them, of grievous and variable diseases, and that the Indians did shewe them this tree, and the manner how they should use it, and so they did and were healed of many evilles, which surely bringeth admiration, that one only remedie should worke so variable and so mervellous effectes.

After that the Frenchmen were destroyed, our Spaniardes beganne to ware very sicke, as the Frenchmen had doone, and some which remained of them, did shewe [91] it to our Spaniardes, and howe they had cured themselves with the water of this marvellous Tree, and the manner which they observed in the using of it, shewed to them by the Indians, who used to cure themselves therwith, when they were sicke of any griefe.

Our Spaniards began to cure themselves with the water of this Tree, and it wrought in them great effectes, that are almost incredible: for with the noughtie meates drinking of the rawe waters, sleeping in dewes, the most parte of them fell into continuall Agues, of the which many of them came into opilations, and from the opilations they began to swell, and when the evill came first, immediatily it began to take away the lust that they had to their meat, and then happened tot hem other accidents, diseases, as suche like Fevers are accustomed to bring: and having there no remedie to bee healed, they did what the Frenchmen had counsailed them, doing that which they had done, which was in this forme.

They digged up the roote of this tree, and tooke a peece thereof, such as it seemede to them best, they cutte is small into very thin and little peeces, and cast them into water, at discretion, as much as they sawe was needefull, lyttle more or lesse, and they sodde it the tyme that seemed sufficient for to remaine of a good colour, and so they dranke in the morning fasting, and in the day time, and at dynner and supper, without keeping any more weight, or measure, then I have sayde, nor more keeping, nor order then this, and by this they were healed of so many griefes, and evill diseases, that to heare of them what they suffred, and how they were healed, it bringeth admiration, they which were whole, dranke it in place of wine, for it doeth preserve them in health: as it appeared very well by them that have come from thence this yeare, for they came all whole and strong, and with good colours, whiche dooth not happen tot hem that come from those partes, and from [92] (Fol. 47) other conquestes, for they come sicke and swolne, without collour, and in short space the most of them die. And these Souldiers doo trust so much to this Wood that I beeyng one day amongst many of them, informing my selfe of the things of this Tree, the moste parte of them tooke out of their Pockets, a good peece of this Wood, and sayde: Maister, doo you see heere the Wood, that everie one of us dooth bring to heale us withall, if we fall sicke, as we have been there?and they began to prayse it so much, and to confirme the marvellous workes of it, with so many examples of them that were there that surely I gave great credit unto it, and they caused me to beleeve all that thereof I had hearde, and gave me courage to experiment it, as I have doone, and as we shall see in the mervelles which wee shall write of it. And nowe we come to shewe the description, and forme of this tree.

The Tree from whence they cut this Wood, whiche they newly brought from the Florida, called Sassafras, is a Tree that groweth to bee very greate: there be of a middle sort, and lesser sorte. The greater sorte is of the bignesse of a Pine Tree, of a meane height, and wel neere to the making of it, for it is straight, casteth out no more but one branche of Bowes, after the manner of a Palme Tree, onely in the highest part, or sendeth out bowes after the maner of a pine Tree made cleane, making of the Bowes which it casteth forth, a forme of roundnes. It hath a grosse rinde of a tawny colour, upon that an other thin rinde, of the colour of ashes, and upon the inner parts thereof, the Trees and bowes be white, and neere like to Tawny. The tree and bowes are very light, the rinde being tasted, hath an excellent sweete smell, and it is somewhat like to the smell of Fenell, with muche sweetenesse of taste, and of pleasaunt smell, insomuch that a little quantity of this Wood being in a chamber, filleth the ayre conteined in it, and the rinde hath some sharpnesse [93] of taste, the inner part hath little smel, the higher part that containeth the bowes hath leaves the which be greene after the manner of a Figge tree, with three poyntes: and when they are little, they bee like to the leaves of a Peare tree, in onely shewing their poyntes. They bee of collour a sadde Greene, and of a sweet smell, and muche more when then be dry. The Indians use to lay them beaten or stamped upon bruises, or when any man is beaten with dry blowes: and being dried, they are used in medicinall thinges. They lose not their leaves, they are alwaies greene, if any do drie and fall, there springeth other, is not knowen that it hath any flowre of fruite.

The rootes of this Tree be grosse, or slender, conformably to the greatnesse of the Tree: they bee light, but not so much as the body of the Tree, and the bowes, but for the greatnesse it is notable light.

The roote of this Tree is very superficiall, spreading in the upper face of the soyle or ground, and so they dygge them up easilie: and this is a common thing in the Trees of the Indias that most of them have their rootes of small depth, and if they carry any plantes from Spaine to plante els where, if they do not set them of smal depth in the ground they beare no fruite.

The best of all the Tree is the roote, and that woorketh the best effect, the which hath the rinde cleaving very fast to the inner part, and it is of colour Tawnie, and muche more of sweete smell, then all the tree, and his Braanches (*): the rinde tasteth of a more sweete smell, then the tree, and the water being sodden with the roote, is of greater and better effects, then of any other parte of the tree, and it is of a more sweete smell, and therefore the Spaniardes use it, for that it worketh better and greater effectes. It is a tree that groweth neere unto the Sea, and in temperate places, that have not much drouth, nor moysture. There be [94] (Fol. 48) Mountaines growing full of them, and they caste foorth a most sweet smel, so that at the beginning when they saw them first, they thought that they had beene trees of Cinamon, and in any part they were not deceived, for that the rinde of this tree hath as sweete a smell as the Cinamon hath, and doth imitate it in colour and sharpnes of taste and pleasantnesse of smel and so the water that is made of it, is of most sweete smell and taste, as the Cinamon is, and procureth the same workes and effectes as Cinamon doth.

The tree groweth in some partes of the Florida, and not in others, for that it is in the porte of Saint Elen, and in the Port of Saint Mathew, and not in any other partes: but when the Souldiers did ware sicke, in places where this tree grew not, either they carried them to bee healed to the sayde places, or they sent them the Trees, or their Rootes chiefly, and therewith did heale them. The best of the tree is the roote after them the bowes, and nexte the tree, and the best of all is the rindes. The complexion and temperature of the tree and of his bowes, is hot drie in the seconde degree the rinde is somwhat more hot then the rest, for that it entreth into the thirde degree, of heate and drieth, and this is manifestly seene in the water, and so they that shall neede of it must procure to have the rootes or bowes, which have the rinde, for that which is without it, doth not worke so good effectes.

The name of this Tree, as the Indians terme it, is called Pavame, and the Frenche Men call is Sassafras. I knowe not wherefore our Spaniardes call it after the same manner, being taughte by the Frence Men, although that some doe corrupte is, and call it Sassafragia, by the name that we have from thence they of these parts doe call it Sassafras.

The use of this Roote, or of the Wood of this Tree the which wee have treated of heere, is by the way of seething, [95] in this forme the Indians did shew it to the French men, and they unto us: and as the Indians have neither weight nor measure, they have not kept in those partes any order in the making of the water of this wood, for that they do nor more there than put a peece of the wood, or of the roote at their discretion made in peeces, into the water as they do thinke best. And theyt seeth it after their maner, without consuming more quantitie, then when they see that the seething is suffiecient: so that all they which they have come from those partes are very variable in their manner of seething, which is no small confusion to them that shall use it, and likewise to the Phisition that shall minister it: That which I do herein, I will write. I looke upon the complection, and temperature of the sicke person that shal take and use this water as also the maner and quality of the disease, and conformably I make the water, give it to the sicke person, giving to the Cholericke lesse seething, and lesse quantity of Wood, and to the Flegmatike more seething, and more quantitie of Wood, and to the Sanguine meanably: and so after this sorte too their infirmities, according to the qualities of them, for that if it bee not done according to this order, they cannot choose but make many errours in the use of this water, and also it is convenient that for the most parte they keepe the use of the diet government which is necessarie for the disease which they pretend to cure. Let none thinke, that to take this water without order good consideration, as many doth, there shall followe health: but unto them rather taking it without mesure without order it shal do unto them much hurt: whereby it seemeth to me that when this water shal be ministred, aswel in the diseases that it cureth as in any other whatsoever they be: it is necessarie that they goe to some learned Phisition, that may dispose the maner and making of the water, and the order which they shall observe in taking of it, for that in the Water (Winter) is shoulde bee [96] taken otherwise then in the Sommer. And otherwise it must be given to the leane person, then to the strong and in an other manner it must be taken of the Cholerike then of the fleugmatike, one order is requiered in the cold region an other order in the hot. Wherby it appeareth, that it is convenient to keep order, mesure, forme in the taking of it, fort hat there goeth no lesse wit hit then health, life, considering that we see it have no price in the world, not to let it alone to the iudgement of him that knoweth it not.

It happened to a gentle woman, unto whom for certaine indispositions of the Mother, proceeding of greate colde that she had taken, I counselled her and she should take this water of the wood of Sassafras. And I gave her the order that shee should use, in making, taking of it, which was asmuch as was convenient for her disease, and seeming for her. But she tooke muche of the wood, more then I willed her, seething the water more then I commaunded her, she thought that she should heale the sooner. And as shee tooke it certaine dayes with this strenght, she was burdened in such sort with a very great Ague that not onely it stood her upon to leave the water, but is was needefull to let her blood five times, and put her life in adventure, so procured infamy to the remedie. After she was whole, and had prevailed, she returned tooke the water with the order that I had first told her, and she healed very well of her disease. It is time nowe that we come to the vertues of this wood so excellent, whereof let us speak particularly of every one of them, as we have known and experimented them.

In generall our Spaniardes in those partes of Florida, where they have beene and now are, doe use this aforesaide water sodden at their discretion, for all manner of diseases, without making exception of any. And beeing sicke of any manner of evil which commeth unto them, sharpe, or long, hot, or colde, greevous or otherwise, they cure them all by one maner of fashion, they heale all with one maner of [97] water, without making any difference, the best is that all be healed therwith, in this they repose so much trust, that they feare not the evils which are present, nor have any care of them to be come, and so they use it for an universall remedie, in alle manner of diseases.

In one of the thinges that they have found moste profite in this water, was in Opilations, in the interieur parts, of the which they came to be swolne, and to bee full of the Dropsie the most parte of them. For of the long and large heates which they had taken, they came wel neer generally to have these diseases. And with this water both the swelling and the opilation went away, and therewith they came to bee made whole of the Quotidian Agues, which the most part of them had. For in going thither the moste parte of them fell sicke, of these long and importunate Fevers, in the which I have experience by this Water, being taken as it ought too bee, for it woorketh marvellous effectes, and have healed many therwith. For the principal effect that it hath, is to comforte the Liver, and to dissolve Opilations, and to comfort the stomack which are the two principal things, that are most convenient for the Phisition to do that the sick man be healed of the like diseases. For in these evils is not to be feared that the humors be corrupted.

And if the principall members be hurt, one of the things that these medicines which are brought from our Indias do principally, when the water of any of them taken, is to comforte the Liver and to amende it, that it may ingender good humors, for is this be not done, the cure is in vaine. And so our Sassafras hath a marvellous property, to comfort the Liver, and to dissolve the Opilations, in such sort that it doth ingender alowable blood.

I healed a young man which had an opilation of certayne Tertians. And thereof he was all swolne, in sich sort that he was well neere full of Dropsie. And with purging [98] (Fol. 50) him many tymes with Pilles of Ruibarbe, and by taking of Dialaca amongst the sayd Purgations, and drinking the water of this Sassafras, continually without drinking of any other thing he came to be healed very wel, and was cleere of his swellinges, and opilations. And he did not let to drink it untyll he remained perfectly whole.

The manner of curing with this water made of the Sassafras, for the Tertian Agues long Fevers, I will shewe you, and what hath passed in this yeere, that I wrote this. There have been many people deseased with the tertian agues, so importunatlie, that no manner of Medicine was sufficient to take them away, to roote them out, insomuche that we let many alone, with onely good order, and good government, without helping them any more. They were opilated, and had evill colour of the face, and some of them were swolne.

And at that tyme it was, when the Captayne generall Peter Mellendis came from the Florida, and brought him in common, this wood of the Sassafras, and when every man did so much prayse it, many of them that had Tertaina, took water of the Sassafras, keeping the order that the Souldiers gave them, and surely I saw that great mervelles, for that they healed many with the use thereof. Not onely of the tertians that so much did molest them. But also of the opilations and evill colour that they had. And seeing this, I caused other to take it, and without counsell durst not to do it. And it did very wel with them, but it must be wel seen unto how it should bee given, and to whom, that the cause may carrie with it both order and measure.

That which ordinarily was doone: was to give one cuppe full of the Water well sodden, in the morning with Sugar or without it, and after to drinke the water continually, that which was more simple then the firste, and as the Phisition shall iudge to be most convenient for hym that is sicke, keeping the conditions in the takyng of [99] this water that we shall speake of.

And surely it is a thing that giveth great contentment to heale onely with the drinking of a water, it being of a sweet smel, and good savour which is taken, and drunk without any maner of griefe, and so to do that woorke, which sharp medicines and syrupes of evill savour and taste cannot do. And such as did drinke wine, did water their wine with it, and they found themselves well with it.

In one thing is was seene greatlie to profite, which is in the use of this water in them that have lost the lust of their meate, insomuch that it is restored to them, the lothsomnes taken from them, by the use of it, so that many did amend and come tot heir health quickly. And the use of this water doth cause lust to meate. The Souldiers do commend it with such admiration, that some came to leave it, and not to drink it, for because that it caused them to have so great hunger, that they coulde not withstand it. And because there was no such abundance of meats wherwith they might satisfy their hunger, which the water was cause of, they would not drink it, as not having sufficient for their maintenaunce, for they did all use it for a drinke insteede of wine and it was a great remedie for them, that by it they becam whole, as appeareth by them which came from those partes whereas they doo use it.

In the Havana there is a Phisition, whom they take for a Man of good understanding in these causes, who dyd cure many of them which came in the Fleete from the new Spayne sicke, with onely the use of this water, without giving or making for them any other Medicine. And it did very well with them, for that many were healed therewith, and he gave them to drink as much as they would, al the day, and at dinner and supper, and in the morning hee gave a Cuppe full warmed, to tthem that coulde not goe to stolle with a little Sugar not very white, and it wrought very well with them, for their going to stoole. And to other [100] (Fol. 51) he gave Medicines of this water only and Hony, it mede a good worke. I cured heere some that were in cure in the Havana. And being ordered in this maner, they which came not wel healed thence, were here fully healed.

In griefes of the head, and in paines thereof being very olde, which proceed of any cold cause, the taking of this water hot in the morning well sodden, at dinner and supper, and in the day time simple with good government as well in the meate that is eaten, as in the rest of all other things, and dooing this for many daies, it cureth and healeth them marvellously. It is convenient for him that shall do this, that he purge himselfe first, and in the tyme that he must take it, that he receive certeyne Pilles of Hiera simplex, he hath no neede to keepe himselfe close neither in his chamber nor in his bed. Hee that shal take this it is enough that hee go wel clothed, and that he keepe himselfe from the colde and ayre, and that he use to eate good meates.

In griefes of the brest caused of colde humors, this water doth profite much, and openeth the waies of the brest. It consumeth moysture and fleames, it stayeth the fluxe, the running which cometh from head to the brest. It must be taken in the morning, and drunke continually simple, for besides the ordinary drinking in the morning, it must bee drunke simplu for a long tyme. For these simple waters as they doo their worke by little and little, so it is needful that they be continued for a long season. It is good that there bee put some Sugar to it, that it may make the better woorke.

In griefes of the Stomacke, when the cause is colde or windie, after that the universall evacuations bee made, taking this water in the morning strong, as it is saide simple, al other tymes, it taketh them away and healeth them, chiefly if there bee any olde griefe, for that I have given it for this effect, to men that many yeeres did suffer most grievous paynes in the stomacke, and with taking the water in [101] the morning hot for certeine daies, and continuing with the simple water for a long time, and taking once every weeke pilles of Hiera simplex many people were healed thereof very wel. And thus we have declared how that the use of thys water restoreth the appetite lost, and giveth lust to meate.

In the weakenes of the stomacke, and in the lack of naturall heate, where that which is eaten is not consumed, it woorketh great effects, and helpeth digestion. It consumeth windes, which are the cause of indigestion. It taketh away a stinking breath and from them that do vomit their meat, it taketh away that evil custome, so that they eate litle, and use continually to drinke this water without wyne. Ad above al other thinges, it maketh a good breath, and a good smel at the mouth.

In the disease of the stone of the kidneis and reines, the use of this water hot when they have the griefe doth greatly profit, much more using it continually simple by it self, or with wine, fort hat it dooth preserve that the paine come not so continually nor so grievously. And also it maketh him that doth use it, to cast out much Sande, where the stones bee ingendred. And also it causeth the stones that are in the reynes to be cast out, and staieth the ingendering of them, for that it consumeth the fleames, of the which they be principally ingendered, and the windes that be many times the causes of the paines.

To them which have the buoning (burning) of the Urine, to soch as have great burning at the time that they make their water, doo feele great heate, unto such is not convenient the use of this water, for because it is hot.

Al such should use of that wood, which I have written of in the first part of this Historie, which is excellent, for such as suffer the lyke burnings and paines. For the stones and sandes, for al such evils comming of heate, the work is mervellous that it dooth, saving that if there be any stone in the [102] (Fol. 52) Bladder, from which place proceedeth the like burning, for in such a case mone of these waters doe take effect: but only the Surgions Raser when the Stone is greate, is that which doeth profite, as I have seene in many. And while it is say dit is a stone, it is no stone, death hath come unto them that had it, whome if they had beene opened in time, might have lived many yeares, as we have seene in divers of sixty yeres and more who have bin opened, and lived until they came to eightie yeares and more.

And I advertise you, that this wood, which I call of the Urine, and the stone, doth make the water blewe, for if it doe not make the water blewe, it is not the right Wood. And now they bring a wood, which maketh the water yellowe, and this is not it which doeth profite, but that which maketh the water blewe, and this hath the covetousnesse of them caused, that bring it, because they have seene that it is wel solde in this City, for the manifest profites that it doeth in these griefes of the Urine, by tempering the Reines, and the Liver, and procuring many other benefits, they bring of all the wood that they finde, and sell it for wood of the stone. The same hath happened in the Mechoacan, which when it came to be worth twentie Ducates the pound, they laded so much from thence of it, some not being ripe, other not being right, that when it is come hither it worketh not the effecte, that the good and well seasoned was wont to doe.

Wherefore it is needfull to see tot hat which is taken, that it bee the same, and that it bee well seasoned. That which is verie whyte, is not such as the yellowe is, in mine opinion, for that which is yellowe, wee see that it maketh the better woorke: it may be that the verie whyte is not of it, of hath not the perfectien that the good hath. And comming to our water of Sassafras, it provoketh Urine, it maketh them to Urine well, which have the impediment of it, chiefly if it come by humors of colde [103] causes. I did know a Priest, which came in this fleete from the Florida, who being in those parts, did make water very evill, and cast from him stones, sometimes with verie much griefe, and some of them did put him in hazard of his life, when he was in the Florida, as hee dranke of the water of Sassafras ordinarily, as many other did in the place of wine, hee avoided many great smal stones, without any paines, and after that hitherunto hee hath founde himselfe whole, and very wll of this evill, by drinking the simple water of this wood ordinarily, and watering his wine therewyth.

Many doe drinke of this water for the same purpose, and they cast out much Sande, and doe finde themselves cured therewith.

In them that bee lame or creeples, and in them that are not able to goe, nor to move themselves, as for the most part that infirmitie commeth of colde humours: but taking this water hot in the morning, and procuring sweate all that he can, eating thinges of diet, and drinking the simple water continually, and using it many dayes: we have seene many healed. And it is to be noted, that in taking of this water, there is nothing to bee observed, as in other waters, but when they shall take it hotte, if any swaete come, to keepe it, and after this they may rise and goe well clothed: it is not needefull of any thingels, (thinges) but of thys and good order, and to eate good meates, and if they swaete not, it maketh no great matter, but if they sweat not, they shall be healed: I knowe a Captayne, one of them which came from the Florida: and he certified mee that hee was so weake in all his body, that his Souldiers carried him uppon their shoulders, for that in any other maner he coulde not stirre, and hee was in a place where the tree of Sassafras was not, and he sent for it and toke the water, and therewith swaet for certaine dayes, and afterward he tooke it simply, and he was restored to his perfect health, and I did see him whole and well. [104] (Fol. 53)

In the toothache, this wood being broken and chewed with the tooth that is grieved, and leaving that which is chewed in the hole of the tooth, which is grieved, if it have any hollownesse, and although that it have none, yet it taketh away the paines mervelously, with experience done upon many.

In the evil of the Poxe, it worketh the same effetes that the rest of the water, of the holy wood the China, and the Sarcaparillia doeth: taking it as these waters bee taken with sweates, putting up more or lesse, the decoction of the water, and the quantitie of the wood, as the complexion is and the disease of him that shall take it. For that in coulde humours Flegmatike, it maketh a better worke, than in them that bee Cholerike: and so in the Poxe that bee of a long time it maketh a better and greater woorke, than in them that be of smal continuance: and more when there be knobbes, and moisture of matter, olde griefes of the head, with the order as is aforesayd. And in these evils the simple water is continually taken for a great time, and it worketh great effectes, chiefly in them that bee leane, which bee altogether weakened debilited, with the use of many Medicines.

Many which have the Gout, have used, and doe use to drinke of the Water of this tree, some of them taking it hot, as wee have sayde, and others simple continually by it selfe, and watering their wine therewith. That which I have seene, is that which is in the olde kinde of Goutes, doth neither good nor evil, and i fit doe any good it is to comforte the stomacke, and to dissolve windines, to give them some lust tot heir meate, the rest of the benefite that it bringeth is to them that have bin sicke but short time, if the cause proceede of cold, unto whom it procureth notable profite, but if the humour and cause be hot, it doeth them no good, but hurteth them, inflaming and causing them to have greater paines. [105]

In one thing I have seene it in many people to bring notable profit, with the continuall use of this water, it is in them which have foule diseased handes, which cannot exercise them, as they were wont to doe. I healed a Gentleman which could not write, theat when he went to write his hand fell downe by little and little, and the penne also, after he had begun to write not past five or sixe letters. And he toke a Cuppe full of that, which was last sodden in the morning, and after he dranke it, hee continued twoo houres in his bedde, and after he rose and went about his busines. And he did eate at his dinner good meates, and at his supper used diet, and dranke the simle water of the self same Sassafras, and he was healed very wel: having spent a great somme of money on Phisitions and medicines, which did not profit him any thing, untill he came to be remedied in the order as is aforesaide.

Many did certifie me that, which nowe I finde by experience and learned of them that were sicke in the Havana, and coulde not goe to the stoole, that the Phisition which is there, did cause them to take in the morning fasting a good Cuppe full hotte of the water of the Sassafras, and it did soften the belly, and they went to the stoole very wel, which we have seene heere to be true by experience. And there was a Soldiour which certified mee, and prooved it with others of his companie, that having stooles by indisgestion and rawnesse of stomacke, for want of heate, it toke them away, with taking of one good cuppe ful of this water everie morning fasting, and so with drinking it continually but that which he dranke every morning, he dranke it cold, and yet neverthelesse hee was healed very wel of the fluxe, which he had many yeares.

In griefes of women the water of Sassafras doeth greatly profit, and in especially in that which is called the evill of the Mother: and where there is windinesse, it consumeth dissolveth it, and also any maner of colde of the belly, and it [106] (Fol. 54) dissolveth the swelling of it, curing any manner of disease which proceedeth of the Mother. And this is so experimented, and so put in use that many have beene healed with this water, that never thought to have recovered health. And in the withholding the Monethly course that commeth, not to women, this water maketh a marvellous worke, by provoking and making it come in them that wholie doo lacke it, taking one Cuppe full of this water in the morning drinking it ordinarilie at dinner, and at supper, and in the day tyme beeing more simple, then that in the morning, using good regiment, and dooing other thinges which may helpe the water, that is may be provoked. And unto them also to whome it dooth not come well, it bringeth manifest profite, taking the water in forme as is aforesayde, keeping them the tyme that they take it, from such thinges as maye offende them: and being used it dooth disopilate, and make a good colour in the face, as it is seene by the experience of them that doo use it, having neede of it. Let them beware if they have much heate, or bee of a hot complexion, in suche case let them moderate the quantitie of the wood, and the seething of the water, as is convenient, and this is easie to be done, by seeing how it goeth with them at the beginning, with the use of it, and according thereunto they may rise or fall, as is seemeth to be necessarie.

Some women doo use of this water for to make them with childe, and in some it hath wrought the effecte as it is wel known. That which I can say is that a gentelewoman beeing manye yeeres married, without having children, tooke this water, for that her husbande used it for certeyne evilles of Opilations, and of an Agewe that helde hym, with certeyne fittes of a double tertiane which he had, and hee continued with the taking of it in the Morning hotte, and at Dinner simple, and at Supper, and in the day time, keeping a good governement, whereby it came to passe, [107] that she was with childe, and brought foorth a sonne.

And I understande that one of the principall vertues that this water hath, is to drye away the Mother for thys effect: for the most parte of women that have no children, is for the greate colde that is ingendered within the Mother, which doth hinder the cause of generation, and as the water ryset, hit (it) consumeth it, comfortyng the place and dissolving the windes, that are the let of it: I am sure that it will manifestly profite, as we have seene in them which do not bring foorth children for having too much heate and drieth, to whome permit not the use of this water, for because it will not profite them, and if they do take it and feele hurt therof, let them not put the fault in the water, but in their complexions, seeing that it is not convenient for them.

The use of this water dooth make fatte, and this is cetainly knowne, for we have seene many leane and sick, that have taken it, and have healed of their evils, and have recovered much more flesh, better colour, as those people that come from the Florida, doo praise it very much: they all say, that the use of this water doth make fat, and it happeneth so to many, and not onely it healeth them of their disease but also maketh them remaine with a good colour. And so it seemeth by them that come from that country, for that they come all fatte, and of a good colour, who I believed as they were very sick, so that they were very leane yellow: when they were healed of their infirmities which they had, they gathered fleshe, and became of a good colour, ingendering in the Liver good bloud, by the whiche the members were better maintained, than when they were sick. And surely it is a great thing that this water should woorke this effect, considering that it is hot and drie, if it were not for the causes that are above said. And I have seene many that entered in, to take the water of the wood, leane, and with an evill colour, to come foorth strong and fatte, and of a good [108] colour, eating no other thing then Resinges, Almondes and Bisket.

In pestilent and contagious deseases, which we have seen in the time of the Pestilence past, there were many that desired to drinke it, to preserve them from that evill: And we did see that none of them which used it, were wounded of the disease, that then raigned. Many did use to carry a peece ot he Roote of the Wood with them to smell to it continually, as to a Pomander. For with the smell so acceptable it did rectifie the infected ayre: I carried with mee a peece a greate tyme, and to my seeming I founde great profite in it. For with it chewing of the rinde of the Cidron nor of the Lemmon in the morning, and in the day time, to preserve health it hath a great strengt and property. And it seemeth to mee, that I was delivered by the helpe of God from the fire, in the which we that were Phisitions went in, blessed bee our Lord GOD that delivered ur from so great evill, and gave us this most excellent tree called Sassafras, which hath so great vertues, and worketh such marvellous effectes as we have spoken of, and more which tyme will shewe us, whiche is the discoverer of all thinges. It shall doo well to shewe the quantitie of the wood, and also the quantitie of water, wherein it shalbe sodden, to prescribe a rule in weight and measure, in effects and temperatures, for them that are hot, and others that are colde.

I will tell you the order thay ought to bee kept in taking the water of this excellent wood, which must be made conformably to the disease of him that shall take it, and according to the quantitie and complexion of the sicke bodie. For unto the Cholericke Person the water ought te bee given lesse sodden, and with lesse quantitie of Wood, and to the flegmatike more sodden and with more quantitye of wood. So the disease should be considered of. Unto them that are very cold the water ought to be given more sodden, and with more quantitie of Wood. And unto them that [109] bee not so colde, but do participate of some heate: the water ought to be given lesse sodden, with lesse quantity of wood. The like shal be done in the hot or cold times, in the age of the person, or the most causus making to this respect, proportion. And for the more light, I wil here set down the maner how this water ought to be used, the which will serve to shew how that they may rise or fal therin, conformably to the opinion which shal seeme good to every one. For in these infirmities that be very cold, they must set up the water in quillates, both in seething and also in quantitie of the wood. And in the diseases that are not so colde, or that doo participate of any heate, they must set the water lower, in Quillats seething it lesse, putting in lesse wood: the maner and order of the preparing it is this.

You shall choose the freshest wood that may be had, and that which hath a rinde. For that wood which hath not the rinde is not good, nor taketh effect, you must procure that it be of the roote, fort hat is the best of the tree for these effects and cures, and for the diseases which we have spoken of. And if in case there be no roote, then the bowes are the bes that growe in the higher part of the Trees: and in case the bowes lacke them is the tree good if so be that one and the other have the rind of the roote, let there be taken lesse in quantity therof, more of the bowes, much more of the tree, which must be double to the quantity of the roote. Nowe let us pseake of the bowes as of a thing in the middest, betweene the roote and the tree, beeyng that which continually they doo bring, of the which you shall take halfe an Ounce, and cut it as small as may be. And it must be put into three Pottelles of water in a newe Earthen Pot, and there lye a steeping two houres: and after it must bee sodden at a fyre of Coales, untyl the two partes bee consumed, and the one remaine. And after it is colde, let it bee strayned, and kept in a glassed vessel, and upon those smal cuttinges of wood that have beene already sodden, let there [110] be poured other three Pottels of water, and let it seeth until halfe a Pottell be consumed, and no more: after that it is colde, let it be strained and kept in a glassed vessel. Let the first water be taken in the morning fasting, half a pint hot, and then keepe your selfe warme, and procure sweate, then change your selfe into hot clothing, and wipe your self from the sweate. And eate of a Hen rosted drie fruite, and conserva and drinke of the second water at Dinner and Supper and in the day time. And then rise and goe well clothed and fly from al things which may offend you. And at night make a light Supper, and eate drie fruite and Conserva, but eate no fleshe at night and drinke of the second water. And this you may doe for as many dayes as you finde your selfe grieved: and if you finde your selfe well with the use of this water taken in this maner, proceed forward untill you be whole, if not, then continue in taking of the strong water every third day, drink of the simple water continually, after this order it may be given in al diseases, that we have treated of, and it will profite. But many will not submit themselves to this labour, which truely is the best of all others, and that which is most convenient. They make the simple water in this forme.

Let there be taken halfe an ounce of the wood, little more or lesse with the conditions aforesaid, and let it be made into small peeces, and seeth it in three Pottels of water, untill halfe be sodden away, rather more then lesse. And of this water you may drinke continually, at Dinner and at Supper, and in the daytime, and surely taken in this order, it doeth and hath done mavellous woorkes, and most great Cures, in long diseases, and importunate, taking it and keeping a good governement in poor Meate and other thinges prohibited. And howsoever it bee, being dronke so simple, it procureth great profit. Thay that cannot forbeare the drinking of wine, may water their Wine therewith, [111] for it will make of it a better taste and sweetnesse: for this water hath a most sweet smell, and taste, above all, it worketh marvellous effects, as we have seene and do see in divers and sundry diseases, in the which ordinary remedies of Phisicke doe not profit, with the greate examples which we have hereof.

And it is to be considered, that principally it doth profite in long and colde diseases, where there is windines, and other evils, that run this course, which shalbe knowe forth with by him that shal have need of it, use it. And one thing is to be understood, that using it in the order as is aforesaid, although that he which taketh it have no need thereof, it can do him no hurt, but rather if it be wel considered, it will manifestly profite him in the time that he shall take it, yea, although he leave the taking of it when he seeth that he findeth not the profite which hee desireth, nor that it hath done him any hurt or harme during the time that hee hath taken it. [112] (Fol. 57)

Carlo-Sancto. (Ipomoea jalapa)

Of the Carlo Sancto a roote brought from the new Spaine.

They bring from the newe Spaine within this three yeares a marvellous roote and of greate vertues, which is called Carlo Sancto, the which a Father of S. Francis order discovered and published in the province of Mechoacan, being taught by an Indian of that Countrie that was verie wise in such things and a man of great experience in the vertues of them. In the first part we have declared that there be many medicinable hearbs which have great secrets, and vertues. This our Carlo Sancto groweth in that Province, in places which are verie [113] temperate, which be not drie nor verie moist. The forme and figure therof is like to our wilde Hops of Spaine, for it carrieth a leafe as they doe, and it runneth up by any other thing that is neere unto it, and if it have nothing to leane unto, then it creepth all a long uppon the grounde: the colour is a sad greene, it carrieth neither flower nor fruit, the smell thath it hath is little, and acceptable to some. Out of the Roote springeth a grosse Tree, and it casteth foorth other Rootes of the greatnesse of a finger: it is white in colour, and hath a Rinde which falleth from the inner parte, the hearte of it is marvellously wrought: for it is compounded of certaine small boordes verie thinne, and they may be devided by one and one, the roote hath a pleasant smell, and being chewed, it hath a notable bitternesse, with some sharpnesse of taste: this roote hath his vertue in the Rinde.

In the ships that be now come, there came the example of it, now there is more knowledge of the vertues thereof then before there was. Many of them that came in this fleet from the newe Spaine, doe speake much good of this roote. But he that speaketh most of it, is a Gentleman that came from Mechoacan, brought a good quantity of it with him. That as he reporteth, also what we have experimented of it, we will speake of: and also the complexion and temperature thereof, which is hot, drie, in the first part of the second degree.

The principall effect that this Roote doth profite in, is in Reumes and runnings of the head, for it causeth them to flowe out of the mouth and bringeth them from the head, by chewing a little of the Rinde of the roote, a good time, but is must be taken in the morning fasting, it voydeth out much fleume, humors from the head, that would go to the stomack and other partes, but before this bee done, it is convenient, that the patient be purged.

Some that chew it, which can easely vomite, doe vomite [114] (Fol. 58) with chewing of it, it causeth them to cast out much Choler and fleume, and much more it maketh them vomit, if they take the decoction of it, for it maketh the humor to come up, whiche is in the stomack with much easinesse. The roote comforteth the stomack, and also the Gummes by chewing of it, and it fortiefith the teeth, and dooth preserve them from wormes, and that they rotte not nor corrupt. It maketh a good smell in the mouth, and because it is better, it is convenient after that you have chewed it, that you wash your mouth with wine, that the bitternes may bee taken away.

In the infirmities of weomen chiefly, (women)where opilations are, and lacke of Purgation, the pouder of the rinde of the Roote dooth dissolve them, and taketh them away, and maketh their purgation to come downe wel with the use therof. It must be taken with wine, or with water sodden with Coriander, and Cinamon, which they must drinke, whiles they doo take it: it dissolveth windes, and comforteth the stomack, whiles they use it, they must annoynt their Bellies with the oyle of Liquide Amber, and Dialtea of equall partes, and first they must bee purged, and take heede that they keepe all good order, and good government.

In the evils of the hearte, chiefly being ioyned with the Mother, the saide powders and the water sodden with the rinde of the Roote, doo woorke very greate effectes. They must take the pouder in the order as is aforesaid: and the weight of twelve pence of the Roote, cut small and sodden in one Pottell and a halfe of water, untill halfe be sodden away: and then they must cast into it the weight of two shillinges of the ryndes of Cidrons beeing dry, and the weight of twelve pence of Cinamon made in pouder, and give it certeyne seethinges with them, and then strayne it: and they must take every morning a small vessel of sixe Ounces of this seething with Sugar, because it is somewhat [115] bitter, or without it as you please: it is to bee noted that before you begin to use it you must make the universal evacuations, which shalbe convenient.

This Gentleman sayth which brought this roote that it profiteth muche, in the disease of the Poxe, taking it in Powoer, or in the seething of it: which I have not experimented, for that wee have so many remedies for thys evill, that wee have made no experience thereof: hee sayth that it is to be taken without keeping, more, then when they bee taking the water, or powder, and that then they keepe good order and good government in their meates, and in al other thinges.

In the falling sicknesse, a strong disease, and well neere incurable, they say that it hath a great prosperitie and worketh greate effectes: taking the powder of the rinde of the roote, with wine of with water, as is most convenient for him that shall take it. I councelled one heere, who was more then fortie yeeres of age, and had had it of long tyme, to take it, and hitherto he hath not felte more then to vomit with the pouder, when he taketh it, and he casteth up much Cholor and his faintnesse is not so great as was want to be. It seemeth to me, that it cannot take it away. For it should worke that effect in them, that do not passe twenty and five yeeres, who unto that time have remedy. I will prove it uppon such: it would be no little good, that it might work the effect that is spoken of it.

In griefes of the Head, they use this roote in those partes, as a great and sure remedie. I will tell what hath passed. The first time that I sawe this roote, was in the power of one which was sicke, who came from Mexico, and he brought it for a greate thing, saying: that he healed therewith and tooke away the paines of the head, which he had certayne dayes, and he asked me if that he should use it. I tasted of the roote, and it seemed to mee as I have sayde, [116] (Fol. 59) and I counselled him that he should use it as they had willed him to do in Mexico and so he did chewe it in the morning, and it tooke away the paines of the head which a long time had molested him.

After this, a passenger tolde mee, which came in the Shippe, where the Gentleman was that brought a quantitie of the roote, and he chewed it wel, did disfleume therewith, and immediatly it tooke away the paine, he shewed me a litle that remained therof, which was the same that I saw, and since that, some have used it, and it hath done very well with them.

In the toothache, they that have brought it into Spaine do much esteeme of it. And beeing in the lodging where this man was which brought the roote, the host of the house certified me that having the toothache very grievous, it tooke it away from him with chewing the rinde of the Roote, on the same side where the toothe was which grieved him, disfleuming therwith as much as he could. And I being one day in the Custome house curing a Genoves which was there an other of the same Nation complaines unto mee of the toothache, and we caused to be brought some of the saide Roote, and in the presence of as many as were there, hee chewed the rinde of this roote, having very greate paynes, and he avoided much Fleume, in disfleuming it began to take away the paynes, and before hee went from thence he was throughly cured. Certeine daies past I had a griefe in one tooth, so that it payned me all one Night, and parte of one day, and I gathered in a garden which I have to my house, certeine leaves of Tabaco, and also the aforesaid roote, and I chewed both together, and disfleumed, and the paines went from me, returned no more to me, beeing more then sixe monethes after I was pained therewith. This is the effecte, that I have obtained of this Carlo Sancto, whiche being so little tyme knowne, is sufficient. The Tyme wil discover the rest, and as we shall understande more of it, so [117] we wil give notice therof.

Of Beades, which be called the Beades of Saint Elen. (Apios americana, wordt door de Indianen hopniss en door Thomas Heriot in 1585 openauk genoemd)

From the Florida they bring certeine round rootes which are called the Beades of S. Elen. And they take this name by reason that they grow in a place of the country that is so called: they are great large rootes, devided into severall peeces, and cuttinges, every peece by it selfe, they remaine rounde as beades, which being bored in the middest, thet make of them Beads for to pray upon, which the Souldiers do hang about their necks, for a thing of great estimation. They drie them, and they are as harde as a bone, on the outwarde parte they are blacke, and within white, and the rinde is ioyned in such sorte, that the harte and it is made all one, they are wrought after they bee dry, and this Roote beeing tasted, hath a sweete smell, with a good taste. And it seemeth by the taste that it is a kinde of Spyce, for it is like to Galanga, they are of the thicknesesse of a mans thumbe, somewhat lesse, the Plant hath a great stalke: the Bowes doo spread by the grounde, and cast out the leaves broade and great, and very greene. It groweth [118] (Fol. 60) commonly in moist places, the complexion thereof is hot in the ende of the second degree, and more drie then in the first, the vertues thereof are these..

The Indians use the hearbe beaten betweene twoo stones when they pretend to wash themselves, rubbing all their bodie with it: for they say that it knitteth their flesh togither, and comforteth them with his good smell. And this they do for the most part everie day, for the great profit that they finde in it.

In griefes of the Stomacke, the Indians doe use it by taking the pouder of it, and our Spaniardes also take it, for the same purpose, receiving it in wine, being ground small, of the which I have seene notable experience in some.

In the griefe of the Stone of the Kidneis or Reines, the Pouder of this Roote woorketh a knowen effect. For that some have taken this roote made into Pouder in wine, having the grief, and it hath taken it away. And I marvel not at al that his manifest quantitie is sufficient, to work the like effectes.

In griefes of the Urine of them that cannot pisse wel, by taking the pouder it doth profite, and expell it. A thing used of many that have come from those partes, for that they have proved it in the like evils, and here hath beene seene the same experience. And one that had a Stone which hee coulde not avoide from him, used certaine daies the Pouder of this roote, and did easily avoide the same. A Souldier brought Beades at his Necke, made of these rootes and met with mee one day, and asked mee if I knew those Beades, and of what they were made, he said it was tolde him that they were rootes of Gentiana. But I declared unto him that the Beades were made of certaine rootes, that were in the port of Saint Elen, that they were not made of Gentiana. And then he told me great vertues of them, and the effectes very rare that the use of them had wrought which I did beleeve: for it seemeth well, in the roote that they have [119] great medicinall vertues, according tot heir fashion, and sweete smell, and by that which I had experimented of them.

Of the Guacatane. (Ge•dentificeerd als Indian pilewort door Henry Barham in Hortus Americanus, dat wel vanwege de werking, de piles, en is als Teucrium montanum maar zonder geur, kan Teucrium canadense zijn, hoewel onwaarschijnlijk, de vrucht lijkt op Martynia annua, die groeit in Mexico, maar lijkt niet op de wilde tijm)

They have brought in these Shippes an Hearbe from the newe Spaine that the Indians call Guacatane, and it is lyke to our wilde Time, savyng that it hath no smell, it is a little hearbe whitish, I know not whether it carry Flower or fruyte, the Hearbe I have without the roote: the name thath it hath amongst the Indians, is as aforesaid, and the same name the Spaniardes also have given it. The Indians doe use it fort heir infirmities, wherof we wil speake, and for the same the Spaniards doe use it likewise there in the Indias, and they also which have brought it hither, with notable profite.

In griefe of the Pyles they use it in this manner: they grinde or stampe the hearbe verie small, and wash the Piles with wine, in the whych there is sodden this hearbe, [120] (Fol. 61) and if there be heate in them, they seeth it in water, with that hot seething they wash them, and then they dry them sofly, and cast the pouder of this hearbe upon them, surely the effect that it woorketh is marvellous. Thus after I saw the good effects thereof, I much esteemed the hearbe. Whensoever you have any griefe of colde or of windinesse in any parte of the body wheresoever it be, apply Turpentine unto all partes, wheresoever the griefe is, and cast the pouder of this hearbe being smal ground upon it, and lay a Linnen cloth upon that, that it may cleave fast as a Plaister in such sorte, that it be not taken away, untill the griefe bee gone. And of this there is manifest experience, by them of the Indias, and also by us of Spaine. The pouder of this hearbe cast upon little sores, and especially in the secret places doeth mundifie, and heale them. [121]


Of a certaine kinde of Barley. (Pennisetum americanum?)


They bring likwise from the new Spaine a kind of Barley which they cal smal Barley: they give it this name, for the likenesse which it hath unto our Barley: for it casteth out an eare like unto it, and in the vaynes the seede is shut, but it is different from it in qualities and vertues: for that this small Barley, is the strongest poyson, which at this day in hearbe or plant hath beene seene, inso much that it worketh the same effect, which Sublimatum dooth. And wheresoever it is needfull to burne, or eate away dead of rotten flesh, putting the pouder of thys seede thereto, it will doo the like woorke that any burning Iron shall doe. It extinguisheth and killeth any Canker, howe strong soever it be, it killeth and expelleth Wormes, whersoever they be, it eateth flesh which is nought and rotten, taking it from the sores, and making them cleane from such evill flesh.

The Indians for that they had no Sublimatum, nor other remedies which wee have, when they should use the lyke, they had and have this seede most strong, and surelie so it is, and they doo use it as a remedy most strong, and of great efficacie. Thys powder must bee layde too, by little and little, more or lesse, conformably to the greatnesse of the evil, applying things defensive, which is used to be laid too, when as the like remedies are used.

In olde sores and filthy, where it is needefull, that noughtie rotten fleshe bee eaten away, with taking of thys water of Planten or of Roses, wetting in the cleere water that shall remaine uppon it, some small clothes, or in place of the small clothes, lint of fine linnen cloth, weat in the water, it cleanseth the sore, eating the evil fleshe in such sorte: for howe evill, olde, and filthy soever that the sore [123] bee, it leaveth it cleane, and being laide to the flesh, it dooth soder and heale them, and after this is done, you must use the Medicines which have vertue to ingender flesh. And the effect of this seede is no more then to mundifie, make cleane, and to take away the superfluitie of the wound.

The self same effect that this seede worketh in us, it worketh in beastes also, which for the most part have very evill sores, that bee cankered, and full of Wormes, the seede beeing laide unto them, if the cause bee so great, that it doth require it: or the water of it, as it is sayde maketh the lyke woorke, as we have spoken of, and better, using alwaies the defensives as is convenient where such Medicines bee applyed, for that it is a Medicine most strong, and it hath neede of them all.

I will shew you what happened to me with it. An Indian brought me this seede with many other hearbes, and going about to discover the mand being come tot his seede, I tooke a graine and put it into my mouth, to prove it. He that brought it as one which knew it wel, kept back my hand, would not suffer me to prove it: for all that I parted with my teeth one graine, which is no greater then one graine of hempe seede, but some deale lesser, and beareth some likenes of it: at the tyme that it came to the point of the tongue, the seede being parted, made me a blister upon it, which dured with me certeyne dayes: I commended it to the Devil, and then I beleeved what they had certified me of it. I began to make experience of it, and it wrought more effectually then was spoken of it. It is hot in the fourth degree and more if there be any more degrees.

Also I have an Hearbe which being sodde and the water of it taken hot, healeth the evils of the brest: I know not the name of it, but in the remembrance of them which came, it was written.

And an other which enforceth to caste out the dead Childe of the belly: of this the Indians have greate experience [124] (Fol. 63) for this effect, and once in these Countries, it hath profited.

They brought me two dry hearbes, which I would have beene glad to have seene groene: the one of these being in the field in all his force, if a man or woman do put their hands upon him, forthwith he falleth down dead upon the ground and the other lying abroade upon the ground, in touching it to gather it, it shutteth it selfe together as a Cabadg of the Country of Murcia, Thinges marvellous, and of much consideration.

I have blacke Eleboro, brought from the Province of Mechoacan, lyke to that of Spayne, and woorking the lyke effect.

Certeyne dayes past, a young man which tooke counsel of me that came from the Province of Quito, and beeyng with me, there came unto me a neighbour of mine, saying, that his Daughter was verie sicke of the Flixe, and I had her in cure, and her disease increased with blood requesting me that I should goe to visite her. The Indian which was with me asked me if they were stooles of bloud, I said yea: and he saide unto mee that he would give her a thing, that being made into pouder and taken, would taken them away forthwith, that in the Province of Quito it had been experimented many times. The father of the sick maiden, went with him to his house, and he gave him certeyne peeces of a fruite, which seemed to bee of a greate tree: of the one parte they were very smooth, and of colour yeallowe, and of the other they were very sharpe and very redde, insomuch that they seemde of a purple colour. They were ground smal, and he gave the pouder to the sick woman, with the water of the hed of Roses, once that evening, an other time in the Morning, and immediatly the Flixe did cease from that time wared better, wehereby she came to be whole. (Psidium guajava of Spondias mombin?)

And as for the man I never saw him, after he gave it to her, [125] although I procured it with greate diligence. I know not what it was, nor what he was that gave the fruite, and in this sorte there bee many other thinges in our Occidentall Indias, which have great vertues, and great Medicinall secretes, which shall bee knowne every day more, and continually be discovered, that we may profit our selves by them.

Of all these thinges we have seene manifestly the profit that they have done, and what by them hetherto hath been wrought. Seeing then that these marvellous woorks al the world hath proved, healing with them diseases which all other Phisick could not heale, as it is manifestly seene, in all that do use them with great utility profit, for the which al men are beholding to my diligence, care. And for that as I have written of them, in the first part of this medicinall historie, which hath beene well noted in the worlde, for the things that are treated of therin, and for that you may see the fruite that this my labour hath brought foorth, I will set downe here a letter which a gentleman of the Peru sent me wel neer two monethes since, by the which you shal see by reason of that I wrote in the first part, how they have discovered the Bezaar stones in the Peru which with suche great estimation they bring from the India of Portugall, and how by the relation and order whiche I wrote, they came to the knowledge of them. A thing truely of greate price, and woorthy to bee much made of it, seeing that it is a thing so marvellous and of so greate value, and are founde in our Indias, and are so easie to be had and so true, that we have not any neede to doubte of their effectes and vertues, whiche is not so of them that they bring from the Orientall Indias. For if there come tenne that are true, there come from thence an hundreth that are false. Wherefore they that buy them ought to looke well unto it, that they are not deceived. But those whiche are brought from our Indias, are all of one sort, for they differ not, but only in greatnes or smalnes. The [126] (Fol. 64) efffectes which they worke be admirable, for that their vertues are mightie against all venome and Pestilent Agues and venomous humors, as in the thirde parte, GOD willing, wee will treate of the maner of them. The effect of the letter was this. There came a Paket of letter rolled in a feare cloth, so well ordered that they myght passe to anie part being never so farre. Which being opened, I founde a small Chest made of a litle peece of Corke, of a good thicknesse, ioined together, which was worthy to be seene, and in the holownesse of it came the hearbs, and the seedes that the letter speaketh of, everie thing written, what it was, and in one side of the Cork, in a hollow place, there came three Bezaar stones, cloased with a Parchment, and Waxe, in good order. The letter was written in a verie smal hand, and somewhat harde to reade, and the superscription was written thus as followeth. [127]

To the right worshipfull, Master Doctor Monardus, Phisition of Sevill.

Right worshipfull and famous Doctor, it will seeme a newe ything to your worship that I being not learned, nor of your profession, doe wryte to you in things of your facultie, being a Souldier that have followed the warres in these Countries all my life: I have done this, because I am affectioned to your worship by reason of a booke whych you have compiled of the Medicines which are in these partes, and of the vertues and benefites, that by them have beene received, which are so great that I cannot declare them, as they deserved. And by meanes of your booke we have order how we should use the remedies which wee have here, for before we did use them without rule of measure, so that neither they did work effect, nor with them the people were well remedied, which now is to the contrary, & by meanes of your bookes, there hath been people remedied, that never thought to have had remedie nor health. It is more then 28 yeare unto this day, that I have gone wandring by all these Indias, where are many thinges of those, which your worship doth write of in your booke, & other things also which have not beene brought thither, for because the Phisitions that come to these partes, are nothing curious. They apply not their eye to the universall wealth, but to their owne particular, for they come oneyl to enrich themselves, and for the most part they be ignorant people which passe in those Indias: they doe not esteeme of the good which they might doe. And though that I have no learning, I am affectioned to men of learning, and so I am to [128] (Fol. 65) your worship, for that I understoode of your bookes, and for the fame that you have in these partes, which is greate, although I knowe you not, yet I was willing to take these paines, which is contentment to mee. You write in your book, giving knowledge of the Bezaar (Bezoar) stone & set downe the signes of the beasts which have them: which being considered, we have happened upon a kind of beastes that live in the mountaines of this countrie, (lama) which are much like to sheepe or kiddes which your worship speaketh of, which are in the Indias of Portugall, which breede and have these stones, of the which there are many in this countrie, in the mountaines and colde countries. They are for the moste of a darke red colour, they are fed with healthfull hearbes, whereof is greate plentie in the Mountaines where these beast do feede: they be verie swift, insomuch that they cannot bee hunted, but with the hande Gunne: they have no hornes, and in that onely they doe differ from them of the East India, for in all the rest they are the same.

The 15 day of Iune in this yere of 1568 I & certain gentlemen my friends went to the mountaines, to hunt, & we were hunting five daies, and we killed some of those beastes, which I have spoken of. And as wee went for this purpose, thinking that they were of the kind, of them of the East India: we caried your bok with us, and wee opened one of them, the greatest that wee hunted, and oldest wee coulde finde, & we found no stones in his bellie, nor in any other parte of him, nor any other thing, whereby we beleevend that they were not in the same kinde of beasts with those of the East India. And wee asked of certaine Indians that went to serve us, where these beastes had their stones, & as they are our enemies, and would not that we should know their secretes, they answered us that they knew nothing of these stones, untill one boy which was amongst them beeing an Indian of the age of 12 yeares, seeing that wee were so desirous to knowe the same, shewing us the secret of the [129] cause and where the beast had the stones, that we had there dead, and they were in a certaine little purse that the Maw of the beaste hath, which is where the Hearbes that they feede on are, when they returne to chew their Cudde. And foorthwith the Indians would have killed the Boy, for the advise that he had given unto is, because the Indians doe esteeme much of these stones, & they offer them unto their Gods, or to their praying places, where their Idols are, unto whom they offer the things that are most precious. And so they do offer these stones, as a thing of great estimation, and also gold, silver and precious stones, beasts & children. And afterwarde wee understood that those Indians which went with us had sacrifized the boy, whom with our hunting wee had forgotten, and they carried him away from us by those Mountaines, where we never more sawe him. And it is a thing to be considered that in all partes of the Indias, there have not byn founde any of these beastes, unles it were in the high hilles & mountaines of this realm of the Peru. For I have gone over all the countries of Mexico, and by al the provinces & realms of the Peru, & Islands of Marenon, and by the Florida, and by many other partes of our Occidentall Indias, & I never saw any of those beastes, but in those mountaines of the Peru. Sir, with all diligence in the world as much as I coulde obtaine & know of Indians beeing friendes concerning the stones which they take out of those beastes, is that they are marvellous good against venime, and against all sortes of poyson, as well in meates as in any other sort, & in the evils of the heart, & to expell and to kil wormes, & in wounds poisoned, which are made with mortall hearbes, which the wilde Indians people doe use. And the powder of this stone put into these woundes, is a greate remedy, & so the Indians say, that the stone is good against the hearbe, which is the mortal hearb, that they themselves do use to kill one another withal, and als to kill us. For they have killed many of our Spaniardes therewith, dying madde, with greate accidents, without [130] (Fol. 69) finding or knowing anye remedie. It is true that in Sublimatum, some have founde remedy, by putting it into the wound. But if the hearb be fresh & laid newly unto it, it profiteth little, and they die without remedy. We tooke out of the first beast which we killed, from that little purse wherunto he doth returne to chew his Cudde, when he lieth on the grounde, nine stones, and it seemeth that by reason the hearbes which they feede upon be of so great vertue, the iuyce of them going tot hat place by the order of Nature, these stones are ingendered, which have so great vertues. We opened others of them that were dead, & in every one of them wee founde stones, more or lesse, as they were of age, and it is to bee noted, that these which do feede in the high hils bee those which do ingender the stones that have vertue. For they which feede in the plaine countries, as they eate not, nor are maintained by the good hearbes of the high Hylles, so the stones that they have, although that they receyve some vertues, yet they are not so good as of those which are fed in the mountaines. We have begun to use these stones conformably to the order which your worship doth give in your booke, ministring the quantitie that you command, & for the diseases which you speake of, and wee have seene suche effectes in them, that have made us to mervell, and they have healed such diseases, that it is wonderfull to be spoken. Unto the Lady Katherin Devera, the sister of the Lord President, & to the Lady Mary de Ribera & to Diego de Andrada, & to Diego Dela Isla, & to Mariana wife to Maister Iohn Plutino, and to the father Ioseph Martines, and to the father Diego Fernandes, Priestes, and to many others, these stones have brought great profite helping them of evill diseases, whiche it woulde bee too long to write of. It is sufficient to say that they bee stones of great vertue, and as a newe thing they take them in pouder: all such as have diseases, which cannot bee healed by medicine, and manye thereby are recovered. Wherefore GOD bee praised, who hath given them such vertues, as [131] have beene used since that hunting, that I have spoken of which were the first that have bin discovered in the world, for the use to heale diseases: and we do trust that with them will bee done marvellous woorkes, according as they have begun to do them, & al this is owing to your worship, seing that by your booke we had knowledge to seek them, & to discover them, and to take them out of these beastes which had them so hidden within them, that surely there is much owing to your worship, for discovering unto us so great a treasure, as this is, which is the greatest that hath bin found in these parts, whereby our nation is much bounde to you, and likewise all the world, because al men shal profit by them and the rest of the secrets which you have set down in your booke, which bringeth unto us great profit. And in recompence of the benefit which I have received, I send heere to your woorship a dozen of stones, by the returne of Iohn Anthonie Corso, the rich Marchaunt, which if they come thither, your worshippe may make experience of them, in many infirmities, for you shall finde great effectes in them. By the same returne also your woorship may advise mee of them, and any thing that shall please you to commaund me. I will do it, as one that is most affectioned to you, because you are curious and learned, and for dooing so much good to the world, in those thinges which you have written and published. Heerwithall I sende you a small Chest, in the which come certeyne Frisoles, which you may commaund to bee sowen in the begynning of Marche, that the cold doo not hurt them, which sende foorth a plant like unto beanes, but somewhat lesse, which have certeyne vaines where the seed is. Halfe a dozen of them eaten with fat, and being of the tast of greene beanes, they purge valiantly and evacuate the water of him which hath the Dropsie, without paynes. The selfe same effect it worketh if that they be dry, making them into pouder, & taking them with wine, & it is needful that meate be made in a redines: for if they work too much, by taking more then they should be, with eating [132] (Fol. 67) any thing incontinent, the worke wil cease.

Also I sende you an hearbe which grwoth in these plaine Countries, clounge to the grounde like unto grasse, which is of great Vertues for many infirmities, cheefelie fort hem which are greeved with Reumes and Fleumes in the throate, taking them away easilye with great benefite, and in this, and griefes of the head and Rewmes chewing it, they do disfleume verie much: they call this hearbe after my name, because I use it for the lyke evilles for that an Indian did teach it mee, which knewe much of the vertue of hearbes.

Also I send your worship a fruite of a tree which is of great profit, and these trees be not founde in any Countrey but in this, they are of the greatnesse of an Oke, of those in Spaine: it hath many vertues, for the rinde beeing made in pouder, and cast into any sore which is needefull to bee made clean, it maketh it cleane, and afterward causeth the flesh to grow, and healeth it. And rubbing the teeth with this pouder, it maketh them cleane very wel, and being laid uppon the Gummes, if the flesh be taken away it dooth incarnate them, and if the teeth be loose, it maketh them fast: Seething the leaves of this tree well in water, and washing with the water thereof of any manner of swelling, which hath any sore, or that is thereof cankered, it taketh away the swelling, and impostume. And making some small linen clothes wet in this seething, and laying them warme upon the Medicine, which is laide upon the sore, or uppon the pouder that is made of the rinde: it maketh the sores to heale more quickly, causing that there come no humour to them. Out of the saide tree commeth a Rosine which is of sweete smell, and serveth to perfume in many diseases of the head, and to make plaisters for many evilles: and heere I send it to your worshippe. Of the fruite the Indians make a certeyne drinke, which is for them verye healthfull. Your worshippe may commaunde them to bee sowen, for I would bee glad that they should grow, for it [133] will bee a thing of muche delight, for the profite that it bringeth in Phisicke, and for the noveltie of the tree, for at all tymes it hath a very good smell. I brought into thys Countrye a blacke woman, which I bought in Xerez de la Frontera, and there did appeare uppon her when shee came hether certeine olde sores in her legs, which were of long continuaunce, and comming to the Islande of the Margareta, and beeing verye sorrowefull for the sores which my blacke woman had, an Indian tolde mee that hee woulde heale her, and seeing that shee had no other remedy, I delivered her to the custodie of the Indian, that hee myght heale her for mee, and immediately hee tooke a fruite which is common in that Countrey, and all people in generall doe eate it, which is of the greatnesse of an Orenge, and it hath a stone like unto a Peache. This stone the Indian did burne, and made it into pouder, for the stone is harde, and cannot bee grounde, without burning of it: and hee caste the powder of it into the sores, which shee had full of much rotten flesh, and very filthy, which with the pouder, were made cleane and verye well, and it tooke out all the rotten flesh to the bone, and after it was cleane with lynte and a lyttle powder layde too it, they began to be filled with new flesh, untill they were full of fleshe, and she was healed very well. And it is to bee considered, that the little kernell of the stone hath so much venom, and malice in it, that if anie person of neaste doo eate it, hee dieth foorthwith without remedye, as though hee had eaten anye manner of venom corsive, as Sublimatum, or any other poyson.

In the Towne of Posco where I dwelt certeyne yeres, there was an Indian, which did cure the Indians, and the Spaniardes of any maner of griefe or disease that they had, with annointing theit Ioyntes and the partes which dyd grieve them, with the iuyce of a certeyne hearb, and forthwhith he wrapped them in many cloathes & they did sweat at the ioyntes pure blood. And also in the sicke parte where hee did lay the iuyce, and as they went sweating hee made [134] (Fol. 68) cleane the blood with a Linen cloth, untill hee perceyved that they had sweat sufficiently and with this he healed many diseases that were incurable. And I am able to say, that many did thinke that they had waxed young agayne, and were more stronge and young than they were before. Hee fell sicke, and for all that we could not with giftes and faire wordes, and fierce wordes, and theatnings, hee woulde never tell us what hearbe it was, nor shewe it to any man in this country. There is founde a kinde of tree, that is of softe Timer, the Indians will make no fire of it, although you kill them. For that they syaye, if any of them come neere to the fire that is made of this tree, or receive the smoke of it, he remaineth impotent for women. And they have this so certaine in persuasion, and it is so verified, that you shall not make them to come neare the fire, that is made of that tree, for any thing in the worlde, for they are so carnall that they will none of this.

They heale in these countries any swellinges which are in the feete or legges, caused of colde humours, with an hearbe called Centella, (Centella is een geslacht van een paar soorten, bekend is Centella asiatica) which beeing stamped and laide to the swelling, there arise certaine Blisters, by the which there commeth foorth greate quantitie of water & humors, untill it leave the Foote, or the Legge drye. I have seene greate experience by these evacuations, amongst the Indians, for they use them much, and I have seene some Spaniardes use it, and were healed of the like diseases.

In the yere 1568 in the Province of Chile, they dyd cut off from certain Indias being prisoners, the calves of their legs, to eate them and they rosted them for that purpose, and that which is of more admiration, they applyed unto the place where they were cut, leaves of certaine hearbes, and there came not out a drop of blood, and many did see it. And this was done in the Citie of S. Iames, in the presence of the Lord Don Gracia de Mendesa, which was a thing that made all men marvell at it. [135]

There are to be found here verie few hearbes and trees lyke unto those of Spayne, for that the earth doeth not beareth them: but in the newe Spayne there are more of them than in any other parte of the Indias. For when it was conquered, they found many trees and hearbes and Plantes lyke unto those of Castile, and birdes and beastes likewise. Wee have heere Snakes which bring admiration to such as see them, for they be as greate as men, which are for the most part tame, and do no hurt. Here are Spiders as great as Oranges, and verie venomous. It raineth Todes (pad) as greate as those of Spaine, which the Indians doe eate rosted, for they are a people which eate all kinde of venomous beastes. There be so many buytres, which breede in many Ilandes, that are in the sea, neere to the lande, that they eate up the Cattel, and suche numbers of them that it is wonderfull, and as the keepers of them bee blacke so they care little for them. One thing doeth make mee marvel, that the kine which are bread in the mountaines being brought to the plaine grounde, doe all dye. I sawe a friende of mine that brought 300 Kine to bee wayed, and they staid a tyme before they were wayed, and by litle and litle, in one moneth there remained not one, but all dyed.

And that which is more to bee marvelled at, is, that they died all trembling, and consumed. Some there be that doe attribute it to the mountaines which is a countrie moste colde and it raineth every day, and in the plaine Countries where there is no rayne, but it is hotte, and is they move from one extremitie to an other they die, that truely is a thynge worthie of consideration, to see howe that in the space of eight Leagues little more or lesse, which are of plaine grounde from the coast to the Mountayne, by a long vale of more then one thousande Leagues, it never rayneth in them, and in the mountaynes it rayneth everie day.

Your worship shall understande, that the eight day of [136] (Fol. 69) October in this yeare, there came hither a Cosen of mine, called Alonso Garcia, a good Soldiour, who telleth us that he hath founde an hearbe which is good agaynste the venomous hearbe, which the wilde people doe use. Which hearbe doeth kill without remedie, and these valiant people of the Indians doe use it in their warres. And lyke wyse those that dwell from the Charcas towardes Chile, and live like unto wilde people, maintayning themselves onely by hunting, and fleshe of mankinde, who have kylled with their arrowes which are poysened with these venemous hearbes, an infinitie number of Spaniardes, whyche they saye bee not good to eate, for that their fleshe is harde, so that when they kill them, they keepe them to wax tender, three dayes of foure dayes. But with this hearbe that is now founde, the hurt shall bee much remedied, that they doe make. Howbe it our people doe not so much feare them, but onely the hearbe which they shoote withall, for that it maketh them to dye by madnesse, without any remedie. And nowe with the recovering hearbe which they have founde, they are all gladed. (Mogelijk Dorstenia cantrajerva) They say it is an hearbe that carrieth verie broade leaves, which are like to the Leaves of Planten of Spaine: which being beaten and layd to the wounde that is poysoned, kyll the venome, and immediatly take away the accidentes, which the venome of the hearbe procureth. They take it for a great matter in that Countrie, that they have founde such a remedie. And you shall understand that the counter hearbe was found in the same Countrie, where the hearbe of poyson was: and I thinke it be also in other partes: but there where the hurt is done, our Lords wil was to discover the remedie.

I note unto your worship these thinges, to the ende by them yee may consider, how many more hearbes, and plantes of greate vertues lyke to those, this our Indias have, which we have not yet attained unto, for as the Indians are a naughtie kinde of people, and our enemies, so [137] they will not discover one secrete, nor one vertue of any one hearbe, although they shoulde see us dye, and although you should plucke them in peeces: for if wee doe knowe any thinge concerning these, which I have spoken of, or of others, they are knowen of the Indians, as they bee accompanied with Spaniardes, to whome they doe discover them and utter all that they knowe. I will write nor more, because I knowe not if this letter shall come to the handes of your worshippe, which if it do, and that it please you to advertise mee thereof, I will write unto you more at large, and of more particularities of this countrie, and of the vertue of other hearbes, and beastes, and other thynges, which I knowe wil give contentment to your worshippe, seeing that you are so curious to know these thinges.

Our Lorde keepe you. From Lyma in the Peru the xvi day of December, in the yeare of our Lorde 1568. I kisse the handes of your worship.

Peter de Osma, and of Xara, and Zeio. [138] (Fol. 70)

The Gentleman of the Peru, which wrote to mee thys Letter, although I knowe him not, seemeth that hee is a man curiuos, and affectioned to the like thinges, I have him in greate estimation. And that the Office of a Souldiour is to handle Weapons, and to shedde blood, and to doo other excercises apperteining to souldiours: Hee is much to be esteemed, that he wil enquire after search out hearbs, plants, and study to know their properties vertue, wherin he may well bee likened to Dioscorides, who went to exercise waepons in the hostes of Antony Cleopatra, whethersoever he went, did seeke these hearbs, trees, plantes, beastes and Mineralles, and many other things, of the which he wrote these sixe books, which are so celebrated over al the world, wherby he got the glory fame, which we see hee hath: and there hath remained more fame of him by writing them, then if he had gotten many citties by his warlike acts. And therfore I esteeme muche of this Gentleman, for the labour which he taketh, in learning enquiring after these natural things. And I am bounden much unto him, for the good opinion which he hath of me: and also for that hee hath sent me. For surely it is to be taken in very good part, and I wil provoke him by writing unto him againe, to sende us more thinges. And for that it is a greate thing to knowe the secretes and mervelles of nature, and of the hearbs which he hath sent me, I will make experience of them, and search out their vertues operation, as for the seedes, I will sow them at their time. The Bezaar stones seeme to be different from those that are brought from the Orientall Indias. In their utter showe they bee darke Tamne and glistering, underneath two Shirtes or Capes, they have a whyte colour, [139] and beeing tasted and used between the teeth they are pure Earth. The stone hath neither savour nor tast, rather it doth coole then heate, and they be ordinarily as great as beanes, or bigger. For the most part there are both great and little of them, and it seemeth well by them, that they have medicinal vertues: many persons bring them, which are now come in this Fleete, who came to mee as though I were the first dicoverer of them. They declare marvellous effects of them, that it seemeth wonderful. I brake one and gave it made in to pouder, to a boye, of whome it was sayde that venom had bene given to him, I cannot tel whether any other benefits done unto him, or that healed him, but he was well recovered. I wil use it in other infirmities, what I finde of their operation, and the rest of the medicines, which shalbe newly discovered, I wil shew in the third volume, which I will write of this Medicinall Historie, wherein shalbe expressed thinges marvellous, and great secretes of Phisicke, that may give contentation to al men, and much more to the sick, that shalbe healed with them. Of one thing you must be advertised, that which is heere written, part of it we have learned of them that have come from those partes, and brought knowledge of them hither: and parte is attributed to theyr complexion, and qualities, what they may do: and part wee have experimented: and in all have this consideration, that al these things which are brought from our Indias, bee for the most part hotte, and see that you use them in this qualitie, in all causes wherein they shalbe needfull. And it is needful that there be some advertisement given heereoof, since the use of the thinges dooth so import it. [140] (Fol 71)

Of the Dragon.


(Ptereocarpus officinalis, vroeger Pterocarpus draco, anderen zeggen dat het komt van Croton lechleri.)

After I had written the discourse aforesaid, the two fleets returned, the one, from the firm land, the other from the new Spain: and in the which came from the firme land came the Bishop of Cartagena a man most religious and learned very curious in these things, who sought me forthwith when he was come, for that he was affectioned to the booke I made of these matters. I went to visit him, where speaking many things of herbes, plants, which be in his Dioces, we came to treat of the blood of Drago, which is taken out verie fine, and in al perfection in that Countrey, and hee saide unto mee: I bring the fruite of the tree whereout they take the blood of Drago, which is a marvellous thing to see, for that it is of the likenes of a beast. I was desirous to see it, we opened a leafe where the seede was, and the leafe being opened, there appeared a Dragon made with so muche Arte, that it seemeth as though it had beene alive, having a necke long, the mouth opened, the bristels standig up like thorns, the taile long, and standing upon his feete, that surely there is no man that shall see him that wil mot marvel to behold the figure, made with so mucht Arte, that it seemeth to be framed of Ivory, and that no crafts man were so perfect that could make it better. And beholding that which I saw, ther were represented to me very many opinions, divers iudgments of the auncient writers, as wel Greeks als Latinests, as Arabies, touching the same, who utter a thousande desperate sayinges, because they would come to the right knowledge to instruct us, wherfore it was called the blood of Drago. One sort saying that it is reported that a Dragon having his throate cut, the blood is gathered, and confectioned with certeyne thinges, and for that cause is called the blood of Drago. One sort say that it is the blood of an Elephant, strangled, with other thinges: [142] (Fol. 72) Others, that it is a kinde of red Oker: others, that it is the iuyce of Sideritis, an hearbe verie little, and his iuyce very greene: others that it is the iuice of the roote of an herb called Dracontro, and for that cause they cal it the blood of Drago: this doe the auncient writers say with many other vanities moe, which are large to write.

The new writers following the same ignorance that they are wont to doe in thinges which be doubtfull, because the property of him that is doubtful, is to say nothing a new unlesse it be that which is cleare and manifest, for in doubtfull and hard things they leave them as they finde them have varied al one from another, as the ancient writers did, but the time which is the discoverer of al things hath revealed unto us, and taught us, that it is the blood of Drago. And the cause why it is so called, is for the manner of blood, which is the fruite that wee have spoken of, a formed dragon in shape as nature would bring forth, so that it took very plainly the name of their fruits, by meanes whereof this marvellous tree receiveth his name. And seeing the fruit which it carried was made so perfect a Dragon, it tooke from us so many doubts confusions as we see the old writers to have written of it, the late writers also. And from hence forwarde we shall be certified that it is the blood of Drago: seeing that the fruite doth give name to the tree, to the Gumme, to the drop that commeth out, which is brought most excellent from Cartagena, and is made by incision, giving certaine cuts in the same Tree. Which being a tree of much greatnesse it hath the rinde verie thinne, that with any maner of thing it is opened, and likewise there is another sorte made, but is is not so good, but after the maner as the Turpentine is made, in Castile, fort hat it is solde in Loaves, and the one is called the blood of Drago, of the droppe, and [143] the other the blood of Drago, in brend.

The one, and the other have vertue to retaine any maner of the fluxe of the bellie, layde uppon the bellie, or given in glisters, or taken by the mouth. Made into pouder, it staieth the running of the head, and to the lower parts applied, in any maner of fluxe of blood, it doth retaine and stanch it. It sodereth and gleweth wounds together, which be fresh and new made. It letteth that the teeth fall not out, it maketh the flesh to grow on the bare gums. It is a mervellous colour for Painters. And besides this it hath many other vertues. I do meane to sow some of the seed, to see if it wil grow in these partes. It is thought that the blood of Drago is temperate with little heate.

There was a gumme given unto mee which they bring from the firme Lande of the Peru, wherewith they purge them, which have the Goute in those partes, they put of it as much as a Nut into distilled water, and let it stand all the night to steepe, and in the morning they straine and wring it, and take the water, which must bee the quantitie of two Ounces: and the patient must remaine without meate, till the middest of the day, and therewith they purge the humour, which causeth the Goute. I saw a Gentleman who came in this last Fleete, use it, which hee brought for remedie of his evill, who was full of the Goute, and with using this evacuation, hee findeth himselfe well, and the Goute dooeth not come to him, as it was wont to doe, for that it came to hym verie cruelly, and often: and he gave mee as muche as a small Nutte, and would give me no more, and I gave it in the order aforesaide, to one which had the Goute, and he had three stooles with it. I know not how it wil prove, it were needfull to have more quantitie, for to proceede forwarde, in more experience thereof: but it will be brought hither by others, as they have done many other thinges. It hath a good taste in the [144] (Fol. 73) taking, for that it hath neither surell nor savour, it maketh his worke without paines. It is hot in my opinion, in the first degree. I know not what maner of thing the tree is, wherout they take it, for hee which brought is, knoweth not so much himselfe.

Of the Armadillio. (gorgeldier, Dasypus novemcinctus)

This beastes portraiture I tooke out of an other naturally made, which was in the Counting house of Gonsola de Molina, a Gentleman of this Citie in the which there is greate quantitie of Bookes of divers Authours, and the fashion forme of many kindes of beastes and birdes, and other curious things brought from the Oriental Indias, as also from the Occidental, and from other parts of the worlde. And great varietie of coynes ans stones of antiquitie, and differences of armes, which with great curiositie, with a noble minde he hath caused to be brought thither. [145]

They bring also from the firme land a bone, which is of the tayle of a strange beast, which is all covered over with small shelles, even unto the feete, like as a Horse is covered with armour: whereby he is called the Armadillio, that is to say, a Brest armed. He is of the greatnesse of a young pigge, and in the snoute he is like unto him: he hath a great and long tayle like to a Lizarde. He abideth or dwelleth in the Earth, as a Mole doeth, and they say that he is mayntayned thereby, for abroade out of the earth, they see him not eate any thing. He hath his vertue onely in the Bone of hys tayle, which being made small into pouder, and taking so muche thereof, as the hedde of a great Pinne, made in little Balles, putting it into the eare, having griefe therein, it taketh it away marvellously, also if there be any noise or sounding in the head, with any deafnesse, it worketh a great effect in many persons that have used it, they have bin healed therwith. And the Lord Bishop certified me, that he had seene it proved many times, with great admiration, so that it is a thing to be marvelled at, as having vertues in a place so hidden. There be of these beasts, in the India of Portugal, they be called armed beasts, for that they are, as I have said armed with scales and shelles.

There are brought from the Countries of Nombre de Dios, and Cartagena, and from other partes of the firme Lande, certaine stones, which be pure Pimple stones of a brooke or River, which are founde in great quantitie in the Nawes of Caimanes, (Caiman crocodilus) that are called Lagartos, which are a kinde of Beastes verie great, which inhabiteth the Lande, and the Sea, from whence they goe to the land, and take out their younglings, as the Tortugas of the Sea doth: they are furious beastes with a great number of teeth, and with so greate a Mouth, that they swallowe downe a whole Indian. They abyde ordinarily in little Brookes of great Rivers, and some of them in the Sea, at the [146] (Fol. 74) entrie thereof. They are of a marvellous greatnes. There be some of them which are in length two and thirty foot: (6-9 meter) they kill them with fish hooks, for with a handgun it is very difficulte, because of the hard skin which they have: they lie alwayes with their mouthes open. There is founde in their mawes, when that they kil them, the quantity of a great basket full of smooth stones, and it is not knowe to what end they eate them, whether it be to have their maw or stomack occupied, or for ballest as a ship hath. The Indians keepe these stones, the Spaniards also, for such as have Quaterne Agues, for putting two stones of them upon the two temples of the head, the quatern Agew is taken away, or the heate is notably lightened, and of this they have experience in those partes: and in the ship where one came who gave mee two of them, I learned that he put them to a boy, being a little Page of a ship, who had the Quarterne Agew, and it was taken away therby, proceding forward he lightned himselfe three of foure fits after that the stones were laid to him. I also have experimented it, have applied it twice to a litle girle that hath a quaterne ague, and it seemeth that she feeleth not so much heate, when she hath them laid unto her, but they have not taken away the quatern, although I have applied them unto her twice, I know not howe it will proove hereafter.

In all the Seas of the Indias, or in the most of them, there bee certeyne Fishes, very greate, which are called Tiburones, (een woord van de Caribbean Indianen voor een haai, in de 16de eeuw leende de Engelse het woord xoe van de MayaŐ s wat tot shark werd) or Dogge Fishes: which are very strong and ravening, they fyght with the Zeales in the Sea, and are fierce in their woorkes, and aspectes. These they take with greate fishe hookes, and bring them to the land, or hoyse them into the Shyppe, and cutte them in peeces. In the heades of them, whiche are very greate, there are founde certeyne stones, of a white colour, verye greate three or foure of them, or more: and seme of them of more [147] waight then two pound: hollowe in some partes, and verie white: they are al somwhat heavy. Of these stones they have in the Indias great experience: giving them made into pouder, unto those that suffer the griefe of the stone in the Kydneys, and to them that cannot pisse, and to them that cannot cast out the stone of the Reynes and of the Bladder, beeing of such greatnesse that it may not passe out. This is a thing amongst the Indians very common, and well knowne: and likewise amongest the Spaniardes, which dwell in those partes: and they which come hither averre it plainly and affirme it to bee so. I have tasted it, it seemeth a thing unsaverie, but I have not proved it, nor applied hitherto, in time it shal be done, and we wil give some reason thereof.

They bring also from the newe Kingdome and from the province of Cartagena a certein Turpentine, very cleere, and of sweet smel, much better then that they cal de Vetae, which they bring from Venice: it hat hall the vertues that the good Turpentine hath, it worketh the selfe same ffectes, better, and with great efficacie and readinesse.

Heere hath beene used of it in woundes, and it is a thing marvellous to see the good worke which it dooth, especially in wounds of ioyntes and Sinewes, of Legges wherein I have seene great works done with it. And it doth mundify being mingled with other things, all kinde of old sores, and it is an excellent thing washed prepared, for the faces of Ladies which have neede of it.

Moreover they bring from the selfe same parts Caranna of Cartagena purified so cleere that it is like to Cristal and surely it is better, and it is applied unto much better effecte then that which hetherunto us hath come, and maketh better workes, and is of a more sweet smel, and more excellent in operation. (Protium carana en Protium heptaphyllum) [148] (Fol 75)

Of the Flower of Mechoacan.

Many persons of them which came nowe in thys last Fleete from the firm land, brought very good Mechoacan, better then that of the new Spayne, gathered in the Coaste of Nicaraga, and in Quito: yea, since the Mechoacan was discovered, in the newe Spayne, they have founde the selfe same hearb and Roote in those partes whiche I doo speake of. And they use it to purge, and it doth mervellous works, and they use it in those countries and in al the firme land, as they did use that which was brought from the newe Spayne, with marvellous successe.

From the Cape of Saint Elen, whiche is in the same coast, they bring an other kinde of Mechoacan, but it is verye strong, and beeing taken it causeth greate accidentes of vomites and faintnesse, with many stooles, and for this cause they call it Escamonea, (Ipomoea purga) no man useth it, because it bringeth [149] the accidents aforesiad. It carrieth a leafe lyke the Mecoacan it self, although somwhat lesse, and mingleth it self running up by whatsoever it commeth unto. And it carrieth a lesser roote with some sharpnes of tast, wherby it is manifestly seene how much disputation dooth serve to the purpose, for the place where it groweth. Wherby it is provoved that this roote may woorke more or lesse.

And I beleeve that the first Mechoacan that came into these partes, was gathered in a good place, and that whiche they now bring, they gather it in other places more moyst, which take away from it the vertue worke. They sow it now in the Coast of the firme lande in their Gardeines and Orchardes: they make conserva of the roote, in many manner of wayes, for the taste is sweete, and it may be eaten for daintinesse. And as the roote is without taste, so it taketh sugar very wel, in what maner of sorte soever it be confited or wrought.

They do bring hither the fruite and the flower, as whole as it is in the plant, and the leaves bowes. The flower is like to the flower of Orenge trees, of five leaves, some what greater, they be in colour tawny, they cast foorth in the midst a blister, of the greatnesse of a Nut, with a litle vaine, small and some what white in colour, which is devided into twoo partes, by an other lyttle veyne, very thinne, and in every part it hath two graines, like to peason, very little, and when they be drie, they be blacke. There is not in the tast of them any savour, and being sowen in a soft moyst grounde they grow very wel. And it is an hearb worthy to be seene, for that it runneth up, ioyning to any maner of thing that it leaneth unto. It beareth the leafe al the yere long, the rest of the woorking and the maner of the taking of the roote, we have spoken of in the first parte, where you may see it, whosoever wil use it. There is made of it Conserva, as of Marmalade, covered with Syrope, and made after the manner of a Jelly of the iuyce therof and Sugar. And in all sortes [150] (Fol. 76) it purgeth gentlie without molestation.

Of the fruite of Balsamo. (Myroxylon balsamum var. pareirae)

In the firste parte speaking of Balsamo, we said that it should be made two manner of wayes, the one by incision, and of this there commeth little into these partes: And the other by decoction, and this is that which commeth in such plenty into Spaine.

That which is made by incision commeth not into this countrie, for it is a thing verie harde or difficult to make, and to gather. Nowe in these shippes which come from the firme lande, there commeth a good quantitie of Balsamo, made by incision, and is made of trees such as are in the newe Spaine, whereof the Balsamo commeth, which is made by seething. This is a tree verie greate that carrieth many Bowes, from his firste growing, comming foorth of the same tree: and it hath twoo Rindes, one of them grosse as of a Corke tree, and the other thinne, cleaving to the innermost part of the tree. Betweene these twoo Rindes the Balsamo is taken out, [151] by incision, which commeth foorth like to a white teare or drop, most cleare, with a marvellous sweet smel, declaring wel the marvellous effectes and Medicinal vertues that it hath of the which wee have treated in the first parte. And that Balsamo which is made by seething, as wee doe there showe, we see the marvellous vertues, that it bringeth admiration to the whole world, with many other marvels which hetherunto we have seene, that be there spoken of. And greater wil these wookes (woorkes) bee, that shall bee done with the Balsamo which they now bring, made by incision: seeing that one drop of this is more worth then two Gallons of the other, as it is manifestly seene by using of it.

And surely that which was in Egipt, and failed so many numbers of yeares paste, I beleeve that it had not more vertues then this. And I am sure that this is of greater vertue and effectes then ever that was of. I have the fruite of this tree, which is little, according to the greatnesse of the tree, and it is a grayne as great as a white Pease the taste of it is a little bitter, it is shut into the ende of a little Cod of the lenght of a finger, beeing narrowe, whyte, and thinne, of the thicknesse of vi.d. It carieth no more but one graine in the ende, which is the fruite that the Indians doe use, to perfume them withall: In griefes of the head, and in Reumes, surely the Balsamo is a marvellous thing: and it sheweth well in it selfe what it is, according to the workes thereof.

They bring moreover from the firme land a Turpentine or Licour, which is called Deabeto, (vrucht van de abeto of pigna dŐ abete als van een Pinus soort) and it is gathered from certaine trees of mixture, they bee not pine trees, nor Cipre, for they be higher then our Pine trees, they are as straight as Cipresses trees. In the highest parte of the teee, it bringeth forth certaine bladders of two sortes, the which are great and smal, and being broken, there cometh forth of them a marvellous Licour, which falleth drop after [152] (Fol. 77) droppe, and the Indians gather them with great deliberation, and they receive the same droppes which bee in the bladder into a shell, and alwaies have shelles lying under the bladders, whereout they distill, and it is a thing done wich such leasure, that many Indians do gather very litle all the whole day.

The Locour (licour) serveth for all things that the Balsamo doth, it healeth verie wel woundes, it taketh away cold griefes, and windie. Some do take it for the griefs of the stomacke, caused of colde humors, or of windines, with a little white wyne. And it is to be understoode, that the Balsamo which is made by seething, or that which is made bij insition, (incision) and this or any other manner of Licour of these of the Indias, which is to be taken by the mouth, ought to bee taken but in litle quantitie, which must not be more then foure or five droppes, and it must not be taken in the Palme of the hand as it is sayde, but putting a little wine of Rose water into a spoone, and pouring upon that the droppes of Balsamo, and putting the spoone well into your mouth, and letting the licour fal in, so that it touch not the tongue. For taken it with it, or touching it the savour and tast is not removed away in a long time: it procureth an evil taste, in such sort, that for this onely cause many doe abhorre it, and wil not take it, and from others it hath taken away tee lust of their meate, by receiving it and touching it with the tongue. [153]

Of long Peper. (Piper aduncum, bekend als matico)

Also they bring from Cartagena, and from the coaste of the firme Lande, from Mata neere to Veraga, a certaine kinde of Peper which they call lang Peper, which hath a sharper taste, then the Peper which is brought from the Orientall Indias, and biteth more then it, ans is of more sweet taste and of a better smell, then that of Asia, or the Peper of the East India: it is a gentle Spyce, to dresse meates withall, and fort his all the people in that country doe use it.

A Gentleman gave me a platter ful of it, for hee brought a great quantitie of it for the service of his Kitchin, because, [154] (Fol. 85(?) they use it in place of black Pepper, and they teke it to be of better tast and more healthfull. I have tasted it, and it byteth more then the blacke Pepper doth, and it hath a more sweete taste then it hath. I have caused it to be put into drest meates, in place of the Oriental Pepper, it giveth a more gentle taste unto the meates that are drest therewith.

Is is a fruite that casteth out a high plante, of the greatnesse of a grosse Packethreed, and the lower parte neere to the roote, is as great as a litle sticke, that is very small: and upon it are ioyned the little graines, very neere together, as though they were wrested one within the other, which causeth the greatnesse whereof we speak: and beeyng taken away from the litle stick, the stick remained bare and whole: and it is greene being fresh, but the Sunne ripeneth it, and dooth turne it blacke, and so they bring it into these partes. It groweth in the Coast of the firme lande in Nata and in Cartagena, and in the newe kingdome: in all these partes they use it, as I have saide. It hath the Medicinall vertues, which the Oriental Pepper hath that we use. The complexion thereof is hot in the third degree.

And going to visite a Childe, the Sonne of this Gentleman, which gave me this pepper, being diseased in the fire in the face, I commaunded him to bee let blood, and that to his face they should apply some litle cloth with Rose water, and the hearbe Mora: (Solanum nigrum) hee saide to me that hee liked the letting of blood well, because the boye was of Sanguine complexion, bus as for that which should be laide to his face, hee had wherewith to heale it in short time: and he commanded to bee brought foorth, a thing like unto a cake, as greate as a meane platter, the outside was blacke, and within yeallow, and being brought wel neere two thousand leagues, it was moyste, and hee dissolved a lyttle of it with Rose Water, and layde it to the boyes face. I was desirous to know what it was, he said, that when the work was seene what it would do, he would tel me wherof it was compounded [155] The next day I returned to the sicke, and his face was so amended, that I marvelled at it, and immediatly he was washed with Rose water, a little warme, and hee remained as though he had not had any evill therein at all.

The cake was made of certeyne Wormes, which the Indians take out of the ground, and they make them fatte, giving them to eate leaves of a certeyne kinde of corne that they have there called Maiz, and after they are fatte, they put them into a frying panne of earth, and seeth them therein, and as they take of the skumme, they straine it, and seeth it still untyl it be thicker then an oyntment, after the fashion and manner as he had it there.

They bring also from the Charcas certeyne Rootes, that bee like to the Rootes of Flower de Luce, (Iris) saving that they are smaller and they smell muche lyke the leaves of a Figge tree: and they cal these Roots in the Indias a remedy against the venomous hearbe, for beeing made into powder, and taken with white wyne, it is a thyng of great strenght, and of the greatest vertue, that is there agaynst venome, of what manner of qualitie soever it be, so that it be not corsive as Sublimatum, or the like: and as for those kinde of poyson, with onely drinking of muche Milke they be remedied.

This Roote beeing taken, causeth the venome to bee cast out, which is eaten or drunken, or any manner of venemous humour, comming of any evill degree, or cause whatsoever, which is as wel done by vomit, as by sweat. If there bee any small Wormes, or long Wormes in the bodye, it killeth, and expelleth them: and if you have any suspition, that there have been given you any venomous morsel, whether is bee venome or whitchcraft, it expelleth it: in whiche there is so muche trust in those partes, that they take it for a marvellous remedie for the thinges aforesayde. The roote being tasted, it hath a sweete relishe, with [156] (Fol. 79) some sharpnes. It seemeth to be hot in the second degree.

(Carya ovata?) From the coast of Nicaraga, and of Nata they which come in these last ships, from the firme land, bring a certain kind of purge with them, that surely by the tast is easy to be taken, and it worketh wel, and without any paine, principally it purgeth Cholor. Is is the fruite of a tree very great, after the maner of Thornish Chestnuts (Aesculus) which have within them Chestnuts, saving that they pricke nut but be plaine, within those prickles, ther be some like to Chestnuts, made cleane without shale, wel neere square which devide themselves asunder, by means of a little skin, every one into two partes, and so they are covered with it, and when they be taken, that little skin is plucked away, they are made cleane from it, for that beyng taken with it, it procureth most dangerous accidentes, and vomites, much faintnesse and infinit stooles: and without it the Chestnut is a purgation very gentle, and they purge easily and without paines: if they be tosted, then they will purge lesse: if they be greene they eate them, or being beaten in a Morter, they take them with Wine, or with the broth of a Henne, if they bee drie, they make powder of them, any manner of fashion. They doo their worke wel, and with much assurance, keeping the order that ought to be kept by them which bee purged, the humors being prepared, as is convenient. They are hot in the first degree.

Of the Sarcaparillia of Guaiaquill. (Een vorm van Smilax, mogelijk Smilax regelii)

In the first part we declared, how that they brought Sarcaparillia from Peru: which wee use in some persons, it worketh great effects. And because there was but little of it, soone done we returned to them of the Honduras which is them we have spent hitherto. And [157] now they bring it not only from the Peru, but also from the Province of Quito, and from all that coast: and the best and that which worketh great effectes, is that which they bring from Guaiaquill, grom whence that came, which I have declared, that they brought, and that nowe they bryng, although it be but litle, for that they bring it so far, as from the Peru.

This Sarcaparillia, groweth at the side, of a River, which commeth from the Mountaines of the Peru, which is neere to a place called Chimbo, and the Indians of that place call it Mayca. Is is a River in the which runneth much water, somtimes it swelleth with great increase of waters, and filleth all the Valleies neere unto it with water, they call it Guaiaquil. For that in the playne Countries, it passeth by a place called Saint James of Guaiaquill, and runneth from the East unto the West, and falleth into the Sea, by a place ioyning to the olde porte, by the place which they call Guainacava. On the banckes of this River, there groweth great quantitie of Sarcaparillia, and also in the Valleies of that Province: and that which growth on the Bancks, is watered with the River, and that likewise in the Valleies, which are neer to it, with the comming down of the freshes, the waters when they spring of the increase of much rain. They call the Indians of those partes Guaincavilcas, where they have a custome to plucke out their teethe by way of sacifice, and offer them to their Idols: for they say that they should offer the best thing that a man hath, and that in man they finde not a better thing, nor more necessary then the teeth.

This River which is called Guiaquill hath greate vertues, lying neere to all suche as inhabite those partes, as well Indians as Spaniards, and with the water of it they heale great diseases, and for this cause the people come more then six hundred leagues thither to heale themselves [158] (Fol. 80) with it. Some there be which are healed by washing themselves in it, and drinking of the water: others there be which are healed by taking of the Sarcaparillia, which groweth there, it is understoode that the vertue which it hath is taken of the water of the river: it is much used by the Indians, and by many Spaniardes, which washe themselves many times therin, taking in the morning as much therof, as they can many times drink, they both pisse much, sweat much, and with this they be healed: and it is very much like to the bathes of Luca and of Pucol, many other which are in Italie. And as they use the water of the fountaine of Licia, that healeth so many divers diseases, in like maner they use the water of the River of Guaiaquill, and with bathing themselves in it, and drinking muche of the water they bee healed.

The other manner of curing, which you have in that river, is the use of the Sarcaparillia, which groweth there, and is like too Briers of Spayne, greate and thicke: the rootes of them are the Sarcaparillia, which is somewhat grosser then that of the Honduras, and is of colour a Lion tawny, and somewhat sad, there be some of the rootes so larg and deep, that it is needfull to digge the lenght of a man to get them out: this Sarcaparillia, they use in that River twoo manner of wayes, the one is as the Indians doe use it, and as they used if of olde time. When it was discovered and firste used as the Indians did first use it, they taught it to our Spaniardes, which is to take the Rinde of the Sarcaparillia, without the heart, and if it be greene, it is needfull to lay it in water, but if if be drie, it is needfull to lay it in water a long time as it requireth to bee made softe. And then there must bee taken a good quantitie of it, and afterwarde this Rynde of the Sarcaparillia beeyng greene, or watered, must be cut in small peeces, and beaten in a Morter, putting to it water in suche sorte, that the iuice may be taken out of it, of the which they take in the morning [ 159] as much as they can drink at once, or at divers times, and after they cast themselves into a sweat, and they sweat so much, that it runneth by the bedde in great quantitie. After that, they take cleane clothes, and eate of a Henne, but they drinke of no other thing but of that iuyce which they tooke out of the rinde of the Sarcaparillia, as well at Dinner as at Supper, and they must eate verie little at supper, and likewise at dinner. And thet must procure to keep themselves from the Ayre and from the colde all that they can, although in that Village of Guaiaquill, wherein bee about fiftie houses, or few more, the most of them are Cotages, of little safo garde, and the Walles be made of Canes, and there be no Chambers on high, but onely be low: they dwel all in places of little defence. Beeing in this order and small comforte for lacke of Conserva and drie fruite, which were necessarie, yet in eight of nine dayes they are made whole of all diseases, that are healed with the Sarcaparillia, and of many others which shoulde bee verie large to speake of. It is sufficient that there goe no man from thence which returneth not whole, although hee had never so greevous a disease, so that thy be not sharpe Agewes: For in that place the cure hath no place, or in any other sharpe desease. All other diseases it healeth with marvellous successe, as it is seene by the great number of people which come thither, and goe away whole of the diseases, which they bring thither. But it is needfull that he which doth enter into this cure be stronge and not weake, for if he be weake, he cannot suffer so great sweat, without great perill of his person.

For these evilles they have an other manner of Water, that is takyng foure Ounces of Sarcaparillia, rather more then lesse, for that there use neither wayghte of measure, but doe put all at discretion, and they take away the rynde from the Sarcaprillaia, and breake it, without putting it in Water, if it be greene, and if [160] ((fol 81) if it be drie, then they breake it put it in water, untill it be made soft: this rinde being without the heart, they seeth in 4 Pottels of water, little more or lesse, and they seeth it until halfe the water be deminished, rather more or lesse: and of that Water they drinke as muche as they can in many times, or at one time, and forthwith they be take themselves to swaet, although the sweat not so much, as they sweate with the first water, yet they will heale, they move their clothes, they eat of a Pullet they keep themselves from the colde and ayre, and at Dinner and Supper, they use the self same water, for that in one day they consume one seething: this people take it in this manner fifteene or twenty daies, in this sort also they are healed of al their evils, diseases, to the great admiration of the people. And for the use of this Sarcaparillia, they do not except any disease, unles it be fevers of sharpe diseases: these people purge not at the beginng, as we do heere, nor in the middest, nor in the ende of the cure, for there is no other Phisitoon nor Medicine, but certayne women which be there, that give the water: they are women Phisitions, and therefore they take away, and put to as it seemeth good unto them.

That which I doe note in this businesse, is that they seeth the Sarcaparilia without heart: that they use not but of the rinde, which seemeth to be very well done, verie conformable to good Phisicke, for the partes of the rootes which bee harde, should be taken away, as things superfluous and without vertue profit, which rather do let and disturb, that it cannot work that effect which is desired in it, the vertue is in the rinde: and this is that which we do commonly use when we wil profite our selves by it. And so from henceforward, when I shall ordaine this water for any that have need of it, I will use the rinde onely.

And this I ordaine it at this present. Which is to take foure ounces of Sarcaparillia, and to take away the hearte, [161] and the rinde being washed, to cast it to steep in foure Pottels of water, for the space of one natural day after to seeth it till halfe be consumed: and if you feare heate in the sicke body, to put to it an ounce of Barley, with the huskes taken away, that it may seeth with it, and if there be much heat in place of common water let it be made with the water of Suckry, (Cichorium) the Barley and it will be a thing most temperate, in this sort it will worke marvellous effects, as we have experimented in many.

That which is this cause I have considered, and wherewith I have profited my selfe, is that they drinke as muche as they can at one time, or at many times, which surely worketh great effect in provocation of sweate. For they sweate much by drinking of much water, and they heale better, and more quickly, that which other wise should be done in many daies, is done in fewe, with more certainty to remaine whole. Surely these be two thinges which do import much, the one to use the rind without the heart, the other to drink much water in the morning, at once or at many times, that thereby it might provoke much sweat.

In the rest, let everie one use the diet that he can suffer, keeping the vertue, for that is it which healeth the diseases. Wee see howe that in the bathes of Italie, and Almaine, the sicke people do take of that Minerall water, twenty of thirtie little Cupfuls before they eate, and he mingleth all together with the humour which is the cause of the disease, by the which he doeth heale eyther by swette, or by Urine and with this they be healed of so many infirmities, as we see written by grave Authours. And so I beleeve, that this newe use will doe to them, that take it and use it to thir great benefit, and profit, that they shal be better healed, and more easily, and in lesse time, by using it in the order aforesaide.

From the newe kingdome they bring also a Rynde, that [162] (Fol. 82) they say is of a tree very greate, which carrieth leaves after the forme of a Harte, and beareth no fruite. Thys tree hath a grosse Rynde, very drie and harde, wherein and in the color it is very much like to the Guiacan. In the bitter partes it hath a little thin skin whitish, beyng broken throughout, the rynde is thicker then a finger, dry and weighty, which being taken, hath a notable bitternesse, like to Gentiana with some sweet tast, for at the end of the chewing of it, there commeth from it a good smell. The Indians doo greatly esteeme of thys rynde, and they use it in all kindes of fluxe of blood, or other wise: the Spaniardes beeing much troubled with this infirmitie, by the advise of the Indians have used of this rinde, and many of them have been healed.

They take of it as much as the quantitie of a litle beane, made into powder, and they take it in red wine, or in water made for the purpose, as the heate and disease is. It must bee taken in the morning fasting, three or foure times, using in the rest, the government that is convenient for them, that have the fluxe, and it is so good, that they which come from those partes doo highly commend it: and they bring it as a thing wonderfull for the remedy of this disease. Is esteeme of it as of no small thing, considering that the disease is harde to be healed. I had a peece of the rinde given about three or foure dayes past, of which I wil make experience, with more things and and will give knowledge of all in the third parte, God willing, where I will write of the selfe same matter. I have made experience of it twice already, with marvellous successe, for that it hath taken away the fluxe, which hath continued of long time.


Of Amber Grise. [163] (Ambergris is een grijsachtig hard waskleurig product uit het darmstelsel van een potvis, spoelt aan op stranden in klompen van soms 45 kg, gebruikt als geurstof van parfum, vervanger was laudanum, wordt ook wel verward met barnsteen.)

Being in company with John Gotierres Telo, a Gentleman very excellent, and Treasurer of the Contration house, a passenger which came from the Florida, gave him a peece of Ambar Grise very excellent saying that he brought if from the Florida. I took it, and brake it, it was perfect grise of a verye good colour, and in the uttermost part it was blacke, and I asked him that brought it, where he had it: he sayd, that he gathered it in the coast of Florida, and that they have it commonly of the Indians, that gather it in that Coast, and they take much pleasure in it with great delight, and contentment annoynting their faces with it, and other partes, for the good smell which it hath. And surely it maketh mee marvell to see, that in our Occidentall Indias, there is so excellent Ambar, and thtat the time hath discovered it unto us, and that there hath come from those partes not onely so greate riches, of Silver and Golde, Pearles, and other precious stones, but that also nowe they bring us suche excellent Ambar Grise, a thing so esteemed in the world, so muche used for the health of the body, and so necessary to cure and to heale withall, so many and divers infirmities, as we will speake of being a thing which for the delicacy of mankind is an ornament, contentment which very much serveth for use. I do understand also that other passengers brought of the like Ambar, some in muche quantitie, of which I was very glad, and the first peece that I sawe was very suspicious unto me, after that I have seene more, then I beleeved that there was of it, in those parts which is found cast up unto the coast.

Some there bee which thinke that it is the seede of a Whale, as it hath beene an ancient opinion, which is false, [164] (Fol. 83) as Simeon Archiatros a Greeke author doth shew, saying that the Ambar in divers places dooth spring, they bee hys fountaines from whence it dooth spring, as those of Pitch Licour: the worst is that whiche these fishes doo taste, and swallowe downe, etc. The same it seemeth Serapio doth understande, and besides this Simeon a Greeke, and Actio, I finde no other Greekes that make mention therof, but it is treated of by the Arabies with as great ignorance and confusion as may bee seene. Whosoever by them will verifye what Ambar is, it is to bee determined uppon, that it is a kinde of Pitch that commeth foorth of springs fountaines that are made in the depth of the Sea, and comming foorth to the ayre, the Licour being grosse doth congeale, and waxe hard, and is made the Ambar which we see, as many things else which are in the lower parte of the Sea, are soft tender, but being brought out into the aire are made harde. As we see in the Coral, which in the lower partes of the Sea is soft and tender, and by bringing it into the aire is turned into a stone: and the Ambar whereof the Beads are made, in the lower partes of the Sea is white, and being come foorth into the aire, turneth hard an stony, and is pitch, which commoth foorth of a fountaine, which is in the Germaine Sea, (barnsteen) wherby the barbarous opinions are confounded that say the Ambar is the seede of the Whale. And the cause whereof this ignorance came, was this, for that Ambar was founde in the Wkales, and other fishes, and therfore men said that it grewe of it one nature in their mawes, and as this Pitch riseth up to the highest aprtes of the Sea by reason of the lightnes thereof, the Whales do devoure it, thinking that it is a thing to bee eaten, and so men finde it in their Mawes. For if it were seed, it would be found in other parts of their bodies, where it is natural to al beasts. In my time was taken a Whale, in the coast of the Canaria that had more then one hundred pound weight of Ambar within him, and after [165] that they killed many and found none.

They that come from the Florida say, that there be Whales by those coastes, and that they have killed some of them, and founde neyther Ambar nor other thing in their Mawes, more then fishes: also in the yong Whales which are very greate, although they have killed them, that they found nothing in them, for that the Indians doo fish for them, and take them with the greatest cunning that may be imagined, which is after this maner. One Indian taketh a long cord, and strong, made with certeine ginnes, and shippeth himselfe in a little Boate, and maketh toward the Whale where he seeth him comming with his yong Whales, and gooth to one of them and leapeth uppon him, and casteth this snare upo his snowt. The strong young Whale when he feeleth this, he gooth downe to the dept of the Sea, and the Indian hampered fast with him, fort hey are greate swimmers, and can abide long in the water: and the yong Whale as hee hath neede to breath returneth up to the height of the Sea. And in the tyme that he commeth upwarde, the Indian carrying with him a sharpe wedge, and putting it through his nose where he breatheth, he striketh the wedge into him with his fist, in such sort, that the yong Whale cannot cast it from him, and when hee commeth up on high the Indian giveth him corde, and taketh this boate, and goeth after the yong Whale, and as he cannot breath, he choketh him easely, and he commeth to the lande. It is surely a delicate and marvellous hunting, wherein they have so much cunning that a great Lizard or Crocodill of xxiiii foote (7.2m) the most horrible and cruell Beast that is in the Sea, one Indian dooth kill. Some say, that the Ambar is made of certeine fruite growing by de Sea side, where Whales bee, and in the Moneth of April and May, when it is season, of sweete smell, the Whales doo eate it, and of that the Ambar is made as if the fruit so eaten, would be converted into an other [166] (Fol. 84) thing then into blood and flesh. There be many other opinions, concerning this matter what Ambar shoulde bee made of, which are confused all: and it is to be understoode, that it is a kinde of Pitche which springeth from Fountaines that there are in the deapth of the Sea, in particular partes of it, as wee see there be of Petrolio, of Napta, of Sulphur and of many other things, as in our Occidental Indias, of divers other licours: the best Ambar is that which is most like to a red colour, the white is not so good, and the worst of all is the blacke.

Ambar hath great vertues, and serveth in the world for many thinges, and so it is a substance of great price: for that which is good is worth at this day twice more then the most fine gold. For the contentment of man, and for the delicatenesse of the worlde, it serveth for many thinges: with it they make beades, and fine perfumes and odorous smelles, and water of Angels of most sweet smell, in divers formes and fashions: with it they dresse gloves of divers sortes make Oiles and licours of most sweet and delectable smelles: it serveth for meates drinkes, in divers and sundry formes, which to report, would be a large processe.

In medicinall things the vertue thereof is greate, and it profiteth much in our medicines, for it entreth into the most principall matters of Phisicke, which are compounded in the Pothecaries Shoppes, as wel Electuaries, as confections, pouders, pilles, Preperatives, Ointments, plaisters many other thinges, that receive great vertue therby: of the name of it, there is made a confection called Dia Ambar. The vertues which it hath in particular are great and of great effects, for that with it are healed divers and sundrie diseases. And this the Arabiens did teach us: for of the Greekes onely Simeon, and Actio wrote a fewe woordes of it, and also Actuario made the like mention of it: These three authours beeing Greekes, lived after the [167] tyme that the Arabiens did write, and they made some recorde of the Medicines, and thinges which they wrote of, wherof the ancient writers made no mention: one of them is Ambar, which the olde Phisitions knewe not before the Arabiens, for they made no mention of it.

The vertue therof is to heale, dissolve comfort any maner of way, wherin it is applied: For that the complexion therof is hot and drie, with some fatnes, and it hath vertue to mollifie, and make soft, with other vertues that it hath besides.

And being applyed to the Braines, in the manner of an oyntment, and melting it with the Pestel of a morter being hot, and mingled with the oyle of the flowers or Orenges, in this sort it taketh away the griefe of the head, it comforteth the Sinewes, it dissolveth any maner of colde which is in them, with a great prerogative and help, aswel in it own forme, as in making a plaister of Alipta Muscata, which is made of certaine compoundes, that it bee applied centinually to that parte.

Smelling to it in the peece, or making a Pomander of it, mingled with Muske, and LignŐ aloe, it comforteth the braines, and openeth the understandinge, in the one sorte, or the other, being applyed unto it, it maketh a good memorie, and helpeth the understanding that it may bee better and more perfite. And it is convenient that wee use it more then women, for the hurte which the good smell doeth unto them, which bee grieved with the Mother, for they ought not to use it, if there be not a descending of the Mother to the lower partes: for in such case it were convenient to smell muche to it, for it causeth the Mother to ryse up his place, with the good smell, taking some evill savour by the inferior partes. And likewise by smelling unto it, it comforteth the heart, and maketh the Spirites valiant and strong: and fort hus purpose it profiteth, being carried about one, and smelling to it, in the time of the [168] (Fol. 85) pestilence, and in corrupt ayres, to resist the corruption and malice of them, with the vertue and sweet smell thereof.

It is a marvellous thing to understande howe muche the Ambar doeth profite and succour them, which bee olde, in what maner of sort soever they use it: although with it excellent smal it comforteth the spirits, and the braines of the head, yet it maketh thinne also Fleugmatike humours, which do continuallay abounde. And some say, that the use of it holdeth back age, and conserveth that it goe not forward, and it is good that such doe use it in their meates, and in sweet smelles for their apparell and Chambers, and applied to the braine and heart, and that they holde it to smell in their handes continually: and that it bee put into the wine, wherwith they shall wash their handes and face: for it is a marvellous thing how much it comforteth, and giveth strenght, wherein I have seene marvellous effectes, they which are olde and crooked and do use is, shal perceive what great good it wil doe them.

In paine sof women, it is a marvellous remedie, mingled with the Lode stone (magneet) and Galvano, made in little plaisters layd upon the navil, to keepe the Mother in his place, and for the rest of the paines of it. Chiefly by smelling to it continually, it profiteth women that the mother may come downe.

And if it rise uppe, putting into it a Tente of Cotten wooll, dissolved with oyle of Liquid Ambar, it maketh it come downe. And being put into the mouth of the mother in women which doe not bring forth children, for the coldnesse that is in them, it is most excellent. I use to take this confection: which is compounded with Ambar twoo partes, and the scraping of Yvory, one part grounde small, halfe a parte of LignŐ aloe made into pouder, and a little Muske: of the which make pilles they must take three that may weigh three pence, from three to three dayes: applying moreover the little plaister, which is spoken of, to the navill, and [169] the tent into the mouth of the mother: surely it dooth profite much, the universal evacuations, beeing made, and it must be used many daies.

The Ambar profiteth much in the deseases of the stomacke, and for the coldnes of it, if there bee a plaister made thereof, and of Alepta Mucata, and of Storacke, after the maner of a brestplate, and laid to the stomacke: and likewise of the self same thing Pilles being made and minled with wine, of sweete small, and taken in the morning fasting. For it dissolveth windes, it taketh away any maner of colde which is in the stomacke, it helpeth digestion, it gyveth appetite, and lust to meate, and this is convenient for him that is colde of complexion, o fort hat which causeth hurte of the stomacke, that commeth of colde: and therefore is should bee convenient for them that bee old, and cold of stomacke.

It comforteht the heart, and healeth the diseases thereof, principally if they come of windinesse, or of colde humours, being taken by it selfe, or mingled wilg Lign aloe Muske, in maner of pouders, or pilles. For that the Muske, as Avirois sayeth, comforteth more then all other sweete smelles that are in the world, fort hat the sweete savour, and comforting smell therof prevaileth more, then all other smellers. In what manne rof way soever the Ambar is applyed, by it self, or with other things, in infirmities of the harte, it profiteth much, applyed therunto outwardly, and in any maner of sorte taken, it dooth comfort and strengthen, and dissolve any humor that is in the body.

I doo cause Ambar tob e ground, which beeing wel mingled with yeallowe Wax moulted, and made into a thynne cake, and layde to the hearte, dooth profite much in the evilles of the hearte, chiefly if they come first of windinesse, Melancholie, or of any other cause whatsoever, so that it be not hotte.

The Ambar is very profitable for them that be melancholike [170] (Fol. 86) for it maketh them verie merie, taking awaye the causes of the evill, and dissolving the windinesse thereof which there are verie many grieved with all: unto such it be good to bee ministred, and to use it after the manner of Medicine mingled as we have saide, in the morninges: and also to use it laide upon the heart, and upon the braines, and in meates, for surely I have seene great effects wrought in them that have frequented it.

Where there is corruption of ayre, the Ambar doeth rectifie it by it selfe, or mingled with things of sweet smell, the place beeing perfumed with it, where men shoulde remaine principally in the time of winter, and unto suche as doe suffer colde Rewmes, in cold times: chiefly perfuming their kercheifes, wherein they sleepe, with it, or with some mixture thereof, perfuming the chamber likewise, for it is a marvellous thing to see the good worke it doeth make.

And likewise it doeth good to them, which have the palsey, or weaknesse of Sinewes, perfuming themselves with it, or with the mixture thereof.

Those that have the falling sicknes, by giving to them at their noses, when they be in her traunce of Paroxismos, the smoke thereof, it maketh to awake: and wearing it about them, smelling to it continually, the traunce doth not come so quickly, nor so strong. And unto those which suffer the disease of the Palsey, by annointing their head with it, and all the upper part of the skull, it bringeth manifest profite: for that the Ambar is a thinge that comferteth the Sinewes and braine, more then any thynge that wee knowe.

One propertie the Ambar hath, that bringeth admiration, and Simeon Secto a Greeke authour dooeth report, that if any smell to it before he drinke wine, it maketh hym stand as if he were drunken: and if it bee put into the wine, it maketh him drunke indeede, in suche sorte that a little [171] wyne mingled with Ambar, causeth drunkennesse, which I have seene by experience, in the house of a great Lorde of this Realme, where for delicatenesse, and daintinesse, they had a Salte seller of Ambar, as also Salte to caste into meates: and to a Jester there was Ambar caste into hys wyne, and he was made very drunke with it. Many other things there were to treate of Ambar, but because I would not passe the limites of my purpose, I leave to wryte of them, and the rather, for that in the thyrde, parte wee will declare that which we meane farther to say of them.

The ende of the seconde part. [172] (Fol. 87)

THE THIRD PARTE OF THE MEDICINALL HISTORIE, which treateth of the thinges that are brought from our Occidental Indias, serving for the use of Medicine.

Wherein there is mention made of many things Medicinall, that have great secretes and vertues.

Nowe newely set foorth by the sayde Doctor Monardus, after that he had made the first and second partes. [173] (Fol. 88)

Of the Cinamon of our Indias. (Persea gratissima)

In the yeere of our Lorde 1540 Frauncis Pisarro provided to make towarde his brother Gonsalo Pissarro Governour of the Province of Quito, and the Spaniardes went thither with a good wil and they went also unto the Country that was called the Country of the Cinamon, whiche is an other Province beyond Quito, and the Cinamon was much spoken of amongst the Spaniardes, for it was understood of the Indians that it was a thing of great riches.

Gonsalo Pisarro departed with 200 Spaniardes, and it happened to him evil in his iourney, for it was a sharp country, without vittiale, with great travel they came to that province called of the Indians Somoca, where the Cinamon groweth, which is right under the Equinoctiall line.

The trees which beare it, are of reasonable greatenesse, they carrie a Leafe like to Laurel, they be al the yere greene, and they never loose the leafe, which is a thing common to all the Trees of the Indias. They beare their fruite unto the likenesse of a little Hatte, that hath his Cup and sydes as greate as a peece of eight Rialles of Silver, whiche is foure Shyllinges, and some greater, it is of the colour of a darke Tawny, as well without as within, it is smooth in the inner parte, and sharpe in the utter, in the highest part of the Cup it hath a stalke, wherby if hangeth in the tree, it is as thicke in the inside, as a peece of of eight Rialles of Silver, and the uppermost parte is fuller of bodie, and beeing tasted, it hath the same pleasauntnesse of tast that the same Cinamon hath, which they bring from the India of Portugall, and in like sorte there remaineth in the [174] mouth the same sweet smel, and taste, that the same Cinamon of the East India hath: there remaineth in the mouth the same sweet smel and taste, with some drines: the selfe same it doeth being ground, respiring out from it the same smel which the most fine Cinamon hath. And in the meates wherin it is put, it giveth the same tast savour that the Cinamon of the East India hath. The trees have a grosse rind but without taste, savour or smel of the Cinamon. I cannot tell if the little inner rind have any, onely the rinde I have seen with the fruit, as it is described: they say that the leaves being beaten, give out some smel of Cinamon, onely the vertue, sweet smel and tast, is in the fruit, which is contrary to the Cinamon, that is brought from the Oriental Indias, for onely the rinde of the tree is that which hath sweete savour and pleasant smell, as we doe all see. And true it is, that some it better and of more sweet smell and taste, then other some is. For although that they are all of one sorte of trees, which bring forth the cinamon, yet some have the rind thinne, and that is the best Cinamon, and others have it grosse, and this is not so good: and thereof it hath come, that there bee some which doe distinguish the Cinamon into divers kindes. For one sort they call Cassia, and an other Cinamon, and an other Cassia lignea, and it is all one kinde of tree, that bringeth them foorth: but that the diversitie of the place bringeth forth one more fine than another, so Cassia and Cinamon are al one, for that they differ not, but onely in the names, for al is Cinamon, thinne, and fine, and wheras you finde written Cassia, may be put Cinamon, and where you doe finde Cinamon, Cassia.

This our fruite that is called Cinamon, profiteth in Medicine for many thinges: beeing taken and made into pouder, it comforteth the stomacke, and it dissolveth winds, it taketh away the evill smel of the mouth, it is an important remedy for the griefe of the stomacke, it is cardiall, it [175] (Fol. 89) maketh a good colour in the face, and Cassia in drest meates is used even as Cinamon is, because it worketh the like effect, that it doeth: by taking the Pouder of this fruite wyth wine, or water made for the nonce, it provoketh the purgation of women. It is hot in the third degree, and drie in the first, but with notable comforting, by reason of the dry parts that it hath.


Of the Ginger. (Renealmia occidentalis)

Don Francis de Mendosa, Sonne unto the vice Roy Don Anthony de Mendosa, did sow in the new Spaine Cloaves, Pepper, ginger and other spices, of those which are brought from the Orientall Indias, and that which by him was begun, was loste, by reason of his death, onely the Ginger did remaine, for it grew very will in those partes, and so they bring it greene from the new spaine, and other partes of our Indias, and some they bring drie, after the manner of that of the East India.

The Ginger is a Plant which carrieth his Leafe lyke to Lirio, somewhat more narrowe, with the same greenes: the Rootes is as it seemeth, some greater than other, and when it is greene, it burneth not in the mouth, wherefore beeyng made small into peeces, it is put into Sallettes, for because it giveth them both taste and smell. They sow it, of the seede that it bringeth foorth or of the same little Roote, and of the one sorte and of the other it waxeth greate, and after the Roote is growen greate, they take it foorth, and drie it in the shadowe, where no moisture doeth come, for that is it which dooeth corrupt him, and for this cause they bring it in drie earth and made in Conserva although that here it may bee verie well made of that which is drie, burying the Roote at the foote of a place where many [176] reedes do grow, for there it waxeth soft, or washing it many times with hot water, and so leaving it in the water until it be soft, and after putting to it Sugar, it is made in Conserva as well as the greene.

This Roote hath greate vertue of Arromaticall smell and tast, and with a notable sharpnesse: it heateth notably, it is good for the stomacke, and so it taketh away the griefe of it, when it commeth of a colde cause or windy: it worketh the like effectes that the Peper doeth, it giveth savour, and sweete smell, and good tast unto drest meates, wherein it is put: it is a corrective unto many medicines, for because it doeth correct, and dresse them, and taketh away their malice, and so they doe mingle it with Turbith and with Agarico, for it correcteth them wherby they work the better, it helpeth digestion and strengeth the stomack, it doth corroborate the natural heat, it giveth lust to meate where it lacketh in cold causes. This the Conserva doth very wel, which being taken in the morning worketh these effectes, also maketh a good colour in the face, and doth all the workes which the Peper doth, so it is wel neere of the complexion and temperature thereof.

Of the Ruibarbe of the Indias. (zal wel een soort Rumex zijn, romaza is zuring in Spaans, als Rumex hymenosepalus)

They brought from the firme Land a peece of a roote which is called their Ruibarbe, and surely it hath all the signes that the Ruibarb hath, which is brought from Levant. It is rounde, the rynde is more like to blacke, the inner parte is red, and beeing broken it changeth somewhat white, it dyeth a colour like Saffron, it is bitter. I am desirous to knowe what leafe it carrieth, to see if it carrie a leafe which under this name, many in Spaine have sowed much, which casteth out certaine leaves like to Romaza, and so I take it to be a kinde [177] (Fol. 90) of it: for the seconde sorte dooth carrie a red roote: the leaves of this Roote which I take to bee Romaza, doo purge beyng sodden notably, muche more then the Roote, and so sayeth Dioscorides that all kinde of Romaza doeth soften the belly notably.

The Ruibarbe is an excellent medicine, and woorthie to be much esteemed, and very highly. They have praised it, al such as have wrote of it. I speake of the purgative Ruibarb, which we do use to purge withall, for it was an other sorte, which the Greekes did know.

The Ruibarbe is an excellent medicine, because it is geven with all assurance, in all times in all ages. It purgeth Cholor principally, and Fleume, it comforteth the Liver, it is his life, it undoeth opilations, it taketh away the Jaundies, and clarifieth the blood, and the use of it dooth corroborate, and strengthen the spirituall members, therfore it is given with al assurance, to them that have any griefe of the heart: some of it beeing chewed in the morning, healeth any long importunate diseases of the Liver, of the Lunges, and of the inner members: and likewise the Dropsie, timpany, and maketh a good colour in the face. It is hot and dry in the second degree, with some part Earthie, which giveth drynesse and comfort.

Of the Pinnas. (Ananas comosus)

The Pinnas are a fruit which be most set by in al the Indias, as wel of the Indians as of the Spaniards, they are called Pinnas for the likenes that the fruite hath to the Pinnas. And although they be smooth, yet they have certayne Markes in them which the Pinnas have. Of fashion they are like to a Cup, of them, which be called [178] Emperiall, beyng broade below and narrow above, and by the mouth of them there groweth out certeyne Buddes, whiche are his Leaves, which cause him to shew verye faire, and these Buddes are sowen, and of them grow the Plantes, which carry the Pinnas, and one Plant carrieth not more then one Pinna, in the highest part therof: it groweth greene, and as it ripeneth, it turneth yeallowe. They take from it the Rinde, whiche is very thinne, for to eate, that which it hath within it is white, and softe, and melteth in the mouth, with a very good taste, and sweete savour: saving that it hath many smal kernels rounde about it, which it is needefull that you caste from you when you eate them, which are of a Purple colour. The smell thereof is like to a kinde of Quince, and where there is a Pinna ripe hee smelleth like to a Quince over all the house where he is.

They take them to be food for the stomacke, and likwise for the hearte, and to restore the appetite lost: it is a generall fruite in all partes of the Indias, and much esteemed. They are to be eaten in the beginning of meate, they use to eate them in the hot after Noones: for they say that they doo refresh: they are cold in my iudgement: they brought two sortes of them, the one drie, the other in Conserva. The dry did serve for no other purpose, but to see the figure the forme of them: in Conserva, they have a good taste although somewhat sharpe: they ought to be made in Conserva when they are greene.

Of the Guaiavas. (Psidium guajava)

They brought mee from the firme Lande the seede of the fruite which is so muche esteemed by the Indians, as also by the Spaniardes, which they call Guaiavas. The trees whiche carrie thys fruite are of reasonable greatnesse, they caste out their bowes [179] (Fol. 91) dispersed. They carrie a leafe like to the manner of Laurel, the flower of it is whyte, according to the fashion of the flower of Orenges, saving that it is somewhat greater, it is of a sweete smell. This tree yeeldeth much fruite wheresoever it be sowen, and dooth multiply and spred so much abroade, that they take it to bee evill for the ground wher he groweth for that in many pastures the people doo loose the feeding of their cattell by reason of them. And they weave themselves one togeather with an other lyke Bryers: the fruite which they carrie is like to our Apples, of the greatnesse of a Pyppin, it is greene when it beginneth first to appeare, and as it ripeneth, it turneth yeallowe. In the inner parte it is white, and in colour russet, and beeyng cut, hath four places devided, where it hath the seede, which is lyke to the seede of Medlers, being very hard, and of colour tawny, al the stones within have no kernel, they are without any savour. And to eate these Apples, they pare them from the Rind the fruite is holesome, and of good digestion: when they be greene they bee given to them that have the Laske, for they restraine and binde much and when they bee very ryppe, they make the belly verie laxative when they bee of a good seasonable age. They are good rosted for them that bee whole, and for the sicke, for beeing so rosted they are more healthfull: and better and of pleasanter taste. And the best of them growe in trees which are tilled. The Indians use the leaves in seething with the which washing their feete that are swollen, they cause him to abate and the inner parts of the body beeing stopt are opilated being washt with this seating, doo disopilate. It seemeth to bee a colde fruite, and therefore they give them rosted to them which have hot Agewes. Is is a very common fruite in all the Indias. [180]

Of the Cachos. (Solanum lycopersicum)

Now they dyd send me the seede of a plante or hearb, which the Indians do muche esteeme, whiche they call Cachos. The Cachos is an hearbe very reddish in colour, it carrieth a round leafe, thin, it casteth out a fruit like to a Berengena of Spayne, (Solanum melongena) where the seede dooth grow: it is very small, and of russet colour. It hath a tast without any sharpnesse, onely in the Mountaines of Peru this hearbe is found.

The Indians doo much esteeme it, for the medicinal vertues that it hath, it maketh one to pisse well where the lacke of Uryne is, it dooth expell the Sande and Stones, whiche grewe in the reynes. And moreover they say, that the use of it dooth breake the stone from the Bladder, if the Stones bee soft, that they may bee dissolved, with taking very little quantitie if this, of this they have so many examples, that they cause mee to marvell at it, because I thinke that the stone in the bladder cannot bee expelled, but onely to cut it out is the remedie, for that no Phisicke can dissolve him.

They say that taking the seede grounde with some water, made for the purpose, causeth it to bee cast out in Clay, and being come foorth it returneth to be congeled, and turneth it selfe into a stone.

Only to a yong man I saw this happen, who had a stone in the Bladder, and I beeing certified of it by the Maister Surgions that had felte him, and of the accidents which he had, caused him to bee caried, at the beginning of the Sommer, unto the Fountaine of the stone, and in twoo monethes after that he was there, he came whole from thence, and brought in a paper all the claye which hee had voided from him at times, being of stone dissolved into peeces. Wee will sow the seedes, although very little, onely to see the effect [181] (Fol 92) wrought by them, which as they say is in a cause of greate, and if it doe growe, we will use of it.

Of the flowers of blood. (Tropaeolum minus)

I sowed a seede, which they brought mee from the Peru, more to see the fairenes therof, then for any medicinall vertues that it hath. The hearbe commeth to be of the height of two spannes, little more or lesse, bowes it casteth out straight with certain round leaves very green, thin, in the hiest of the bowes there groweth a flower being yeallow, very high in colour, onely it beareth five leaves, in the middest of everie leafe there is figured a drop of blood, so red so firmely kindled in colour, that it cannot be more. This flower hath at the foote of it a stalke verie long, which commeth out a good space from the flower. It is a flower verie beautifull, which doth adornate gardens, it growet very wel of the seede, or of the plante, and being tasted, it hath the same savour and taste that the Mastnesso hath: is is notable hotte.

A rinde of a tree for the Rewme.

Amongst the thinges which they sent me from the Paru, (Peru) there is a thicke rinde, whych seemeth to bee of a great tree, and beeing tasted, hath a sharpnesse of taste with seme drynesse: the trees growe at th side of a River, where this rinde is taken of, which is twenty and sixe Leagues from Lima, and they are not [182] founde in other partes of the Indias, but onely there. The tree is after the fashion of an Elme, as wel in the greatnes, as in the leafe. The Indians when they feele themselves laden with Reumes, or have the Cough, or any paines of the head, they make pouder very small of the rinde of the tree, and take it in at their noses, and it causeth them to purge mucht at them, and with this they cleare themselves of the evill: which we have experimented, by taking the pouder in at the nose, and it maketh them to purge notably. It seemeth to be more then hot in the second degree.


Of the Pacal. (Pacal is een van de goden bij de MayaŐs, werd vereerd met een Ceiba pentandra als levensboom)

On the same River there groweth an other tree, which the Indians call Pacal, which tree is lesser then that we have spoken of before: the Indians doe use it made in Ashes mingled with Sope, it taketh away any manner of sore or skabbe in the head, how grievous soever it be, aswel those that grow in the head, as in the body: as also it taketh away the markes of the siad skabs or sores being never so olde. Hether they sent mee a little of the wood, wherwith the Ashes are made, that w emight make experience of it.

Of the Poico.

They sent me an hearbe which in the Peru they call Payco: they be certaine leaves after the maner of the leaves of Planten, of that making greatnes, and as they come drie they are very thin: being tasted, they have a notable biting, so that thereby they seeme to be verie hotte. And being made into pouder and taken [183] (Fol. 93) in wine, they take away the griefe of the stone in the kidneis, which commeth of windinesse, or colde causes: and being sodden and made into a plaister, and layde upon the griefe, they take it away also.

An hearbe for the evill of the Reines.

Likewise they sent me an other herb, which profiteth much in the evil of the reines, when it commeth of a hot cause: the iuice mingled with the ointment of Roses amongst it one of the leaves or more, of it be needful, laid upon it, is good for an inflammation, the iuice thereof beeing put, and it profiteth muche, for it dooeth desiste the inflammation, and mittigate the paine. The leaves which they sent me, bee like to small Lettice, with the same greatnesse, and being tasted they be of an evill savour, it seemeth to be some hearbe notable colde.

Of a fruite which groweth under the ground. (Arachis hypogaea, pinda)

They sent me from the Peru, a fruite verie good, that groweth under the earth, and verie faire to beholde, and of a verie good taste in eating. This fruite hath no roote, nor doeth produce any plante, nor plante doth produce it, but that it groweth under the ground, als the Turmas do grow under the earth, which are called the Turmas of the earth. Is is of the greatnesse of halfe a finger rounde, and rounde about it is wrought with a verie faire worke, it is of a bay colour: It hath within it a litle kernel, which when it is dry, maketh a sound within, lyke to an [184] Almonde: the rinde of it is tawny, and somewhat white, parted into twoo partes lyke unto an Almonde. Is is a fruite of good savour and taste, and eating of it, it seemeth that you eate Nutten.

This fruit groweth under the earth, in the coaste of the River of Maronnon, and it is not in any other part of all the Indias. It is to be eaten greene and drie, and the beste way is to toste it. It is eaten alwaies after meaters, as fruit eaten last of all, because it drieth much the stomacke and leaveth it satisfied, but if you eate muche of it, then it bringeth heavinesse to the head. Is is a fruite in great reputation, as well amongst the Indians, as the Spaniardes, and with great reason, for I have eaten of them, which they have brought mee, and they have a good taste. It seemth to be a temperate fruite.

Of the fruite called Leucoma. (Castanea dentata?)

They brought mee likewise a fruite of a tree which the Indians cal Leucoma, which is like unto a Chestnutte of these of ours. As wel in colour as in the greatnesse, as also in the whitenes wich the Chestnut hath. It seemeth that within it is another thing. Id did not breake it to see what it was, because they brought mee but two of them, the one I have sowen, the other I have for to sow at any other time. This fruite doth beare a tree of much greatnesse, for it is of timber stronge and harde, it casteth foorth the leaves like to Madronne, which is a redde berie, growing in the Mountaines of Spaine. (Arbutus) This fruit serveth to bee eaten, for that they say it is of a good taste, good for the laske, because it is verie dry: they say it is a temperate fruite. [185] (Fol. 94)


Of the Beadstones to wash withall. (Sapindus saponaria)

They sent me a lyttles Cheste made of Corkefull of round Beadstones and blacke, of greate beautie, so that they seeme too bee made of the Woodde of Ebano and they bee a fruite whiche a small tree beareth, beeing more crooked then straight, after the manner of Bryers: and it carrieth a round fruite as great as a Nut, covered with certeyne fleshines clong therunto, which being taken away, there remaineth, a rounde Bead stone, and so round that it cannot be rounder, of black colour, most harde that it cannot bee broken.

This fruite serveth in place of Sope, in such sorte, that twoo of three of these with hotte water are of more effect to wash withal, and to make clean cloathes, then one pounde of Sope: and so it rayseth the some, and woorketh all the effectes that Sope dooth, and so they proceed washing by litle and little, until onely the Beadstone do remaine, which is that which this fruit is founded on, al are pearced through: and there are made of them beads for to pray upon, which seemeth to bee made of Ebano. They dure a long time, for as they are Beades so hard, that they breake not: this fruite is so bitter that neither beast nor bird commeth too it, for the bitternesse thereof. I have sowen some of the Beades, and they have growen, and they cast out from them faire leaves very great. I trust that they wil bring forth fruite for nowe the plants are very little, but in time I hope they wil yeelde it.

Of the Crabbes of that Countrey. [186]

A Gentleman whiche came from the firme Lande, certified mee that having had certein continual agues in the country, he came to be in a consumption, was counsailed to go to certein Ilandes, which are betweene Puerto Rico and the Margareta, for that ther is in them great quantitie of Crabs, and they are the best of the world, because they are wainteined by Pigions Egges, which goe thither to lay, and of the yong Pigions that are there, that he should eate no other thing but these crabbes sodden, and he was healed very wel: and although he had eaten much fleshe of Popingeies for that purpose they did not him so much good, as the Crabbes did: and in them that are consumed, they have a greate property: as Avenzoar sayth, and not only they profit much by manifest quality or degree, but also by their perticuler propertie which they have, for the same purpose.

Of the Cardones. (een cactus als Cereus)

Because I should see the strangenesse of this hearb which is the Cardones of the greatnes of a torch of eight square, and wreathed like unto it, they brought unto me. It hath a medicinall vertue, that being newly beaten in a morter and put into Sores, it healeth and sodereth them forthwith. And well neere I my selfe had need of it, for this purpose, for that one of the thornes that it hath did pricke me. They are strong as Needles which did hurt mee, It seemeth tob e a strange hearbe.

Of an hearbe for such as are broken. [187] (Fol. 95)

They sent me a litle of an hearb and by reason it was so dry it came smal broken, in peeces, so that the figure of it could not be seene, which they wrote was marvellous for them that are broken, whether they be children or men that have the kind of griefe, and in those parts they have it for a sure thing, and it is used by one Indian, by applying this hearb greene, upon that which is broken, being men or children. And it maketh thereupon a certeine binding very strange, without neede of any manner of Brich, made for the purpose, for they may goe so fast and so swift being bound therewith, as though they had a paire of breeches, as one told me that he had bin healed of the like disease with the hearbe, and with the maner of binding. I have understood that if the maner of binding be as good as this man speaketh of, it is sufficient to heale without the hearbe, or any thing els, by reason that I saw a man of Cordona whiche healed all persons that were broken with onely the binding that they made of them, without using unto them any manner of Breech. And this is certeyne, that there be some here that were healed and cured by him.

Of the Vervaine. (Verbena demissa?)

Moreover the gentleman wrote unto me from the Peru that in the rivers of the mounteins of that country neere unto them, ther groweth a great quantity of Vervaine, like unto those of Spaine, which the which the Indians doo profite themselves in their cures, for many infirmities, and in especially against all kind of poyson, and [188] for such as say that there hath beene given them a morsel, or the like thing.

I spake heere with a Ladye which came from the Peru, and shee certified mee that having beene many yeeres sick, and being in cure with many phisitions, she went to an Indian, that was knowen to bee a man that knewe muche of herbs, unto whom the Indians did put themselves in cure, he gave her to drink the iuice clarified of Vervaine, which shee her selfde made, and within a fewe dayes after that shee had taken it, she cast out from her a worme, she sayd it was a hearie Snake, of more then two spannes long, and verie greate, and his tayle was parted, and after she had cast him out from her, she was well and whole. And she counselled a Gentleman which was in the Peru, that was continually sicke to take it, and he tooke it in the morning with Sugar, for so shee had taken it, because of the bitternes that it hath, and he cast out a great number of long and small woormes, and one like to a white long girdell, and since that time hee hath very well his health. And this shee counselled other Persons which are sicke, to doo, that had suspicion, too have woormes, and with the use of the sayde iuyce they cast from them many, and they were healed. And it was so certainly, that she shewed me a Servaunt of hers, and it was sayd that according to the greevousnesse of a disease, whiche hee had, there was given unto him certeyne thynges of witchcraft, and wiht the iuice of the Vervaine, that he tooke, he cast by vomite many thinges out of his stomacke, of divers colours, and it was sayd that it was that werwith he was bewitched, which being cast foorth, he remained whole, and of that which toucheth witchcraft, I will speake what I have seene.

I sawe a servaunt of John de Quinatna Duenas, beeing Aburgales, who did caste out at his mouth in my presence a great bundell of haire, of a browne colour, very small, and [189] (Fol. 96) hee had in a paper more then twice as much, which hee had cast up two houres before, he remained as though hee had cast up nothing at all, more then the alteration that hee had to see that he had cast up such stuffe.

John Langius an Almaine Phisition, and verie wel learned, saith that he sawe a woman that complained much of paine in her stomack, dis cast out many peeces of glasse, and peeces of Earthen Platters, and of fishe bones wherewith she remained whole.

An other case like unto this Benevenius speaketh of in his book de morbis mirandis, but that which I do most marvel at, was, that a labouring man suffering great paines in his bellie, so that no medicine coulde profite him, did cut his owne throat with a knife, and after that he was dead, they opened him, found in his belly great quantitie of haire, the like wherof he that I have spoken of did vomit, with many other peeces of iron. These things I do attribute to the works of the Divel for that they cannot bee reduced unto naturall causes. The Vervaine is like that of Spaine, all the yeere it is greene.

Of the Mastuerco. (afgeleid van Nasturtium, Lepidium virginicum)

I have an hearbe brought from the Peru, which they call Mastuerco, it is a little herb and doth carry certain smal leaves that are round, which being beaten in a morter, the iuyce of them put into any maner of wound, doth refresh, comfort, heale, curing it forthwith, and the use of it is no more nor lesse then the use of the Tabaco, in woundes which bee freshy made washing them with the Iuice, and laying the beaten leaves to them, and being tasted it seemth that it is natable (notable) hot.

Of the small wilde Lettice. [190] (Frasera verticillata of Lactuca graminifolia?)

Likewise they brought mee from the some partes an other hearbe, which they call wilde Lettice: the leaves be like to Lettice, the colour is a sadde greene, it hath vertue to take away the toothache receiving the seething which is made of the leaves, and holding it in the parte where the griefe is, and putting a litle of the iuyce in the tooth, which is grieved, for so it taketh away the paines, the leaves which are stamped, after the iuice is taken out, must be laid upon it, and being it is most bitter. It seemeth to bee hot in more then the first degree.

Of the licour which is called Ambia.

In a great Cane they sent me a licour which springeth out of a Fountaine that is neere to the sea side, it is of the colour of hony, as thin, the smell is like the Tacamahaca, they say also they write, that it hath great medicinall vertues, chiefly in the healing of old diseases, those which come of cold causes. It taketh away the paines in any part of the body, proceeding of cold or windines. It taketh away the colde in what part soever it be, it doth comfort dissolve any maner of swelling, it worketh al the effects that the Tacamahaca the Caranna doe so they use it in those parts, in steede of them: you may not touch nor handle it with your handes, unlesse you have them wet and whersoever it be put, it sticketh fast, that it cannot be taken away unlesse it be wasted in long time. They sent me this litle for to shew, because they do esteem it greatly, therfore they sent it as a thing very precious. It seemeth to me hot in the third degree, with notable clammines. [191] ( Fol. 97)

Of the tree that sheweth whether one shall live or die.

In the yeare of our Lord 1562 When the Earle of Nieba was in the Peru, hee had there a gentle woman which was married that served him, her husband wared sicke of a grievous disease, an Indian of great reputation seeing her to be in much sorrow, sayd to her, if she wold know whether her husband shoulde live or dye of that disease, he woulde send her a Bow of an hearbe, that she should take in her left hand, and hold it fast for a good while: and if he should live, then she should shew much gladnesse, with holding the Bow in her hand: and if he should die, then she should shew much sadnes. And the Indian sent her the Bow she did as he had willed her to doo: and the bowe being put into her hand she tooke so much sadnesse and sorrow that she threw it away from her: thinking that he shoulde have died therof, and so he died within a few daies. I was desirous to know if that it were so, and a gentleman of the Peru that had been there many yeares, dyd certifie me and said that it was of truth that the Indians did this with their sicke people. It hath put me in admiration, and in much consideration.

Of the Granadillia. (Passiflora caerulea)

From the firme Lande they brought mee certayne Fruites which are hearbes which they call in the hils of the Peru wehere they growe Granadillias, and this name the Spaniards did give them, for the likenes and fashion that they have to our Granadas, which wee call [192] Poungarnardes, for that they are well neere of the same greatnesse and colour when they are ripe, saving that they have not a litle crowne, now they are dry, they seeme within them the seed is like to the graines of Peares somwhat greater, for they are all ful of litle graines, verie faire, and shew very wel, they are white within, without any savor. The Plant that this fruite beareth, is like to Ivie, and so it runneth up and clingeth fast to any thing that is neare to it whersoever it be set: it is faire when it hath fruite, for the greatnesse it is a particular hearbe, and onely in one place it is founde, it casteth a flower like to a white Rose, and in the Leaves it hath figures which are signes of the Passion or oud Lord, that it seemeth as though they were painted, wyth much care, where the Flower is more particular than any other that hath beene seene. The fruite is the little graines, which we have spoken of and when they are in season they be full of Licour, somewhat sharpe, and all full of seede, which are opened as one doeth open an Egge, and the Licour is to bee supped up with great contentment of the Indians, and of the Spaniards. And when they have suped it up, many do not feele paines in their stomacks, but rather they soften the bellie. They seeme to bee temperate, with some moysture.

Of the hearbe of the Sunne. (Helianthus annuus)

This is a notable hearbe, and although that nowe they sent mee the seede of it, yet a few yeeres paste we had the hearbe here. It is a strange flower, for it casteth out the greatest Blossomes and the moste particulars that ever have been seene, for it is greater then a greate Platter or Dishe, and hath divers coloures. It is needefull that it leane to some thing, where it growth, or els it will bee alwaies falling. The seede of it is like to the seedes of a Mellon, somewhat greater, the flower [193] (Fol. 103) dooth turne it selfe continually towardes the Sunne, and for this cause they call it by that name, as many other flowers and Hearbes doo the like: it sheweth marvelleus faire in Gardens.

Of a gumme that is taken out from under the grounde.

In the Collao being a country of Peru, there is a Province which doth not beare any tree or Plante, because the Grounde is full of Gummes, and from this ground the Indians take out a Licour, that serveth them to heale many diseases, and to take it out they use it in this manner.

They make of the Earth certeyne Sesternes very greate, and set them uppon timber, or Canes, and underneath they put a thing, that may receive the Licour, which commeth out of them, and they place them in the Sunne, and with the heate and strength therof, the Gumme is melted or the licour which the Earth hath, and the Sesternes remayne without any Licour, whiche profiteth too make fire of, for in that place there are no Trees, nor any other thing to make fire of: and it is an evill light, for it casteth out blacke Smoke, and an horrible smell, and for al this, seeing they have no other thing to make fire of, they take a paynes with it.

The Licour whiche commeth foorth of it, profiteth for many diseases, and especially when they depende of colde, or colde causes, it taketh away any griefe of the sayde cause, and all swellinges which come thereof: they heale with it woundes, and all the evilles which the Carana, and the Tacamahaca doo heale. That whiche [194] they sent me, is of a red colour, somewhat darke, and it hath a good smell.

Of the Bezaar stones of Peru.

Although in the second part I treated of the Bezaar stones that have beene founde in the mountaines of the Peru for that they have been sent me by the first discoverer of them, the best of as many as from those partes have come, yet I would say in this thirde parte something of them, which he sent me for knowledge, saying: that because I wrote of them they had knowledge of them: and the booke which I wrote of them was the guide to finde and discover them, as we have saide, and hee sheweth by his Letter, which we have set in the second part.

Those which hee sent mee too proove bee very excellent in their colour, making and greatenesse, whereof I have broken some, and finde them as excellent as those of the East India: and so they proove in powder, or in one little graine as the other doo, and in colour well neere they are the same. Truth it is that those which have this qualitie and goodnesse, and have all the qualities that the Bezaar stones ought to have whiche are fine, should bee those that are taken out of the Beastes, that are fedde in the Mountaynes, for those whiche are taken out of them that are bredde in the playne Groundes, are not soo good, nor have any Medicinall vertues, because the Beastes are not mainteined by those healthfull Hearbes, whereby these stones are ingendered, for as they bee Beastes and chewe that which they eate of the iuyces, that proceedeth from the hearbs, the stones are ingendred. Which thing that Gentleman gave wel to understande, who was the first discoverer [195] (Fol. 99) of them, who did see where they lay, and were bred within the beast, and with his owne handes made the Anatomie of him, and wrote unto mee that the Bezaar stones are growing in those Beastes, after the manner of a garde made of flesh, of the length of two spannes, lyttle more or lesse, and of three fingers breadth, whiche is ioyned neere unto the Mawe of the inner parte, and in the garde the stones are set in order one after an other, like unto button hoales in a coate.

And they open that garde of flesh being closed, and take out the stones, that surely it is a marvellous thing to see, what Nature hath created there for our health remedie of our evils. And as I have understoode, that these whiche are brought from the East India, be founde after the same maner, so I speake the trueth, for they bring very many which are false, that amongest one hundred there are not to bee founde tenne that are true, and their wryters of the East India doo confesse, that there be made many indeed which are false.

The people of the East India take them out also of a certeine kinde of Goates, that bee for the most parte redde as ours be: they are the best stones which are taken out of the cattel, whiche goe in the Mountaines of Persia: and likewise they take them out of other Goates, and goe in the playne Countries of Malaca, and these are not had in suche estimation, nor have the goodnesse nor the vertues that they of Persia have, because those Goates of Malaca doo serve for cattell to bee eaten, and they be not maintained by healthful hearbes of the mountaines, as they that [196] goe on them are: the like is in our Occidentall Indias: for those which are brought up in the Mountaines of the Peru, have the stones fine and true, which have the marvellous Medicinal vertues, and they that are in the playne ground, are like to these of Malaca, that goe in flockes, as cattel do, whiche serve for the Butcherie, and out of these they take many stones, but they are without profite, because they are not maintayned by the healthfull hearbs of the mountains, as we have saide.

If I woulde set downe heere the great effectes and the diseases which the stones of the Peru have healed, as they whiche come from thence doo tell me, and that Gentleman dooth write unto mee, it would make a great booke. I will write that which only I have experimented, and the effects that I have understoode they woorke, and those that have past by my hands, wherby all credit may be given unto them, as a thing certeine, seeing that there is experience made of them, with all assurance and trust, that they may be used.

Our Occidentall Bezaar stones have great vertues, principally they remedy many persons, which be sick of the heart. For the which I have given great quantitie of them, that have beene brought mee, and they have wrought marvellous effectes, by taking it away from them, were delivered from death. It must be given when they doo founde, before it come, taking it in the morning fasting, with Rose water, if the partie have great heate; if not, then with the water of the flowers of Orenges, the quantitie of foure graines every time: made into pouder, in all kinde of venome, it is the most principal remedy that we know nowe, and that which hath wrought best effect, in many that have beene poysened, which have taken it as wel for venom taken at the mouth, and by bitings of venomous worms, which are full of poyson. It doth truly a marvellous and a manifest work, unto them [197] (Fol. 100) that have drunke the water standing in a stinking lake, being infected with beastes or vermine which are full of poyson, and being swollen immediatly, after that they had drunke it: who by taking this stone twoo of three tymes, are remedied, as I have seene them after this hath happened, whole and well.

In Pestilentie Fevers I have given it many times, and surely it doth extinguishe and kil the malice of them, which is the principal thing that the Phisitions should procure in the like diseases. For although it take away the cause, and withdrawe the putrefaction, yet if it doe not distinguish and take away the malice, the cure is never at an end. For that is it which killeth, and doth the principall hurte, and where there are certaine spots in the body like to Flea bytinges, which appeare in the like fevers, the Bezaar stone of our Indias doeth worke a marvellous effecte. Of those whych they have brought mee, I have spent the most parte, giving them in the like diseases, and surely they have remedied many with marvellous succese, that wherin some of them have been spent by me, hath bee in soundings: and surely I have seene in these stones the effects so greate, that it seemeth a thing of wonder. And especially I have seene these causes more remedied in women then in men. It is a marvelous thing to be taken, it hath wrought manifest effects, where there is a melancholike humor, it doth repaire it much, doth in it in al things which do result of it, a great worke, be it universal or particular, in the head, or that which they cal Mirachia, and also in them that have the Leprosie of the Arabiens or Elephantiasis, of the Greekes. It doeth profite much in Scabbes, in Itchinges, in Scurvinesse, and in all partes of the body that are infected, it maketh a verie good worke, and dooth remedie these evilles manifestly, for that this stone hath propertie to heale them. I have given it in quaterne Agues, and although it take not away the quarterne: [198] yet it taketh away the accidentes of it, the faintnes sadnesse, and the griefe of the heart which in these Fevers are common. Surely they feele with the use of it notable profite, in al long and importunate diseases I doe give it, they finde profit in it, chiefly in those which stand in feare of any malice of disease, or windinesse, wheresoever it be. For I have seene, that in this it hath a greate propertie, and of this it commeth, that it is good to caste into purges, some graines of it, that if the purge doe carrie venomous qualities, it may ractifie them, and amend them, and if not, it giveth force, and strenghth to the heart, and they woorke the better. In the oriental Indias they have a custome to purge themselves twice everie yere, and especially the noble people of estimation, and after they have purged themselves, they take everie morning fasting foure graines of the Bezaar Stone, with Rose water, or with water made for the purpose, and they say that this doeth conserve their youth, and strengthen the members, and preserve them from diseases: and it is a good use, for it cannot choose, but doe them much good. For Wormes they give this Stone with most happie successe, and surely I have given it to many people, and especially to Children, and Boyes, that are tormented with this evill, and I have seene such workes as are not to be beleeved, if they were not seene. I give it by it selfe, and also mingled with this pouder, in this forme.

I doe take hearbe Lumbrigera,(koraalmos) the wayght of twelve pence, the seede of Santonic, (Artemisia) the wayght of sixe pence, the Horne of a Harte burned, and the seede of Verdolagas, (Portulaca) and Carlina, of everie one the waight of three pence, and the Bezaar Stone of the Peru, the waight of three pence: of these thinges let there be small pouder made, and let them be well mingled. These pouders are marvellous and of greate effecte, to expell Wormes, and verie much experimented in many people, and they have wrought in this case [199] (Fol. 101) greate effectes, and they must be given in the morning fasting, as to the Phisition shall seeme good, according to the age of him that shall take them, using some medicine of Milke, and Suger twee houres after they bee taken. And unto children being sicke of it, wee give this stone mingled with milke: and without it, if they doe sucke and it doeth a marvellous worke: and to them that be in yeeres, by it selfe, or mingled with other thinges appropriated for the disease. In conclusion, we give this stone in al long diseases, importunate, where the ordinarie medicines have not profited, in which it doeth manifest profite, and if it doe not profite, yet it can doe no hurte.

Of the Fig trees of the Peru.

Figgs trees being caried from spaine to the Peru, have increased so wel in that country that there is great plentie of them, where they cary many very good Figges, of all sorts, and you shall understande, that in that country there are certain kinds of Vermin, which are called Spiders, whersoever they be, they doe spinne, and make Nettes as they in Spaine doe. These kinde of Vermin bee greate, and come to bee as greate as Orenges, and they are so full of poyson that with one stinging they kill, unlesse there bee used great remedie. And if it be long time without remedie, and that the Poyson goe up to the heart, there is nothing that can be done that will benefite, but he must die without remedie: and for this there is founde a remedy in the Figges trees, which is a marvellous thing, that as soone as the Indians or the Spaniardes doe feele themselves bitten by this evill Spider, they goe to the Figge trees, and put into it the Milke whych commeth foorth of the leaves of them, two or three times to the place, that is bitten, and this worketh so great effect, [200] that it remedieth it which is so poysened, with the venom that the Vermine did cast into the sore, and the accidentes be remitted which they suffer, to wit, great griefs and soundings, remaining only to heale the place bitten, and as it is little, so it healeth forthwith, although they procure to keepe it open a long time. And Gods wil is, that at all times this remedie shoulde not lacke, for the Figge trees never loose their leaves, throughout all the yeare they are alwaies greene.

Of the Coca. (Erythroxylon coca)

I was desirous to see that hearbe so celebrated of the Indians, so many yeres past, which they call the Coca, which they sow, and till with muche care, and diligence, because they use it for their pleasures, which we will speake of. The Coca is an herb of the height of a yard, litle more or les, it carieth leaves like to Arraihan, (Myrtus) somewhat greater, and in that Leafe there is marked another leafe of the like forme, with a line very thin: they are soft, of colour a light greene, they cary the seede in clusters, it commeth to be red when it is ripe, as the seed of Arraihan, when it is ripe. And it is of the same greatnes, when the hearbe is seasoned that it is to be gathered, it is knowen in the seede, that it is ripe when it is of some rednes like to a blackish colour, and the hearbe being gathered, it put into Canes and other things, that they may dry, that they may be kepte and caried to other parts. For that they carie them from the high Mountaines, to other places, as marchandize [201] (Fol. 102) to be solde, they barter and change them for Mantelles, and Cattel and Salt, and other things which runne like monie amongst us, they plant the seede in Almaciga, and from that they take them up and set them in other places, into Earth that is wel laboured or tilled, and made convenient to set them in by their lines and order, as we do set here a Garden of Beanes, or the Peason.

The use of it amongst the Indians is a thing generall, for many things, for when they travell by the way for neede and for their content when they are in their houses, they use it in this forme. They take Cockles or Oysters, in theyr shelles, and burne them and grinde them, and after they are burned they remaine like Lime, very small grounde: then they take the Leaves of the Coca, and chewe them in theyr Mouthes, and as they chewe it, they mingle with it some of the pouder made of the shelles in such sorte, that they make it lyke to a Paste, taking lesse of the Pouder then of the hearbe, and of this Paste they make certeyne small bawles rounde, and lay them to drie, when they will use them, they take a little Ball in their mouth, and chewe it, rowling it from one place to an other, procuring to conserve it all that they can, and that being done, they take another, and so they goe, using it al the time that they have need, which is when they travell by the waye, and especially if it bee by wayes where is no meate, nor plentie of water. For the use of these litle Balles taketh the hunger and thirst from them: they say that they receive substaunce thereby, as though they dyd eate meate. At other times they use them for their pleasure, although they labour not by the way, and they use the same Coca alone, chewing it tossing it in their mouths, from one side to another, until there be no vertue remaining in it, and then they take another.

When they will make themselves drunke, and be out of iudgement, they mingle with the Coca the leaves of the [202] Tabaco, and chewe them altogether, and goe as they were out of their wittes, or as if they were drunke, which is a thing that dooth give them great contentment, to be in that sort. Surely it is a thing of great consideration, to see howe desirous the Indians are to be deprived of their wittes, and to bee without understanding, seeing that they use thus the Coca with the Tabaco, and to al this end, that they would by without understanding, and have their wittes taken from them, als wee sayde in the seconde parte, when wee treated of the Tabaco.

Of the divers colours of the ground.

Marvellous thing it is, wel to bee considered, the divers colours of the groundes which are in the fieldes, in the countries of Peru: for that looking a far off you shal see many parts of grounds of divers colours, which seeme to be clothes of divers colours laid to dry in the Sun: for you shall see one part of the ground greene, and an other blewe, and foorthwith an other yeallow, and white, and blacke, and red, and of so other colours, all which are Mineries of divers Earths. Of the blacke I can say that they sent mee a little that there with I might make Inke, which being cast into water or wine there is made thereof very good Inke, wherewith one may write very well, but it is from what blewe, which maketh of it a better shewe.

The red grounde hath beee a thing of great riches, for that which hath beene taken out of it, for it is a Mineris most excellent, of which is made quicke Silver, and there out is taken such quantitie of it, that there are carried to the newe Spaine, Shippes laden with it, whiche is a riches [203] (Fol. 103) so great, that it is not knowne unto the Indians. It serveth them for no other use then to mingle it with certeine gums, to paint themselves withall, which they use to do when they goe to their warres to shewe themselves gallant and fierce. Every day they discover in those countries groat Mineries of metals, such like things, for they have found out a mountaine of Oker, a Myne of Allom, an other of Brimstone, and many other things which they do daily discover.

Of the Casany. (Manihot esculenta)

I have caused them to bring me from Sancto Domingo a leafe of that plant whereof, thet make the Casani, and they brought it mee. The Casani is the bread which the Indians so many multitudes of yeres have maintained themselves whitall, do yet maintaine themselves, likewise many Spaniards. It is made of an hearbe that the Indians do call Yuca, which is of five or sixe spans of height, it carrieth certein leaves open, spred abroad like to the fingers af an hand and every one carrieth seaven or eight points, thet are alwaies greene, they are sette in a ground wel tilled, of peeces cut off from the same plant, the fruite is after the manner of grosse Turneps, they are of colour Tawnie without, onely in the body, for within they are white, and they pare them to use them: and of this fruit they make bread in this forme.

They make it cleane from the Rinde, and grate it in certeyne Graters, which are made of Needles, and being so grated they put it unto a slive of palme, uppon it they hang thinges of weight, which are great stones, which make the iuyce run out of it, beeing wel pressed it remaineth as Almondes beaten: they cast this into a plaine frying panne of [204] Earth, that they have put to the fire, and there they knede it, and make it like to a little cake of Egges, turning it from one side to an other, and after it is wel kneded, it remaineth like a Cake, of the thicknes of a poece of silver of foure shillinges, or little more, which they lay in the Sunne, that it may drye, and these Cakes they use for Bread, which are of muche substaunce. These Cakes continue long time without corrupting, and they bring them in the hippes, which come from those partes, into Spayne without beeyng corrupted, and serve for Bisket to all people. It eateth as a thing sharpe, and so it serveth, and they lay it to soake in water, or in Broth, or in Pottage, for after this manner they serve themselves better with it then to eate it drie. It is needefull to have a vessel with water, for to soake it in.

It is a marvellous thing of the iuyce which commeth out of this fruite, whiche is spoken of, that if any Man or beast do drink it, or any parte of it, incontinently he dyeth, as with the most strong venom that is in the worlde: but if this iuyce doo seethe, and bee consumed one halfe, and so sette out to coole, it serveth for very good Vineger, and it is used as if it were made of Wine: and of you seeth, it untill it bee throughly purged and thicke, it serveth for Honie, and becommeth sweete: you may see how much the seething avayleth in these things, seeyng that of mortall venome, it maketh meate, and healtfull drinke. And I will say an other thing whiche bryngeth admyration: that all this kinde of Corne, whiche groweth in the firme Lande whiche is like to that of Sancto Domingo, whiche they call Cacavi, is healthfull, and the Fruite thereof is eaten and the Water that commeth of it is drunke, without having any venomous qualitie, and that of Sancto Domingo, howsoever it be eaten the iuyce thereof unles it be sodden, it killeth. And that the disposition of the place is so greate [205] (Fol. 104) a cause, that, that which is healthfull and allowable sustenance in the firme land, the same is mortal venome in al the Islandes: as Columella writeth of the Peache, that it was venom most mischeevous, which in Persia did kill men and being brought into Italy it lost that malice and propertie that it had to kill, and giveth unto us health, and a sweete iuyce.

Howsoever it be, having in the Indias so much Mayes, and so common in all partes thereof, I woulde not eate Casavi, seeing that the Mayes are of as good substaunce, as our Wheate, and in no parte hath either veome, or poyson, but rather is healthful, and maketh a good stomack. There is bread made of it, as of the Casavi, for they grinde it, and with water they knede it, and in a Frying panne of Earth they bake certain Cakes, which they make of it, and it must be eaten freshe, assoone as it is made: for being dry it is sharpe and troublesome to swallow downe, and doeth offende the teeth.

(Ipomoea batatas) The Batatas, which is a common fruite in those countries. I take for a vittaile of muche Substaunce, and that they are in the middest betweene fleshe and Fruite. Trueth it is that they be windie, but that is taken from them by rosting, chiefly if they bee put into fine Wyn: there is made of them Conserva verie excellent, as Marmolade, and small Morselles, and they make Potages and Brothes, and Cakes of them verie excellent: they are subject that there be made of them any maner of Conserva, and any maner of meat: ther be so many in spaine, that they bring from Velez Melaga everie yeare to Sevill, tenne or twelve carvelles laden with them. They bee sowen of the same Plantes that are sette, the smallest of them, or peeces of the greatest in the Earth that is well tilled, and they grow very wel, and in eight Monethes the rootes ware very grosse, so that you may eate of them: They be temperate, and being rosted, or otherwise drest, they soften the Bellie, [206] and being raw, they are not good to be eaten, because they are windie, and hard of digestion.

Of the Canes which are good for the shortnesse of breat. (Arundinaria gigantea)

They bring from the newe Spaine greate Canes, of a Cane that are covered within without with a certaine gumme, to me it seemeth that it is mingled with the iuice of Tabaco, and it is heavy. It seemeth that the Cane is annointed, and as at thinge that clingeth fast, it is clunged well to the said Cane, and it is of a blacke colour, and beeing harde it clingeth not, they kindle th Cane at the parte where the gumme is, and the other parte of it they putte in the mouth, and they receive that smoke, and with it they caste out from them all fleume and rottennesse, that is in the breast: and this they doe when they finde themselves greeved with the shortnesse of wind, so that they be al readie to choke. I have seene it done by a Gentleman, who is much pained with it many times, and receiveth by it great profit: and did it first with the Tabaco, taking the smoke of it, it brought to him the like benefit. And for this cause, I say that it seemeth, to cary with it the iuice of the Tabaco, mingled with the one and with the other. It is done with al assurance, for that we do see it experimented with manifest assurance in many.

Some being sicke of the shortnesse of breath, that come from the Indias with it I have seene expel, cast out this rottennes, by taking a little Tabaco green chewing the iuice of it, which although it belothsome, it doeth them much good to expel the rottennes fleumes, which are retained within the [207] (Fol. 105) brests, so that they be lightened with it notably. It is a marvellous thing, the great vertues, and sundry and divers effectes that they doe discover of the Tabaco: for besides that which I have written of it in the second part, of the marvellous vertues thereof, I determined to make further triall of it, as I have understood, and seene since that time.

Of the Carlo Sancto. (Ipomoea jalapa)

In the second parte we entreated of the vertues of the roote, that then they had brought from the new Spaine which they cal Carlo Sancto, and now in these shippes they have brought it, with great veneration, estimation: the roote is called Indica, they bring written many vertues of it more then they are wonte to reporte of the Rosemarie. Nowe that which have been experimented seene since that I wrote of it, I wil speake, ot this Roote, which beeing made into pouder, given to women that newly brought Children, who for evill keeping have taken great colde and benumbe, it profiteth muche to provoke them to sweate, and maketh them remaine cleere: it profiteth muche given with wine, or water of the flores of Orenges, unto them that have a harde labour. There was a Frier which had paynes of the Stomacke, and no taste of his meate, but had an evill breath, and much windinesse, and al did proceede of colde that hee hadde taken, and litle natural heate. He sodde of these Rooth in water at his discretion, as the water of the Sarcaparillia is sodden, and so he dranke it continually, at dinner supper for a long time, and it did so well with him, that he amanded his stomacke, and increased the heate of it, whereby hee did digest, and consume his meate very wel, and tooke from him his evill breath, and consumed the windes, and in taking [208] of this water there followed a remedy not thought of, which was, for that he was broken many yeres, did weare continually about him a Brich made for the same purpose, and he left it not off in a long time: but having used the water two moneths he found himselfe whole and well, so he is now well without any feeling of it.

In the seething of this roote, washing your mouth therewith, it strengethenet the Gummes, it keepeth the teeth from worme eating, and if you have any teeth worme eaten it suffereth them not to proceed forward. I have experimented many yeeres to cause the mouth to be washed continually with the equall partes of vinegar of Sevilles, and water of the smal heades of Roses, that surely if it be used to wash the teeth and gummes therwith continually, it preserveth them from eating of wormes, and if ther be any, it passeth not forward, which thing I have experimented and used in many, for many yeares.

Of the stone of the Mother.

They bring also from new spaine a stone which they say doth profit much for the evil of the Mother, it is a blacke stone and very smooth waighty, for the most part they are long round. It is a great thing that they report this stone dooeth, for that a Lady of great countenance credit, certified me that she put it to her Navil, it clung fast to it, she hath found therwith manifest profit, so do others say that have used it in the like sort. When they feele the paines, they be wel neere choked with it, in laying to the stone, it taketh away immediatly, if it lie to continually, it never commeth unto them. The credit that I give to the thing, is the experience that is knowen of it. [209] (Fol. 115)

Of the Canafistola in Conserva. (Cassia vorm als Senna occidentalis)

I was desirous to see the leafe of the tree, that the Canafistola beareth, the flower whiche it casteth out, seing that here we have the fruit so known: so they brought me the leafe, the flower dry. The leaf is like to the leafe of a Peare tree the flower is very litle, white, of five leaves, although it be dry it hath some good smell. Of these flowers come foorth those great Canes of the Canafistola so known of al people in the world. And there are carried from this our citie many ships laden of it, before it came from the Indias the Canafistola was brought from Egipt, to Alexandria, and from thence to Venice, and from thence it was reparted to all places, and now they bring if from Sancto Domingo, and Saint Johne de Puerto Rico, unto this Citie, and from thence it is reparted, through all the worlde. For that of our Indias is taken too bee beter, and of better woorke then that of Levante. Of that little flower so small, are produced those Canes of Canafistola, that some of them are sowre Pawnes of lenght: from the time that they spring, and come to the greatnes that they should have, they are alwayes greene, and in taste of much sharpenesse, as the Berrieds called Algarrovas (Ceratonia) be when they are green, after they are growne as greate as they will be, they waxe ryppe, and then they are redde, and they come to be blacke, and the more black they bee, the fuller of Hony they are, more rype. And the Canes that are not very black but somewhat lyke to redde are not rype, insomuche that the moste blacke, and the smoothest, and the weightiest are the best. Of the flower, as wee have said, there is made Conserva of twoo sortes, the one beaten with Sugar like Sugar of Roses and the other of the whole flower sodden in Sugar the one and the other is verie good Conserva: beeing taken [210] from twoo to three Ounces of it, it purgeth well and easilie, and even as it is good to take, so it is good to worke, for that I have purged many people with it, and it maketh a very good worke, and purgeth without paynes. One thing they doo evill in those partes, which is, that they never bryng them hyther made with good Sugar, if they come so, they would be the better, and of better taste. Thet bee purges for delicate people, they evacuate the same humor that the Canafistola dooth. Of the Canes of the small Canafistola there is made an other Conserva verie good, which is an excellent purge, and delicate: for they take the small Canes, which are growing of a small time, and seethe them in Sugar, and with the seething and Sugar, is taken from them the sharpenesse and the drinesse which they have, and they are made tender and softe, and of a very good savour. They beeing taken, make a verie good woorke, and purge without greefe or molestation, and without all accidents and faintnesse that purges are used to procure, for that they are full of good tast, at the taking of them, and light of working. They are given from two Ounces to three, I have given them many times with very good successe, and have taken them beeyn sick, and they have wrought verie well with mee. Of these Conservas they bring hither every yeere from Sancto Domingo, and Puerto Rico many Barrelles full. The Canafistola that is perfect and rype, is the moste excellent Medicine for to purge withall, of as many as have been knowe to this day, and that dooth his woorke best in that which it serveth for, and with moste assuraunce as it is well known not only to Phisitions, but also to al the world, and doth his work without the hurtes and accidents which other Purgative Medicines are used too doo, and it is a generall Medicine, amongst them that are called blessed, is the most blessed of all, whose vertues and properties we doo treat of perticulerley, in the first part, and that which we [211] (Fol. 107) have spoken heere hath beee to give relation of the leaves, and flowers of it, which they have now brought me.

One thing I would they should be advertised of, that when wee are commaunded to give Canafistola, to lighten and soften the belly, and that the common matters may be voyded downe, is ment that they should take it a small time before meate be eaten, as the most halfe an hour before, for the meate being mingled ioyntlie with it, worketh with it, and in this order it maketh a very good woorke, and purgeth very wel, without paines: which is not done with that which is taken any long time before meate, as two or three houres before, as now many do use it, for that the meate beeing dilated, it maketh an ende of working. And as it is a thing without strength and weake, it goeth al into vapours, and so sheadeth it selfe abroad throughout all the body: and if it tary long, it is converted into meate, and substaunce, which I have seene by experience manye yeeres wherein I have practised, that alwayes as I gave it halfe an houre before meate at the most, it maketh a good worke, and if it be given many houres before meat, it purgeth, and evacuateth litle. Concerning mingling of medicines, which doo purge, with the meate, Hipocrates treateth of it in many partes, and Galene in his Commentaries. And trueth it is, that when we wil that the Canafistola should not evacuate, but that the vapours shoulde bee spred abroade by the reines, and al the bodye, wee give it many houres before meate, and then not working it performeth the effect that we have spoken of.

Of the Balsamo of Tolu. (Myroxylon balsamum, eerder Myroxylon toluiferum)

They newly bring from the Firme lande, from a Province which is betweene Cartagene, Numbre de Dios, which the Indians call Tolu, a Balsamo, or licour, that is the best thing, and of greatest vertues, [212] of as many thinges as come from those partes. They gather it from certeyne Trees, whiche after the manner of little Pinos, which cast out many bowes to al partes. It carrieth the leafe lyke to Algarrova (Ceratonia) all the yeere it is green, they are the best whiche growe in a softe Grounde well tilled.

This Balsamo the Indians doo gather by way of incision, gyving certeyne cuttes in the rinde of the tree, for it is thinne and soft, and they set underneath it, neere unto the tree, thinges like to dishes made of waxe, whiche is in that countrey blacke, which they take out of Hives, that certeine blacke Bees doo make in the chappinges of the grounde, I have seene brought much of this Waxe into Spayne and it was spente in Torches, but is was forbidden that none of it should bee spent, for the smoke which it cast from it, had so evil a smel, that it coulde not bee suffered. They dyd use this waxe in matters of Medicine, for thereof were made Cerecloathes, which wrought very good effectes, in mitigating greefe of any colde cause, it dissolveth any manner of swelinges, and woorketh many other good effectes. Of thys Waxe the Indians doo make vessels like to a spoone, and set them close to the Tree, that they may receive the licour that commeth out of it, by the places where the cuttings are made, and from thence they receive it into those vessels: and it is needefull that it bee done in time of great heate, that the cuttinges maye caste out the Licour, and in thys tyme lykewise, there soketh out of the ioyntes of the sayde Tree some Licour, and it is lost because it is so little, and falleth into the ground: in the night time there commeth foorth none.

This licour, or Balsamo is very much esteemed amongst the Indians, and is of great value, and with the notable woorkes whiche therewith are doone, and the Spaniards have learned, and by seeing the great workes which it maketh [213] (Fol. 108) they have brought it hither as a thing of great estimation, and such a thing as they buy there for a great price: and they have reason so to doe: for one of the best thinges that have come from those partes, which have beene brought for Medicine, is this Balsamo, whith seemeth to be better then that of the newe Spaine, and in it selfe appeareth to have more vertues.

It is of an Alborne colour, verie neere lyke to a thynge that is gilt, it is not verie thinne, nor verie thicke, it clingeth faste wheresoever it bee layde, and it hath the taste and savour sweete, and although it bee taken, it maketh not any horriblenesse, as the other Balsamo doeth, it hath a most excellent smell, like to Limons, insomuch that where soever it bee, the good smell thereof giveth greate contentment, and it cannot bee hidden, for a little of it smellleth much: and if you rubbe your hande therewith, there remayneth a marvellous small. The works thereof are excellent and verie greate, for that it is licour which is taken out by incision, as they tooke out in olde time the Balsamo in Egypt: and for al those diseases for which that was good, this of ours is as good.

It healeth al fresh woundes, comforting the partes, and ioining them without making any matter, and without leaving any signe of them. The superfluity that is in the wound must be taken away of what sort soever it be, washed with wine, ioyned wel in the lips, partes thereof, and then the Balsammo laid to it when the coldnesse is out of it, and forthwith a double linnen cloth upon it, wet in the same Balsamo, and so bounde that the lippes go not a sunder, and keeping diet, and using letting of blood if it bee needfull, and not unbinding it untill the fourth day, and they shall finde the wounde comforted, exept that there bee any accident, which causeth it to bee undone before. And when the cause is such, that it requireth to bee dressed [214] every day, by reiterating the wet Linnen cloth in the Balsamo, it will bee healed, for the vertue of the Balsamo is to cause that there bee no matter engendred in the woundes, and especially this Balsamo dooeth profite in woundes, where there hath beene cuttinges of bones, taking them out that have beene devided one from another, and not touching the rest, for that the vertue of the Balsamo will caste them out, and having so done, wil heale the wounde. One of the thinges wherein this Balsamo worketh great effectes, is in woundes and iointes, and in cuttings of Sinewes, and in al prickes: for in all these kindes of woundes it maketh a marvellous woorke, curing and preserving them from extreame colde, and from running together of Sinewes, that they remaine not lame. The wounds which doe penetrate, are healed with this Balsamo, beeing mingled with white wine, and spouting it into them, and after three houres taking it out again. This must be done in wounds or prickes, once every day, that it may goe with a moderate heat. Likewise this Balsamo serveth to e applyed, where have beene given dry blowes, or brusinges, and for al works of Surgery, where is no notable inflammation, which beeing taken away with the medicines, that are convenient for it. The Balsamo may then be used.

In evelles which belong not to Surgerie this Balsamo doth profit much, as in him that hath shortnes of breath, by taking a fewe droppes in whyte wine it profith hym much: it taketh away the grief of the head comming of a cold cause, and a litle Plaister being laide upon the griefe, and wette therewith to the temples of the head, taketh away all runninges by those partes, and in especially the evils of the eyes, and Reumes that runne into them, beeing layd to the fore part of the head, and it must bee good and hot. It taketh away the paines of it, and comforteth it, and remedyeth the Palsie. Some that have beene in a Consumption [215] (Fol. 109) have used it, taking some droppes in the morning, licking them out of the Palme of the hand, and they have felt notable profit. And it maketh cleane the brest very wel, it is good to take somme droppes with Aqua vitae, hot, before any maner of colde in a Quarterne Ague, or of a long importunate tertian Ague, annoynting with the same Balsamo, mingled with Oyle of Ruda, the Temples of the heade, good and hot, before the colde dooth come. If with the Balsamo they annoynt themselves from the mouth of the stomacke to the Navil, it comforteth the stomacke, it giveth a lust to mate, it helpeth digestion, it dissolveth Windes, it taketh awaye the paines of the stomack, and it worketh farre better these effects, if the halfe of the Balsamo be mingled with another halfe of Oyle of Spike Nardi compounded or simple, and so it is better applyed. There is great experience of it in the Indias, for swellinges that are in the maner of Dropsies: and mingling it with ointment, disopilations, of equal parts, and annointing the belly therewith chieflye the parte neere the Lunges, there are seene wrought therewith great effects: it dissolveth any manner of swelling or hardnes that is any parte of the body, and being laide upon any paine that commeth of a colde cause, although it be of long continuaunce, it taketh it away, bringing it to be so small until it fal of it self, the same it dooth wheresoever is any winde. And if it bee in the belly, or in any parte of the body, wetting a Linnen cloth hotte in Aqua vitae of the best, and applying it to the place, where the greefe of the Stone is: and mingled with Oyle made for the purpose, it maketh a great woorke, it taketh awaye the paines of the Sinewes, and when they be shronk together, in a very hot weather, rubbing them with it, it dissolveth them. The evil called Lamparones that are open or shutte, it healeth. Many other efectes this marvellous licour worketh which I have not knowen but these which I have knowen I doo manifest to al the worlde, that they may [216] take profite by so marvellous a Medicine, which hath so many vertues as you have hearde, and every day the tyme will discover other greater.

The end of the thirde, and last parte. [215]


A Booke which treateth of two medicines most excellent against all venome, which are the Bezaar stone, & the hearbe Escuerconera. (Scorzonera hispanica)

Wherein are declared their marvellous effectes & great vertues, with the manner howe to cure the sayd venoms & the order which is to be used for to be preserved from them.

Where shall be seene greate secretes in medicine and many experiences.

Newly compyled by Doctor Monardus of Sevill



Translated out of Spanish into English, by Iohn Frampton.

1580. [216] (Fol, 112)

TO THE RYGHT WOORSHIPFULL, MAYSTER EDWARD DYER ESQUIER, Iohn Frampton wisheth increase of all woorship with perpetuall felicitie.

Finding heretofore, Ryght Worshipfull, my former tanslation out of Spanish into Englysh, of the woorke of Doctor Monardus of Sevyll, treating of thinges of the Weaste Indias, to bee some-thing painefull to mee, not before accuustomed in tanslations, in tongues so farre differing in Phrase of speech: I was forced to cutte off, and to leave three Bookes of the whole worke undone, dedicated unto three honourable Persons whereof the first Booke doeth shewe as well the great and rare Vertues of the Bezaar stone of the East India against Poyson, hotte, or colde, as also his wonderfull force agaynste the Plague and Pestilence, and many other diseases: as hath in olde time beene written by the most excellent Phisitions, and as Doctor Monardus and others the learned of this our tyme, nowe in thys age finde by present proofe. Th seconde of these three bookes dooeth open the unspeakeable vertue in Phisicke of yron and steele, and howe all the diseases [217] of the bodie from the toppe of the heade to the soale of the foote may be cured by the same, so as no drugge in the worlde is thought to bee comperable to the same. The thyrd book sheweth the mischiefes that growe by drynkyng of drinkers whotte, and what Beneifite dooeth followe by drinking our drynkes colde &c. And Syr, finding many thankfullye to take my sayde former simple travell too you heeretofore dedycated: and your Woorshippe above all desert of my parte to recompence the same, and beeyng earnestlye and often exhorted by the learned Phisition Maister Doctor Hector nonnes to translate these saide 3 Bookes also, the remanent of Monardus woorkes, and to make my Country men of Englande pertakers of the benefite of the same, I tooke it in hande, as inflames with the great commendations that this learned man made of the sayde three Bookes, and especially of the Booke treating of the benefite of yron and steele in Phisicke. And having nowe thus finished the whole Woorke, I dedicate the same to your Worship, as to the man to whome I am moste bound, and that dooth of manye best deserve the same, requesting you too take it in good parte & to beare with the base doing of the same. And calling to remembraunce of what moment in sometimes A man of value may be to a common Weale, and howe common in the worlde practise of Poyson is, and what malyce raignes nowe among men, and how needfull it is that some kinde of persons should feare and provide for the worst, [218] (Fol. 113) and weighing that by our Persian Marchants and by other meanes the Bezaar stone this greate Iewell is brought into the Realme, and may bee compassed in this time for a little money: And withall, weighing that Iron and steele bee thinges tending so much to the cure of all diseases, and bee the naturall home commodities of England and such as are common, and that are both easily and cheaply to bee had by everie poore subiect, I have the rather for the ready benefite that might enfue, taken the dispatch of the translation in hande with purpose no longer to keepe the same out of printe: and so I most humbly take my leave, from London the xv of Iune,


Your worship most bounden.

John Frampton. [219]


To the right excellent Ladie the Duches of Beiar, Marquesa of Ayemontey and of Gibraleon, Countesse of Benalcasar and of Banares, Lady ot the townes of Burguillos, Capilla, and Curiell and their Iurisdictions, and my verie good Lady, Doctor Monarus your Phisition, wisheth health &c.

Such as are accustomed to write any worke, right excellent Lady, dedicate the same to some great Prince, or Lord that it may be read of him with more respect and with better will. So I most excellent Lady have more reason to do this: the one, by reason your excellencie is so great a Princesse, & the other, because I am servant to your excellencie, and that by your meanes I had knowledge of the Bezaar stime, & of the hearbe Escuerconere of the which I meane to treat in this booke. The which are two thinges of great importance and verie necessarie for the life of mankinde, seeing that they cure and heale so many and divers diseases, as in the proces of the worlde shall bee seene. And seeing that by meanes of your excellencie I attained to the full knowledge of these two thinges: even so I doe dedicate them to you, that by meanes of the favour of your excellencie, all the great vertues and marvellous effectes of these two notable medicines may be knowen, & they shal take in good part the good work and labour that heerein hath bin taken. The which I desire your excellencie to receive, as of a servant that desireth to employ his life in the service of your excellencie, as also procureth that yours may be encreased verie manye yeares. [220]


The Booke which treateth of two medicines most excellent against all venome, to say, the Bezaar stone, and the hearbe Escuerconera. Whereupon are written dyvers marvellous effectes nowe newely compyled by Doctor Monardus Phisition of Sevill.

Plinie verye muche complayneth in his Booke of the naturall historye, saying that all thinges in this life are contrarie to man, and that onely to beastes Nature is a mother. For there is given them strength and instinct of nature, wherby they know, howe to choose that whiche is evill: whereas Man onely, beeing left destitute thereof, not knowing what is convenient for himselfe, neither shunneth or avoydeth that thing which doth anoye him. Which if hee bee not taught to knowe: or of hys owne understanding hee dooth not weigh: it commeth to passe that hee suffer many troubles, and that suddenlye there happeneth unto him an unfortunate ende. And amongst those mischiefes wherin he standeth so often in danger, which every houre hang over his head: those things which bring him soonest to an ende, and which woorke him most hurt: are the venomes which are founde in manye little hearbes, and in divers minerals, and in many kindes of vermin. Besides those which the mallice of men hath invented against themselves, there are manye whiche by Nature are in Plantes, trees, stones, and vermin or Beastes; so that man can have no cause too be proude of his owne dignitye: but rather maye [221] bewayle him heereof: in that so little a Hearbe can offende him, and so small a fruite or stone may destroye him.

Against all these venomes as wel in general as in particular, the Phisitions as wel Greekes as Arabiens, Latinistes wrote effectual remedies as well general as particular. Amongest the which they put one in practise, that in tymes past was had in great estimation, and taken for a present remedy, for the greate vertues and marvellous effectes, whiche it wrought against all venomes and accidentes thereof, which they called the Bezaar stone. But as tyme is the discoverer of all thinges: so is it the destroyer and consumer of every thing: for in having been hid so long from us, wee knewe no more what the Bezaar stone was, then as if it had never beene: and the name thereof was so strange and unknowne unto us, even as the townes in Scitia. Time it selfe willing to restore again unto us this precious stone hidden from us so many yeeres: not onely discovered the same unto us, but iointly therwith hath descried unto us an hearbe, which hath the like vertues and effectes against all manner of venome, which hearbe is called Escuerconera, having beene discovered but a fewe yeeres past to our exceeding great profit and commoditie.

And because these twoo thinges, to wit, the Bezaar stone, and the Hearbe Escuerconera, bee so lyke in operation and have so many and the selfe same vertues, against venome, that I determined to write of them both togeather, and to shewe the proper Vertues of these twoo thinges so excellent in Medicine: it is needefull first to knowe, and therefore treate of the Venomes as a beginning of the woorke: and to declare what Venome is, and the cause of suche as have taken Venome, and then the remedies thereof, and howe they may bee preserved from them; and therefore we wil treate first of Venom, for that it [222] (Fol. 115) wil serve not a litle for the intent of that which we minde to write of the Bezaar stone, and the hearbe Escuerconera.

Venom is a thing, which beeing taken at the mouth, or applyed outwardly dooth overcome our bodies, by making them sicke, or by corrupting of them, or by killing them: and this is founde in one of these foure thinges: in plants, in minerals, in beasts, or in mixtures, the which worketh their effectes, eyther by manifest qualitie, or by hidden propertye, of both. These vemoms partly do kill us: partly we use them for our profite and bodily health, and partely the people of auncient time did use them for a remedie against their great labours. That which doth offend us as well in generall, as in particular. Dioscorides in hys sixth booke of his history of Plantes doeth treate of very exactly, puttingg in generall those remedies, and in particular, that which is convenient for every one of them: and the same did other Greeks, Latinistes, and Arabians, which are to be seene, who will more particularly know of them.

These did write of many medicines, with the which every one may preserve themselves from poyson: for the malice of mankinde is very great, and many have procured for their interest, and revenge, not onely with venome to offend and kill the common sorte of people: but also Emperours, Kinges, great Princes and Lords: the which in how much more high estate they are appointed and placed, so much the more danger the are in.

And many notable men of the olde Wryters fearyng this, did compounde many and divers medicines, that by meanes of them they might not be hurte by venom or venomous thinges that might be given to them. As for example, the Emperour Marco Antonia did use suche thinges, who fearing to be poysoned tooke every morning a little Triacle and Methridate. Sometimes his confection Menthridatica, other times certeyne leaves of Rue, with Nuttes and [223] Figges: and so they did use the like medicines because they would not be offendend with venome, if any were given unto them.

Others there bee which doo use venome too remedye and heale many diseases: and likewyse the Phisitions doo use them to expell and evacuate the Humours that doo abounde over muche in our Bodies: for that this cannot bee doone effectually, unlesse there bee used violance against nature, so the purgation medicines beeing strong, doo not wante Venome: trueth it is that it is procured with all dylygence too correcte and prepare them, but although that thys bee doone, yet alwayes there dooth remayne venome wherewith that woorke is made so strong.

Also they use venomes in Surgerie, with the which they doo roote out and eate the naughtye fleshe and the superfluitye of woundes, and doo open and serve to burne. Where it is needefull lykewise the venomes doo preserve from diseases: as Quicksylver beeyng carryed about, one dooeth preserve Children from the evill of the eye: and the Sublimatum from the Plague. I knewe one that kepte sicke people in an Hospital, where they dyd heale manye that were sicke of the Plague: and with carrying continually a peece of Sublimatum neere unto his hearte, it never came to hym, neyther was hee sicke of anye suche disease.

Others in olde times being Infidels did use venoms, where with they delivered themselves from evill Deathes, Iniuries, or perpetuall Slavernye, whiche have beene taken alyve they shoulde have suffered. As Demosthemes, whom they woulde have put to a moste cruell death and notorious, prevented them by taking venome that hee carried with hym continually a little Cane under hys hayre behynde his eare. The lyke Democrito with venome [224] (Fol. 116) whyche he carried in a Ring: and Hanniball when he sawe him selfe overcome: lykewyse Cleopatra because Pompeio shoulde not tryumphe over her: and manye others for to deliver themselves from vile Death, whych they looked for, had rather to take it with their own hands, then too suffer their Enemies tyrannous tryumphe over them.

The principall tokes whereby it is knowen when one is venomed, or hath taken Venome after he hath eaten of drunke, are; if hee doe feele foorthwith very great heavinesse; and bee overladen as it were in all the bodie, with greate faintnesse; or doe vomite, an that out of his stomacke, there doeth come an horribles savour the colour of his face to chaunge sometymes yellowe, other times pale; or else too bee of the colour of Earth, and of these colours they doe chaunge their lippes, their nayles, and all the bodie; they are so disquieted that they cannot stand neither on their feete, nor lye in their bedde, but rather with fayntnesse and griefe they tumble in their bedde, and on the grounde; they doe feele at their heart greate fayntnesse, and are subiecte too soundinges, and are driven too vomite, yet they cannot, the whyte of the eyes doe turne too the colour of bloode and are inflamed; they looke with a furious countenaunce and horrible; their Pulses beate out of order; and lykewise their breathing; and above all, an universall Colde, throughout all their bodie:

And chiefly in the lower partes, and this is conformable to the venome they have taken: for if the venome were colde, all the body woulde waxe colde, especially their Feete, Handes, and Face and breathing out colde; they are fooolishe and well neere wythout Judgement: if the venome bee hotte, they are troubled and vexed wyth greate Dryeth, and [225] inwarde and outward burning, that it seemeth to them they are fired.

It is also necessarie (to know what venome they tooke) for too see the vomite, and what they doe caste up withall, to iudge by the colour what Venome it was: and beeing knowen by this way, of by Relation, or otherwaies beyng apparaunt, it must be remedied by his contrarie, for to extinguish and kill the malice thereof, as all auncient Phisitions have sufficiently written of, as well in generall agaynst all, as in particular against everie one of them, for that everie one hath his contrarie effects for to remedie the malice thereof.

The tokens that be most evill in them that have taken Venome, by often soundinges, and to cast up the white of their eies, they doe waxe verie red, and put out their tongue verie great, and blacke, and the pulse fall, colde sweet universally throughout all their bodie, chiefly in the extreame parts, and in their breastes, and they are desirous to vomit, but cannot, and they have their understanding troubled: and this is in al kinde of venom being taken, or by bitings of venomous beastes, in so much that they talke yolely as though they had the frensie which is a mortall signe.

It is needfull, for the better knowledge what Venom it was, that it bee seene if there did remaine any thing of that which they had eaten or drunken, and to see what was that which was mingled therewith, iudging it by the colour, the smell and the taste, or giving it to a Dogge, a Hen, or a Cat, and marke how it worketh with them. For if any of them waxe sadde or heavy, it is a token that there is venom: and if they die, it is a token that the venom was strong.

And being knowen to bee venomed the first thing that is to bee procured, that he which is sicke doe vomite, which is the thing that doth most profit bycause there should be no time for the venom to enter, by the vaines, and arteires, for to come to the heart, for if it come thither, it is past all mans [226] (Fol. 117) helpe: and therefore it is convenient that this remedye of Vomite be done with all speede, that it may be expelled, before it passe from the Stomacke. And for to cause Vomite, there must bee procured thinges that in very shorte time will provoke it, as to put the fingers in hotte water, and the mose common thinge is sweete Oyle, drinking muche quantitie thereof in suche sorte, that they fil their Bellies therewith: that it may the better bee expelled: the whych having received, they shall with their Fyngers, or feather provoke them to vomit, which must be done untill that you perceive that all that be expelled, and caste out which was eaten or drunken, which did hurte, and if the Oyle bee not sufficient too dooe this, there may be made thinges for to cause vomite, beginning by the moste Weake, as the seething of Dill, the Seede of Radishe of Camamell and other like thinges, that dooe provoke Vomite, adding to the seething, if it bee needful, a Dramme of Agarico, the which althought it doe provoke vomite strongly, it hath also the propertie to breake the strength of the venome. Some for a greate secrete doe give a Pinte of Water of the Flowers of Orenges warme, which although it dooeth provoke Vomite, it hath also a particular vertue too extingushe, and kill the strength of the Venome, it muste bee given hotte the quantitie of a Pinte. And heereof it commeth that the Water taken out of the Flowers of Orenges which is a kinde of Cydron, hath greate vertue against Venome, as we have written in a little Booke which is printed with others of mine in Latine, that doeth treate of Orenges. It is very good that with the thinge which provoketh vomite, there bee mingled thinges that have vertue against venome, as Triacle, Methridato, and other like thinges, the which heereafter wee will treate of. [227]

In our time there hath beene compounded and drawen out an Oyle, which they call Oyle of Vitrioll, of Coporace, and it is taken to bee that onely whych is moste excellent for too expell and caste out Venome, and for too extinguishe the malice of as many thinges as are nowe knowne too bee venomous: by taking sixe droppes thereof with some Cordiall water, for that it maketh the Venome too bee vomited out, extinguishing the malice of the venome. And not onely this Oyle of Vitryall dooeth profite us for any manner of Venome, but also it is founde out to bee an effectuall remedy for many other infirmities, as Evonimius dooeth shewe beeyng a greate Alcumiste, and also verie well learned in all kinde of Medicinall Distillations.

Hee that shall cure them that gave taken Venome muste have a special care at the firste too procure Vomite, for that it is the principall and first grounde, for to go about to cure and heale them of venom, to minister such medicines that will provoke vomite.

And the Vomite beeing procured, there must bee given afterwarde too him that is sicke, medicines that have particular vertue for too take away, and kill the force that the Venome hath lefte in his Stomacke and other principall Members. And foorthwith it must be procured to knowe what manner of Venome in particular the sicke Person hath taken: for that beeing knowen, goe foorthwith too Dioscorides, Galen, Paulo, Avicen, and other Authours: for they prescribe the remedies in particular against everie one of the saide venomes, of the which they doe write at large. If so bee that any of the Venome have stayed so long in the bodie that it be descended downe to the Guttes, so that it cannot bee expelled by vomite, let them use a gentle glister, that they may avoyde by Stoole the venome that wente to those [228] (Fol. 118) partes.

If they knowe not what Venome the sicke person tooke, it must bee seene by the Accidents of the Venome which will shew whether is be hot of cold: for if the venome be hot, the face wilbe inflamed, and great heate wilbe inwardly, beating outwardly over al the bodie, the eies red, the nailes swollen, an extreame drieth with some heate, with burnynges, and beatinges in the Stomacke: then it is certayne that the Venome is hotte, and according thereunto the remedyes muste bee gyven. And although they have greate vertue agaynst Venome, and doo alter and take away the evil heate that is imprest in the members and being receyved inwardely, with these Medicines that bee against Poyson, and whiche are very colde and Cordiall: yet must they bee applyed outwardely uppon these Members most principall, ioyntlye with the use of good Meates, easye and dissolvative, altered with colde Cordial thinges which are of a contrarye disposition in operation agaynste the heate, and that may extinguishe tha malice and force of the Venome.

But if the Accidentes bee in suche sorte that you perceyve the Venome too bee colde, as though the sicke Person were in a Dream of in a Traunce after the manner of a Lethargie, and hath his members colde, and hys Face pale, then they muste use Medicines more then these thynges, that are agaynst Venome, that they may have vertue too heate and too take awaye the colde as well inwardely as outwardely, by beating the Bodie and principall members with medicines that have vertue therfore, and using divers varieties and remedies that do give heate, extinguishing the malice of the Venome being colde, ioytlye with those Meates, which have vertue therefore. And in thys there ought too bee consideration, that there [229] must bee gyven the remedyes, that are to bee doone for the Cures and Diseases that the Venome is cause of: not forgetting the principall cause whiche is to kill and to destroye the malice, that is the cause thereof with the medicines and Remedies that I wyll speake of heereafter.

If hee that hath taken Venome do not perceive nor knowe what manner of Venome it was that hee tooke, nor the Accidentes thereof doo shewe: It is to bee thought that it was of the Venomes whiche doo they woorke of theyr owne propertie whiche is the woorste of all kynde of Venomes: then it is convenient that there bee had more care procuring vomytte, and that it bee effectually doone, as it is aforesayde. And if any bee defended into the Guttes, let him have a gentle Glister that in all properties hath a knowne vertue against Venome, whiche remedies are called Bezaarticas, the whyche muste bee used at all tymes with his meate, and drynke, procuring the inwarde and outwarde comforting of the principall members, and using Meates of Substaunce, that maye gyve great strength, taken out by a small Presse and in anye other sorte that is needefull, in the which there muste bee put thinges that have Vertue agaynste all kinde of venome, of the whiche wee will treate of heereafter.

And thys muste bee done, not onely in them that bee Venomed with unknowne propertye, but in suche as have taken knowne Venome whiche woorketh by qualitie: for that the Venome is a thing that dooth moste of all pull downe and weaken Nature, makyng leane verye quickly, and overthrowing the Vertue and strength thereof. These Medicines which have this vertue and speciall propertye agaynste these Venomes, are many: some bee simples [230] (Fol. 119) and other compoundes: and because there are many of the one and of the other, I will speake of them that are most used and wher is seen greater experience of them which are compounded. The principall is the triacle that Andromacho wrote of the whiche if it bee well made, is the moste principall Medicine of as many as ever have beene compounded against al kinde of venome. And although it bee of a true composition, yet there lacketh some Medicines alwaies to doo that which is possible, we doo see that in thys case it dooth marvellous effectes, and not onely being taken with some water made for the purpose, but also beeyng put into prickes or bytinges of venemous beastes and likewise in Apostomes full of poyson, which are made in the time of the plague.

The Methridate is of a very great effect, in this case, and doth serve sometymes for triacle. That of Cidrons and Emraldes doo make a marvellous woorke, in alle venome. The Earth Sigillata hath a prerogative above them, especially in fevers which have an evil qualitie. The triacle Diathesaron, is for the purpose in colde venoms and in bytinges of venomous Beastes, and in especially in the bytyng of a beast that is madde. And so you have vertue and propertye against venom: but these which I have spoken of, are the most principal, and found most true by experience.

The simple Medicines bee many, the most principall is the earth Lemnea so celebrated of the olde wryters, in especially of Galen, who only to see it, and to see how the priestes did make it, sayled to the Islande of Lemnos that at this day is called Estalimene, whiche is the most principal simple medicine that the Greekes knewe.

The true Diptamo is another which groweth in the Iland of Creta, which at this day is called Candia, whereunto the people of the Isle doo runne, when they feele themselves [231] hurte by any venomous hearbes, for by eating thereof they are healed.

The Escordcon is of so greate vertue in preserving from corruption, that in a Battaile the dead bodies whiche were fallen downe uppon this hearbe, were long time preserved without any putrefaction: and the others which fell not on this hearbe, were found very rotten and in peeces.

The seede of the Cydron are of marvellous effecte agaynst venom, as Atheneo doth shewe, in a large historie treating therof. The same vertue have the small grains of Orenges, seing that they are neere to the nature of Cidrons. The bone of the hart, of the Deere called the Hart, is of great vertue against venom and soundings of the heart, the same dooth the Ivory, it doth heale marvellously the Jaundise of the which I have seene greate experience in many. All precious stones have the same vertue against venom, in especially, the Jacint, the pearles much more the Emraldes of the whiche being taken nine graines, it doth resist al venom, and in the infirmities that are of poyson, chiefly wher there are pricks of venomous beastes, in stooles of blood being venomous, and in fevers of an evill qualitie. The true Unicornes horn is a thing of most effecte above all others, and wherein moste exxperience is founde, whereof there is but lyttle wrytten. Onely Philostrato in the lyfe of Apolonio, sayeth that it is agaynst Venome, the whiche the late wryters did amplifie. It is convenient that it bee the true Unicornes horne, by reason there is much false and fayned. I sawe in this Cittie a Venetian that brought hither a peece verye greate, and he asked for it fyve hundreth Crownes, and in my presence hee made experience of it. Hee tooke a threede and dyd annoynte is well with the Hearbe of the Crosseboweshooter and dyd passe it through the Crestes of twoo Chickens: unto one of them hee gave a lyttle of the Unicornes horne stamped in a little common water, and to [232] the other hee gave nothing at all: this died within one quarter of an houre, the other that tooke the Unicornes horne, dured out two daies, but he woulde not eate, and at the ende of them hee died as dry as a sticke. I dooe beeleeve if it had beene given to a man that hee had not dyed, bycause hee hath the wayes more broade, and thereby hee may expell from him the poyson, and to hym myght bee given other remedies, by meanes whereof with the Unicornes horne hee might have beene delivered. Of all these medicnes I doe compounde certaine pouders, that are well knowen by their manifest qualitis, as also by their hidden properties, which have great vertues are of great efficacie againste all venomes, and for Pestilent fevers, or if they have any evill qualitie, or wheresoever there bee an evill humour or a cause venomed, they take of the earth Lemnia or our Belearmenike prepared, the waight of eighteene pence, the seede of Cidrons, Escordeon, Diptamo, pearles prepared of everie one the waight of twelve pence, the bones of a Deere called a Harte, Ivorie, the waight of six pence of everie one, the Unicornes horne, and the Bezaar stone, if it bee had the waight of xx graines, let them be made in smal pouders, and let there be mingled with them ten leaves of golde, of the which there shall bee used the waight of three pence, with some water made for the same purpose. For the effect that it muste bee ordained it must be taken in many daies fasting, and it must bee put into the meates and substance that shall bee taken for that it worketh verie greate effectes, by taking away the strength of the venome, and pressing downe the force thereof, comforting the hearte: and the rest of the principall members, taking away the evill disposition of the venome that had taken roote in the bodie. And lykewyse they used them in Pestilent Fevers that have an evill disposition, for it taketh away the venomous malice of them, the which if it be not done, the cure is [233] in vayne. Likewise it is to be given to them that are bitten with venomous beastes, or pricked of them, because it may extinguish and kil the malice of the venome. And although that these pouders are of so much vertue as aforesaide, the Bezaar stone is of greater vertue and excellencie, for that in it alone is founde all the vertues and properties that are in all medicines which we have already spoken of, by his own propertie hidden and by grace from heaven infused into it against venomes: which you shall find to be the best and most present remedie of all others, as we wil shew in that which followeth.

Of the Bezoar stone.

This Bezaar stone hath many names: for the Arabiens doe call it Hagar, the Persians Bezaar, the Indians Bezar, the Hebrewes Belzaar, the Greekes Alexipharmacum, the Latinistis against venom, the Spaniardes the stone against venom, sounding. Conrado Gesnero in his booke that he made of beastes, speaking of the Goate of the mountaine, saith that this name Belzaar is an Hebrew name, for that (ben) in Hebrew is as much to say as Lorde, and (zaar) venom, as if ye would say, Lord of the venomes, and by good reason it is so named, seeing that this stone is Lady of the venomes, and doeth extinguish destroy them as being Lady, and mistresse over them. And of this it commeth that all thinges that are against poison, or venomous things are called Bezaarticas, for their excellencie.

This stone is ingendred in the inner part of the beast, that is commonly called a Goate of the mountaine. The ingerdering of stones in beastes is a common thing, and also in man chiefly, there is no parte in his body, wherein they bee [234] (Fol. 121) not ingendred: and likewise in byrdes, and fishes, rattes of the field.

Plinie in his 28 booke the 9 Chapter, saieth that the wilde harts goe to the hollow places where snakes and serpents are, and with their breath doe bring them foorth and eate them. And this is gathered hereby, that they doe it eyther to heale them of some disease, or to waxe yong againe, that they may live many yeeres. The Arabiens doe amplifie this cause and say, that the wilde Harts by eating of these serpentes, come to ingender the Bezaar stone: and they declare it in this manner.

In these East parts are bred certaine beastes, which are called Harts, which for the great heat of the Sommer goe into the caves and hollowe places, where the adders and snakes and other vermin being of poyson are, which in that country be many, and verie venomous, bycause the country is so hot: and with their breth they drive them out, and tread upon them, and kill them, and eate them, and after they are filled with them, they goe as speedily as they can where water is, and they plunge themselves therein, in such sort that they leave no parts of their bodies out, but their snowt, for to fetch their breath: this they do, that which the coldnes of the water they may delay the greate heate of the venome, which they have eaten: and there they remaine without drinking a droppe of the water, until they have alayed and cooled, that fervent heat, wherein they were by feeding uppon the venomous vermine. And being in the water there doth ingender in the places where the drops of water commeth foorth of their eyes, a stone, which being come foorth of their eyes, a stone, which being come foorth of the water, falleth from them, and it is gathered up for the use of medicine. This is that in effect which the Arabiens doe write of the manner howe the Bezaar stone is ingendered. I have procured and with great diligence sought of find out by such as have come from the India of Portingal, and such as have past beyond the China to knowe the trueth of thys [235] matter: and it is thus.

In the greatest India (where Ptolomeo doth write to bee founde so much goodes, and so greate riches before the River Ganges in certaine Mountaines which dooe ioyne with the Country of China) there dooe breede certayne beastes like to Hartes, as well in greatnesse as in swiftnesse, and are verie much like unto Hartes, saving in some respecte they doe participate with goates, as well in their hornes which they have like a goate, beeing turned backewarde, as in the making of the bodie: whereby they give them the name of Goates of the mountaine wherein in my opinion they are deceived, for they rather ought to bee called Hartegoates, in that they have the parts and liknesse of both, which is of a Harte and of a Goate. These Hartgoates in those partes dooe use themselves lyke to the Hartes, that Plinie speaketh of, in these places as is aforesaid, that goe to the dennes of wilde venomous beastes, and with their breathing cause them to come foorth and eate them: and afterwarde doe goe whereas water is, and do plundge themselves therein, untill they perceive that the furie of the venome which they have eaten bee past, and untill then they dare not drinking a droppe. And beeing come foorth from thence, they goe into the fieldes, and there they eate many healtfull hearbes, of great vertue, which are against venome, which they by their naturall instincte dooe know that there doe aryse as wel of the venom which they have eaten, as of the herbes which they have fed on, being ingendred by meanes of the naturall heate, and by that vertue which is declared, beeing infused at the time of the generation in the inner parts of the bowelles, in other parts of their bodies, certaine stones, of the greatest and of the smallest sort, which is a thing of great admiration, of the greatest vertue that to this day is knowen against venom. It is understoode of that venom which is so pernicious and hurtfull that they did eate, of those herbes being so healthfull [236] (Fol. 122) that they fed upon it, by a marvellous worke, the Bezaar stone is ingendered.

And as they whiche come from those partes, and have seene this beast from whom they take out these stones, hee is of the greatnesse of a Harte and well neere thys making, hee hath onely twoo broade hornes, with the pointes sharpe, turned and falling muche backewarde, his hayre is thicke and grosse of a mingled colour, for the moste parte, and reddishe, and of other colours: you have many of them in those Mountaines. The Indians doo hurte them and kill them with weapons and with snares and ginnes: and they bee so fierce, that sometymes they kill some of them: they are very swift on foote, and leape very much, they live in hollowe places of the grounde, they goe in companies, there bee males and females, their voyces are roaring: they take out the stones from the inner parte of their bowelles, and of other hollowe partes of the bodye, and they use muche diligence in the taking out of them, by reason the Portingales that doo trade thither, gyve muche for these stones, that they doo so take out, and they carrye them to the China, to sell: and from thence to Maluco, and from Maluco to Calicut, for there is the greatest utterance of them, and they do esteeme so much of them, that one is woorth there, beeing fine, fiftie crownes as they are here.

And as I was wryting this treatise I went to see a beast, that shoulde seeme to bee the same, by reason he hath all those markes which those of that partes have, which I sawe in the house of the Archdeacon of Mebla, beeing a woorthie Gentleman, which was sent him from very farre Countries, by the way of Affrica, and is in thys forme and fashion: Hee is a Beaste of the greatnesse of a wilde Harte, hee hath the same hayre, colour and horne, that a Harte hath, he hath the face, the head, and the tayle like a Harte, hee is swift in running, like to a Harte, his snowt is [237] like to the Hartes, and lykewise his countenance, his bodye is lyke to a Goate, for hee is lyke to a greate hee Goate, and hath two hornes turned backwarde, somwhat falling with the pointes wrested, that hee seemeth to be lyke a he goate, and all the rest like to a Harte. There is one thing in this beast which in greatly to bee marvelled, for if hee fall from a Towre downe to the grounde, hee lyeth uppon hys hornes, and receyveth no hurte thereby, but rather dooth rebounde as a ball of Winde in the ayre: hee eateth grasse, breade, and all that you give him, hee is of great strength, and is alwayes tyed with a Chayne, because he breaketh and byteth a sunder the cordes. I doo looke stil when he will dye, or that they will kill him, to see of hee have the Bezaar stone.

The making and fashion of the stones bee of dyvers maners for that some bee long as the stones of Dates, others bee lyke to Chestnuttes, others like to rounde pellottes, of earth, suche as are shot in Crossebowes, others like to the egges of Pigions. I have one lyke to the kidney of a Kidde, there are none that be sharpe pointed.

And as these stones bee divers in their makinges so they doo varie in their colours, some have the colour of a darke baye, others bee of an Ashe colour, commonly they bee of a Greene colour, and with blacke spottes, such spottes at the Cattes of Algallia have, of a sadde gray colour, al which are finely compounded of certeyne thynne skales, or rindes, one uppon an other. Lyke to the skales of an Onion, verye artificially set, and those rindes are so excellent and so glistering, that it seemeth as though every one of them were burnished by Arte, and so taking awaye that whiche is uppermost of all, that whiche remayneth is muche more glistering, and shyning, then that whiche was taken awaye: and heereby they are knowne to bee fine, and true, and onely for this I tooke away from that whiche I [238] (Fol. 123) have, the uttermost shale, that was upon him, and that which remayned was as glistering and more then the first, these shales are greater or smaller according to the greatnesse of the stone, it is a light stone and easie to bee scraped or cutte, lyke to Alabaster, because it is softe: if it bee long in the water, it dissolveth. It hath no heart nor foundation in the inner parte, whereuppon hee is formed, but rather is somewhat hollowe, and the hollewenesse is full of Powder of the same substaunce that the stone is of, whiche is the best. And this is the best way to knowe whether the stone be fine and true when it hath that pouder, for they which are false, have it not, and by these twee thinges whiche are fine and true, may well bee knowne from those whiche are false and counterfayt. In them that are moste true bee these thinne skales and rindes, glistering and shining one upon another, and the inner parte hath that powder which I have spoken of: and those whiche are not true have neither the one nor the other. For I sawe one that was broken, to see if it were fine ad it had shales, and in the inner parte it had a graine of seede wherby the Indian decieved many.

Guido de Lanazaris, a man naturally borne in this Citie, which travelled all the rounde worlde over, and was in those partes of the China, sayde unto mee, that there were Indians that counterfeyted them with a composition that they use and knowe, but the twoo thinges which is aforesayde they coulde never bring to passe: to wit, the glistering skales, and the powder, that is in the inner parte. And hee sayde to me, that they were there much more esteemed then amongest us, because they bee healed with them of manye diseases.

Andrew Belunensis doth alledge of Tipthas Arabien, in a booke that hee wrote of stones, and sayeth that the Bezaar stone is a Minerall, and that it is taken out after the same manner as the other particular stones are, of hys [239] mineries as the Diamondes, Rubies, Esmeraldes, and Agatas: and it seemeth that Serapio dooth so understande it, when hee spake of this stone. He sayde that the Minerall of this stone is in the lande of Syria, and of the India, and East Countries, in the whiche they were deceived: for that it is cleerely seene that they are taken out of the sayd beasts, which the Indians do take out with great diligence as we have sayde: and there is seene in them the woorke and manifest effect which we will speake of.

Serapio dooth shewe, that in his tyme there were likewise of these counterfayte stones which hee sayth have not the vertue against Venome as the true Bezaar hath. Of this stone I finde no Greeke Autheur which hath written of it, nor Latinest: onely amongest the Arabians this matter is treated of, and in some late Writers whiche wee will speake of heereafter, and for this cause onely the Auncient Wryters, beeyng Arabiens that wrote of it, and the late Writers Latinistes and those of our time, amongst the Arabiens, hee that dyd moste largely write of it, was Serapio a learned man, in hys Medicinall Hystorie in the 306 Chapter where hee writeth many thinges of the Bezaar stone woorthie to bee knowne, the which of his owne authoritie he sheweth how great excellencie this stone hath against all kinde of Venome, of what manner and qualitie soever it bee, and agaynste the bytinges of Venemous beastes, extinguishing and taking away the grounde, and evill qualitie, that the venomes doo infuse into the bodies, delivering them from death that shall use it. It is given in Pouder, and they say that it doth the same effect by chewing of it, or holding of it in the Mouth: for after it is taken, it dooth provoke sweate and doothe expell the Venome, and maketh the woorke sure, saying that beeyng carried about any person, and that it touch the fleshe, and bringing it over the lest parte, it dooth preserve him that shall so carrie it about [240] (Fol. 124) him that no venome of venomous thing shall offende him: for being applied to the bodie, it resisteth venome that it may not offende him: and them that bee infected therewith it healeth. And this it doeth not one to them that have taken venome, but unto suche that have had it put into their Syrope, apparrell, or letter, or other parte that may offende them. The same Serapio sayeth that this Stone dooeth prifite muche againste bytinges of beastes that are venomous, and in their Prickes taking the pouder thereof in the mouth, and provoking sweate, it expelleth it from the inner partes: it profiteth much, too cast the pouder of this stone in Prickes, or in woundes made by these venomous beastes, for it destroyeth and taketh away the malice of the venome, and although that the sores beeing so made by these beastes dooe beginne to corrupt, it cureth and healeth them, and the pouder of this stone being put upon the venomous beasts doth take away their strength and if it be put in place where they do wound any, although they make a sore, yet the malice of the venom doth not take holde.

And this is seene by experience in the venomous beastes called Adders and Snakes, for the pouder beeing put in place where they doe byte, all their venemous strength is taken away and nothing doth remaine but the figure thereof. Three graines of this pouder wet with some licour, beeing cast upon snakes and adders, they die foorthwith. Thus much Serapio saieth.

Rasis Simia of Gallen a man amongest the Arabiens most learned in the booke, which hee wrote called Continent, saieth thus: the Bezaar stone is that which seemeth sometimes yellowe and softe, without any manner of taste, the which hee saieth that he hath experimented two times, and hath found in it vertue of great efficacie against Napelo the strongest of all venomes. He sayeth also that he hath seene in this stone the most marvellous effectes against all [241] venome that ever he saw in any medicine, that was against venome either simple or compounds, or any composition made against venome, as triacles, or other compositions, for that the Bezaar stone is of more efficacie and vertue then any of them. The same doeth agree with the bookes he made to the King Almaso, saying. The evill Venomes that doe offende the heart and woorke their effecte, D how little profite doeth any cure prove in them, if the Bezaar be not taken, for that doeth resist it: and he sayeth, moreover I my selfe saw that it did resist the venome called Napelo which is the venome that doeth penetrate more then al venoms: thus much of Rasis.

An other Moore verie learned and a great Astronomer that wrote of stones figured under the signes and Planets and the vertues they have, was called Hamech Benreripho: hee in his booke that he wrote of the vertue of Plantes and of stones and of beastes, that serve for the use of medicine, sayeth the Bezaar stone is against all venome, and it hath besides this particular propertie taken in pouder againste the bytinges of Scorpions, and being carried about one, and graven uppon, he is safe against all the bytinges of venomous beastes.

An other Moore called Abdala Narache, a learned man in Medicine, saieth, that the Bezaar stone is against all venome, hee sawe it is a precious thing in the handes of the King Cordova called Miramamohm unto whome was given strong venome: and having given unto him the Bezaar stone, by meanes whereof he was delivered wholly of the venome: foorthwith the King gave his roiall Pallace to him that gave him the stone, which delivered him from this imminent death: and surely is was a great gift of a king, the chiefe Pallace of Cordova, at thys day beeing a thing so notable and of suche greate value: and the stone was much esteemed, for that so great a price was given for it. Avensoar a Phisition of the Moores, but a naturall [242] (Fol. 125) Spaniarde of Penaflore a place lying betweene Cordova and Sevill, gave unto one, who was verie much lamented, by reason he had taken very evill Venome, of the Bezaar stone the waight of 3 graines with the water of Goords, for that it was hot venom, because it did seeme to be so. For assoone as he had taken it, there did appeare uppon him the Jaundies very yeallow, and he was very wel delivered and saved from it.

Averoiz a Phisition and a Philosopher very excellent, beeing a Spaniarde, and borne in Cordova, saieth that the Bezaar stone is in great estimation, and verie profitable against all venomous bitings, and especially against the bytinges of Scorpions.

Haliabas dooeth make mention of the Bezaar stone in three places where he treateth of venomes, but he passeth it over lightly, onely shewing that it is soft and saith that it must be scoured in water and that the waterof it must be given tot hem that are poysoned.

Rabbi Moises of Egipt, but borne in Spaine, a most cunning Phisition, who followed Gallen in all his woorkes, in the booke he made of venomes, in the first thing that he treated of in the thirde Chapter speaking of simple medycines and the use of them which are convenient for the bytinges of venomous beastes, saieth the simple Medicines that we have amongst us of most profite and greatest experience which are of many approved, are the seede of the Cidron &c. And the other is the Emeralde a marvellous medicine against all venome etc. Gallen made mention of the third which is the Bezaar stone that is taken out of a beast, the which stone is like to an akorn, the colour therof is green and doth ingender by little and litle making it selfde grosse: and for that they find in it one skale upon another, some do say that they are ingendred in the corners of the eyes of certain sheepe that are in the East partes; others doe say that they are ingedred in the purse of the gall of the said sheep which [243] is of most certaintie and trueth. There is an other Bezaar, that is a Minerall stone in the lande of Egypte of divers colours, of the which, they that have heretofore written, have declared great marvellous thereof in their bookes, but wee have prooved nothing of this Minerall stone: I have experimented them, but they have profited nothing. But the Bezaar s tone that is taken out of the beasts which we have spoken of before, we have tryed the vertue thereof by experience.

And beeing given to him that hath beene bytten of a venomous beast, and being applied to the place, he shall be healed and delivered therof by the helpe of God. These three kinde of Medicines have been proved in al kinde of venomous that are in the worlde, that is to say, the seede of the Cidrons, the Emeraldes the Bezaar stone of the beast. The same is recited in the 4 Chapter. Two thinges doe shew that they are of importance as wel as their vertues: that these stones are ingedendred in the gawles of the beasts, it seemeth that it carrieth great reason, for that wee see in many beastes that stones are ingendred in their gawls: the other is as they say that they doe ingender by little and little, the which appeareth by the shales that they are compounded of.

Avicen a man very wel learned, wrote not of this stone in particular, as of many other things, and being borne in Persia of the Citie of Bocara, he should have had more knowledge then the Moores beeing Spaniardes, which doe particularly write thereof, onely hee dooeth touche it in the second Canon in the fourth Chapter saying, that the medicines which of their owne propertie do worke against the malice of venome, dooeth exemplisie in Triacle and in the Bezaar stone: and hee speaketh more afterwarde, that the Triacle and the Bezaar stone are twoo thinges, which doe conserve the health and the vertue of the spirites that they may expell the venome from them: and in the fourth [244] (Fol. 126) booke and the fourth Chapter, and in the fifth Booke in three partes he prayseth the Bezaar stone to be effectual against Venome: and likewise hee doeth the same in the cure with the gall of the Adder, hee sayeth that it is an excellent thing, in the which places he maketh a short rehearsal, and doth as if were but passe them over by the way, and also hee tooke not this of himselfe, for hee had it of Rasis in the eyght part that he treated of.

In the same Chapter hee sayeth, the thyng that dooth most profyte, is the Bezaar Stone if it were to bee founde: but with howe muche difficultie is it to be had?the Stone is called the Bezaar, beeyng a darke redde, and approoved good against Venome; and thus much for them that were in his time.

These are the auncient Authours that I finde to be amongest the Arabiens, whiche have written of this Bezaar stone whiche were not fewe that shoulde have knowledge in their time thereof, by reason of the greate trade and traffike which the Kinges of Marnecos had with the East India, and especially with those of Persia, unto which place came the Merchaundise and precious Jewelles of the India, the which a Gentleman did certifie mee, who was Governour there for the Kyng of Portugall a long time, and had knowledge of the Stone and of the fashion thereof, and howe the Indians dyd take them out of the Beastes, and the fashion of them who gave mee greate knowledge thereof, as I have declared: and hee did experiment the same and dyd see experience made of it in many of their great effectes. I made experience thereof by one that had the greatest and the best that I have seene in my life, who having had long time a very greevous disease, wherewith hee was broughte into a Melancholie Passion, and also fearing hymselfe to bee [245] poysoned, I caused him to take thereof divers Morninges the weight of three graynes of the same Bezaar stone with the Water of Oxetongue, and hee was therewith very wel healed.

Many Phistitons of late time and in our dayes have made mention of this Bezaar stone and doo very much extol the same in their bookes with great Prerogatives, against al kinde of venome and against many other diseases, which wee minde to treate of, to see what we finde written by every one of them. Amongest whom Andrewe Mathiolus of Sina, a man very well learned, in the Commentaries whiche he wrote most learnedly uppon Dioscorides in the sixth Booke, declaring the Medicines that are agaynst venome, by speciall propertie dooth write of the Bezaar stone very great vertues, and dooth approove it to be a medicine and remedie most principall that at this day is knowen in the Worlde agaynst venome, and he dooeth referre that, as is sayd, unto the Athours which wee have alleaged.

Andrewe de Laguna borne in Segovia, who amongest the learned was named Galen the Spaniarde for the Commentaries which he made upon the sixth book of Dioscorides in the Spanisch tongue, where hee treateth of Venomes, he sheweth how present a remedy the Bezaar stone is agaynst all kinde of venome and against the bytinges of venomous Beastes, and agaynst Pestilent Agewes of evill qualitie, and also that it is a greate remedie agaynste the fallyng Sicknesse, that it dooeth expell the Stone of the Reynes, and beeyng given with Wyne, it breaketh the Stone in the Bladder. There hee noteth howe this Stone is engendered in certeyne Goates of the Mountaines of Persia, and howe the Stones that are the best bee bright, and skaley and soft, of the colour of the Fruite of Spaine called Beringena, (Solanum melongea) whiche is a remedy muche commended [246] (Fol. 127) amongest Princes and great Lords for the effects aforesaide.

Valescus de Taranto, a Phisition and borne in Milan, the Scholler of Tornamira, in the 7 Booke of his experiments, praiseth very much this Bezaar stone, to bee of great force against venom and other diseases for his effectes, and for the great fame that was of his woorkes, in this tyme against al venom. Saint Ardonius of Pesauris Phisition, in a booke which hee made of venomes, exceedingly prayseth the Bezaar stone and preferreth it before al other medicines, as well simples as compoundes, which have vertue against venome or bytinges of venomous beastes: and sayeth, that he sawe it and prooved it by great experience.

Amato Lucitano, a learned man of our tyme, beeing nowe resident in Ragosa, in his Commentaries whiche he wrote uppon Dioscorides in the seconde Booke of Cervigenitale, dyd treate of this Bezaar Stone verie learnedly, as a man of Portingall, who did muche enforme himselfe of those of his nation that came from the East India, and hee sayeth that the Bezaar stone is of the making of an Acorne, full of spottes, declining to the colour of a sadde blew, compounded with many shales, the which they call Bezaar, as a present remedy against al maner of venom, and they take them out of certeine beastes which are like to wilde Hartes, that are in the East India, and are called goates of the mountains: they are founde in their bowelles and inner partes, of the which being given 3 graynes with the waters of the flowers of Orenges, it is the present remedy against all Venome, killing and extinguishing the venomes, and force thereof, it killeth the wormes given with the water of Verdolagas, (Portulaca) where the Fever is and where there is no fever with white wine: he sayeth that he hath experience, and hath cured therewith the Pluresie being very sore rooted, it is convenient that it be given to them, that have taken venom, in vomittes, and it wil expel the venom, and being given tot hem that have vomitted, [247] it causeth it to be epelled by sweate or by stoole: and beeing given in fevers, the day that they bee accustomed to come, it provoketh sweate, whereby many times they are delivered thereof. And in his thirde centuria the 74 cure and the 83 cure, in curing certeyne Pestilent Fevers, hee sayeth, that having taken the weight of three graynes of the Bezaar stone with water made for the purpose, it extinguisheth and killeth the malice of the venom of such agues, and he giveth it as a most present remedie, and sayeth, that the King of the East India hath this stone in great estimation, and it seemeth to bee so, seeing that in a present, at the tyme of the first conquest that was made there, the Kyng of Cochin sent to the King of Portingall, and amongest many precious Jewelles which hee sent him was a Bezaar stone, as a thing of greatest pryce and estimation, which was little bigger then a nut and was heere much esteemed by reason of the great vertues that it had: and this was the first that the Portingales brought to Spaine, and after they brought many other, they seeing the great effectes that the Indians did with them, and since that time they bring them with Diamants, Rubies and other precious things of great value, which they bring from those parts: and they sell them for great summes of mony.

Nicholas Florentine amongst them of his time the wisest, in his fourth Sermon where he treateth thereof and in the nienth chapter, doth highly commend the Bezaar stone, and agreeth with Averoiz and Serapio.

Iohn Agricola an Almaine, who wrote of the simple medicines of our time, in his second booke, and speaking of the Bezaar stone, sayeth that it is a most sure Antidote againste venome, and that it is a divine medicine and a remedye of most efficacie against Venome and bytinges of Venemous beastes.

Ierome Montuo a French Phisition of King Henries, in the treaty which he wrote of the remedies of surgery, of the [248] (Fol. 128) remedies of those had taken venome, he dooeth preferre the Bezaar stone for the greatest remedie of al others, which in our time hath been founde, by great experience that therof he had experimented upon many Lordes.

Anthoni Musa Brasavola a learned Phisition of Ferrara in the prologe which hee wrote upon the antidotes of Mesue, declareth of a marvellous matter that happened in Ferrare of many persons that had taken venom which were remedied by vomitting of the venom with the oyle of Vitriol and by taking the Bezaar stone.

The counseller Peter of Abano borne in Padua, a man lerned amongst other of his time, in a treaty which he wrote of venoms in the 81 chap.speake of a certain stone called Bezaar, whose propertie and speciall vertue is against deadly venom, delivering from death with all speede without having need of other helpe or benefite of any other Medicine or any Phistition, and so for his excellencie is called Bezaar, which is as much to say, as the medicine that delivereth from al venom, and from death, and from other grievous diseases. And whosever hath this stone with him, let him bee sure that with it hee shall bee cleare of all mortall venom.

And a King of England called Edward, was delivered by meanes thereof from a poisoned mortall wound that the greate Soldan with a venomed glaine gave him in a battaile that they fought beyonde the seas neere to the Citie of Aaron.

When hee was almost dead, there was given to him the Bezaar stone, by one who was the greate maister of the Templers, which was an order in those daies of great estimation, and verie riche. And hee saieth moreover that he sawe in his time another Bezaar stone very light in waight and that it might bee scraped upon it: es easily as uppon harde lyme, and was much esteemed.

Conrada Gesnero Tigurion in the booke which he wrote [249] of beastes speaking of the goate, doeth much commend this Bezaar stone to be against all venom. Other authors there be that make mention of this stone, but they passe it lightly over, only praising it to be good against venom, in generall and in particular, the which at this present I lightly passe over, for it is sufficiently spoken of by those before rehearsed, wherby it may have authoritie with al those that therof wil profite themselves.

That which I have seene by experience I wil now speake of for the more confirmation of the saide cause, and of the marvelous vertus which it hath, wherby it may be understoode what is written by those authors aforesaid, with manifst examples. It is about 14 yeres past that my Lady the Duches of Bejar was advertised by the Lorde don Iohn Mauriques that in the Court was used for such as did sound a stone that was called the Bezaar, for that my Lady the Duches had a sonne very sicke of the said disease, wel neere since the time of his birth, ans shee beeing desirous of his health did procure to know what remedy might be had, and seeing the ordinarie remedies of Phisicke, which they had ministred unto him beeing many and divers by the wysest Phisitions of Spaine, and yet not prevailed any thing, and hearing of the greate vertue of this Bezaar stone, they had communication with mee thereof: yet was it to me somewhat strange, for that I hadde no other knowledge thereof then by bookes, and I thought that it had not beene in these partes: then I requested that the stone might be sent for being desirious to ease this Lorde, for his vertues deserved the same, and his great knowledge in al kinde of learning, and in al things that a noble man might have knowledge in, as also to see the stone which was a thing of mee much desired. The stone was sent for to Lishebron by meanes of a Genoves, and there was brought twoo of them verie faire wrought in gold, and each of them as great as a Date stone and somewhat greater, of colour greene and blackishe, lyke [250] (Fol. 129) to a Berimgena (Solanum melongea) which is a fruit of Spaine, and the stone being brought not a little to our contentment, every one gave their iudgement, it was agreed that al such time as he should sounde, is should presently be given him: and the sounding being come in the evening he tooke foorthwith the appointed order, which was brought from the court, that he should take foorthwith the waight of three graines of the pouder of the stone, and it should bee cast in water of Oxetongue so much as might be sufficient for him, and so it was done. Opening his mouth hee swallowed it downe, the which he did with much difficultie: within the space of halfe a quarter of an houre, after hee had taken it: he recovered as easily, as though he had not had it. And seeing the vertue that was in the stone, we did esteeme it much: and the more for that we sawe that every time it tooke him, he came to himselfe so easily, when he tooke not the stone, the sounding did continue long, and hee returned from it with greate paines, and in long time is seased not: but when the stone was given him he came quicly to him selfe, and with great easinesse, as though he had not had any sounding at all. My Lady the Duches carried the stone in her purse, and had the quantity that he should take alwaies in a redinesse, because when the sounding came to him, it might bee given him with more speede, bycause hee shoulde not bee long in paine: so that from the time that he received it, his soundinges came not to him so continually as they did before. This being perceived, I saide one day to my Lady, that it was the doctrine of Phisitions, that the medicines which doe not heale diseases, cannot preserve that we fall not into them, but that it seemed good to mee that wee shoulde give unto him everie morning the pouder of the Bezaar stone, that with the continuall use thereof, the vapour might bee consumed which did ryse up to the braines, so that what seemeth to be venomous and hurtful, the stone would extinguish and kil, and would consume the vapour that riseth up from all the body, and from [251] some particular member, the roote and originall beeing taken away of the disease, he should bee healed: so everie morning it was given him fasting the waight of three graines, of the pouder of the stone, with the water of Oxetongue, it pleased God that it should woorke so effectually, that from the day that he began to take it, until he died of another disease after, which was more then x yeeres, there never came to him any soundings, the which stone he tooke vi monethes together and never missed day.

This effect being proved so great and manyfest, I having in cure a young Gentlewoman called the Lady Maria Catano and was sicke of certaine soundings of long tyme, beeing in cure by learned Phisitions, her disease of soundings was perillous for that it held her x or xii houres and those were well neer everie day: she was in such case that many daies she rose not from her bed. I was called to cure her, seing the smal helpe that the other Phisitions had done to her, I did not meddle with the common medicines which other Phisitions had used many yeeres: but I caused to be brought from Lishebron a Bezaar stone, and after shee was purged, I gave it her by the order aforesaide: and from that day that shee beganne to take it unto this day shee never hadde more soundinges, which is more then twelve yeares: there was spent a whole stone as great as a Date.

In this time the Doctor Lewes de Cueva, a man learned in his facultie: as he was eating, unwares a venomous thing did put him to so mortall paines, and was tormented with such accidents of venom which he had taken, that it was thought hee would have died in short time: and although hee tooke vomittes, and Triacle and other remedies against venom, when I came to see him, he was so evill that there was little hope of his life. And as I sawe that his disease proceeded of venome, and the little [252] (Fol. 130) helpe that the remdies whiche had beene given to him dyd: I my selfe wente to seeke for remedie which was the Bezaar Stone: and beeing searched for, at length was found in the handes of the sayde Lady Mary Catano, for that the Powder of the inner parte of the stone remained with her: and thinking that shee shoulde not have taken it, shee kept it, the whiche I tooke, and it was about five Graynes of weight, and I devyded it into twee papers, and greatlie to his comforte I founde remedye for hys greefe. I returned to hys House, and founde him as full of payne as might bee, I gave him foorth with the three Graynes of Powder that I carried in the one Paper with the Water of Oxetongue, and in the space of halfe an houre or lesse, hee was marvellouslye eased, in such sorte that when night came hee was in good disposition, and out of daunger of Death, which was so neere him, in such sorte that the next day in the morning hee remayned well, for as muche as touched the daunger of death, but he remayned in such sorte that in many moneths hee could not throughly overcome the great evill whiche he had past.

The sayd Doctor Lewes de Cueva going by the way with a Lord a hunting, one of his pages being a tall young man, layde him downe to drinke of a poole of standing water, being nought and full of venomous Woormes, and after hee had drunke it, hee felt himselfe so cutte, and in suche sorte, that hee coulde not moove from thence, and hys bellie so swollen and all his body in so greate a fayntnes, and soundinges, with great vomittes and sweate, that they carried him upon a horse to a Village that was neere at hande, and after they had made some remedies for him, they gave to him the Bezaar Stone that hys Maister carried with him for the lyke purpose, if any thing shoulde happen and it dyd him so much good, that the next daye he was able to iourny with his maister. [253]

A Childe did eate a certeine venomous thing, whereby hee was in danger of death, and seing that the common remedies did not profit, I caused to bee given to the Childe the Bezaar stone, and immediatly it was well. And for children that have wormes, it is lykewise verie good, for that it causeth them to be expelled by dissolution, marvellously taking away the accidents, that are wont to happen to children. And this it woorketh wheresoever you feare any griefe or venomous humour. In the thinges that it hath doone most good, hath been in the pestilence, for that there was in Germany a great Plague, and unto all such as had the Bezaar stone given them, immediatly was seene the great effecte that it did in them that tooke it. And in an hospital were foure persons infected with this evill, and it was given to twoo of them and not to the other, and they that tooke it escaped, and the other twoo died. And then it was given to manie that were infected with this evill, and some of them had twoo sores, and some had three, and yet they escaped and of this were witnesses many people of greate credit that sawe it and other meaner persons, as it is very well knowne to all the Court.

This stone dooth profit much to them that be sad and melancholike, the Emperour tooke it many times for thys effect, and it is taken of many persons that are melancholike: for it taketh it away, maketh him glad and merry that useth it and to bee of a good disposition. Many I have seene that have beene much diseased with faintnesse, soundynges and melancholie, and taking the weight of three graines of this stone with the water of Oxtongue they have bin healed presently. In fevers of an evill qualitie and most pestilent, it is mervellous the good woorke that it dooth: for that it taketh away the malice therof, extinguishing and killing the evill qualitie of the Venome, which is the first and principal thing that the Phisitions should doo, for if that this bee not taken away first, the cure is in vaine. Many do use this stone [254] (Fol. 131) holding a peece thereof in their mouth in the suspected time of a Pestilence, and where as venom is feared, or any thing that is venomous, and also it dooth profit much taking it in water to them that are sicke of pestilent Fevers.

A Gentleman had al his servantes sicke of Agewes that are commonly called Modorras and he put into a pot of water a Bezaar stone that hee had, of the whiche hee caused the sicke people to drinke, and they al escaped and were delivered from death. And many people for this cause, have thys stone layde in water continually, that they may drinke therof beeing sicke, for it profiteth much to take away the Ague, and giveth strength to the heart, and not only this stone doth profit in venomous things and venomes, but in other diseases, as it hath bin prooved: being given to them that have the giddines in the head it doth much profit, and also against opilations. And it happened that a Nunne that had soundinges and greate opilations, by taking the Bezaar stone was healed, and likewise of the opilations: and being long time without her customes termes, they came very well to her, aboundantly. This stone profiteth much to them that have taken Arsenike or other corsive venom, for that it doth kill and consume the force of the venome, and taketh away the accidentes thereof. Milke hath in this a great prerogative, and dooeth worke effectually, by taking much quantity, and continually using the same, for although that it be a mervellous remedy, it must be used in corsive venomes, for that it maketh the venomes to be expelled by vomit, and doth extinguish the mallice. Is is the true Antidote against corsive venome, and after the use thereof the stone may be given or the pouder, or any of the saide medicines, that have vertue against venome. Also this stone doth profite much against fevers that bring certeine red spots in the bodie like to Fleabytinges, that commonly doo appeare in their shoulders, and in their arthier parts of the bodie: these do come in sore [255] Agewes, that doo expell the humours out of the bodie, and so it is convenient that it bee so used that it may come out well, and this must bee doone by putting ventosities, and other like helpes, that may expell the Humour, whereby nature is holpen, forbidding oyntments and other thynges that may disturbe the comming out of these thinges. An other thing which is convenient, is to give to the sick, when these small spottes doo begynne to appeare, those thynges which doo extinguish and kill the venome: of the which we have treated very largely having respecte not to let blood, after that they have appeared, if it come not of too muche replection and fulnesse of Blood. One thyng I have founde for these redde Spottes and for Fevers of much profite and notable experience in many which is our Bolearmenike (Bolus armeniaca) prepared in a dishe of earth with Rose water given in alle Medicines that are to bee taken, and in the meates that are to bee eaten, and surely in it I have founde great effect, cheefelie in one yeare, wherein raigned manie Pestilent Agewes, called Moderras, and many were delivered from them, with the use of it, for that thys our Bolearmenike dooth dyffer little from that of the East partes, and thys shall bee where the Bezaar Stone is not to be had, for that it dooth exceede al, as I saw in a principall Gentleman of this Cyttie whiche had a sore Fever, with soundinges, Vomittes and other Accidentes of an Agewe uppon whome did appeare Spottes, whiche before I have spoken of on his shoulders, and in gyving hym the Bezaar Stone with a lyttle of the Unicornes horne, foorthwith the Accidentes did cease and began to bee better, for that it dyd extinguishe and kill the force of the Agewe, whiche caused all the hurte. And after thys sorte I coulde spake of manie heere in Spayne, that for the space of these fourteene yeeres I have used it, and manie have beene delivered therewith from many diseases [256] (Fol. 133) with the use thereof, and surely it seemeth a thing of wonderfull effectes, that a stone taken out of the belly of a beaste like to a wilde Harte or Goate in so little quantitie given shoulde worke so great effectes as we have written of. And for that it is already time to treate of the hearbe Escuerconera, because wee have beene long in treating of the Bezaar stone. I will speake what is knowen of it.

Of the hearbe Escuerconera. (Scorzonera hispanica)

The Hearbe Escuerconera the which we have promised to treate of, is an hearbe knowen, and founde within these thirtie yeares. For time hath discovered it to us as it hath done many other things, as we see which they bring from the West Indias, and they are so many things, as we see everie day, as were never seene by those that were before us, nor yet by us, as we have written of in a treatise that we made of these thinges which doe treat of all the things that they bring from our Indias that doeth serve for the use of medicine.

So it is that in the Countrie of Catalzina in the Countie of Virgell in a towne called Momblanc, was the place whore the herb Escuerconera was first discovered found out as al that country is molested troubled of certaine venomous [257] beasted which are called Escuercos, (schorpioen) and likewise of many other, and although that they are verie venomous and ful of poyson, there are also many in number, as well in the tilled fieldes as amongst trees, and grasse, and especially in the Corne fieldes, in such sort that they are to them in steede of a plague, and an uncurable mischiefe, by reason that the people cannot labour in their Wines, nor reape their corne, nor doe their busines in the fieldes, by meanes that they are so cruelly hurt by them, whose venom and poyson is such, that wheresoever they byte, it swelleth foorthwith, with greate paines, and the swelling riseth up to the heart immediatly, and if they not be remedied and suckered forthwith, they die presently: their Triacle and other benefits which they had, did serve them to little purpose.

And seeing that in this time this plague was so without remedie, it fortuned that they brought to that place from Africa a young man Captive, which did heale them that were bitten with these so venomous beastes, with giving them to eate of a roote, and the iuyce of an hearbe that he knewe which did them so much good, that it healed the bytinges and poyson verie easily. For the which there came so many people to the Moore, that they did not onely make him free, but also rich, and the young man in all this time with all the promises and giftes that they coulde give and make unto him, woulde never tell them what roote and hearbe it was, wherewith he healed so great a plague.

Two Persons of the Towne beeing verie desirous to know the same, by reason it stoode them them so much uppon to knowe what Hearbe is was, went after him and dogged him so politickely, that at the length they sawe where hee gathered the hearbe and tooke out of the grounde, the rootes thereof. The Moore beeing gone, they wente too the place where he gathered it, and they founde the lacke of the grasse that the Moore had gathered, of the [258] (Fol. 133) which they tooke out a good quantitie, because there was muche there in that place, and they went therewith to the Towne, and so to the house of the Moore, where they found him taking out the herbe of a Bagge the he brought it in: and the one hearbe and the other being seene, they saw that is was all one: whereby the Moore coulde not denie but the thing which had beene by himselfe long time hidden, was now discovered, and the hearb that he had gathered and given, and that which the other brought were all one. And from that time forward al the people began to know it, and such as had neede of it went to gather it, and used it for the bytinges of these venomous beastes, as I have saide. They cal this hearbe Escuerconera because it dooeth heale and remedie the bitinges of this beast, called Estoren in the Catalan tongue, and the same roote is like to the saide beaste, and the beast like to the roote in figure. This beaste or vermin commonly is a Spanne and a halfe long, hee is small in the tayle, and is greater and greater towardes the heade: his head is greate en square with a greate mouth, his tongue blacke and sharpe, his teeth small lyke to a shee Adder, with the which hee dooeth byte, and with his tongue hee doeth pricke like to a Scorpion, his colour is full of blacke spottes, with divers colours, hee goeth evill favouredly, and is continually among Plantes, and Wines, and byteth by the grounde, as hee dooeth men, hee goeth continually by the grounde, and therefore all men looke warily too their feete, where they are. Hee is a fierce beaste and ugly too beholde, and full of myschiefe, his byting is woorser and more dangeroes than the byting of a shee Adder of that country. Onely this Hearbe is contrarie too him which is called of his name Escuerconera: for if they cast the iuyce uppon hym, it maketh him fowle, and if they put it into his mouth and that hee swallowe it downe, hee dyeth. If any man [259] bee bytten with this beaste and dooe eate of the roote and drinke of the iuyce of the hearbe, foorthwith hee is healed: and if hee bee swollen, foorthwith the swelling is gone, and the paines taken away, and also the soundinges, and if the take it immediatly after they be bitten, there will no harme happen tot hem, insomuch that some for pastime dooe cause the saide beaste to byte them in the arme, or in the legge, and as they are byting of them they eate the Roote of the Hearbe, and so feele no hurte at all, savyng onely the Impression with the small Teeth, remaining, and if with the iuyce of this hearbe thet dooe wette throughly their handes and dooe take with them the Escorcu, it dooeth make him foule, in suche sorte that hee dooeth neither byte nor stirre, but is as though hee were dead.

The Roote of this hearbe is of a good savour, and it is somwhat sweete, and it is to be eaten rawe, as the roottes of Sanaborias. (Daucus sativa) It is good, as I have saide, against the bytynges of these Beastes which are called by the name thereof, beeinge aten rawe, or rosted, or in Conserva, and also the iuyce of it, dooeth muche good beeyng made of the leaves for the same use, and beeing drunke by is selfe or mingled with other Cordiall thinges, it is good against venome: and not onely it dooeth remedie the bytinges of the Escuerco, but of the Adders, and snakes, and other venomous beastes. The water beeing taken out by a Limbecke or still, given in the pestilent Fevers, is a verie good remedie for them, and beeing given the day when the disease dooeth come, when nature dooeth provoke some sweate, it provoketh it marvellously insomuch that many times the sicke person remaineth whole. This Roote is made in Conserva, and it is of a good taste and daintie, and beeing given with the water of th Hearbe [260] (Fol. 134] distilled, is is a very good remedie for the sayde Fevers, and for soundinges, and Melancholies of the hearte. In all partes they use at this day the water distilled, for suspected Fevers, drinking thereof continually or mingling it with Cordiall Waters, they doo give the Conserva and the Water together many dayes, for to heale opilations of the Lyver, and Lyghtes, and the inner partes and for women whose Flowers dooth not come orderly, and for soundinges of the heart, the manner if this hearbe Escuerconera is very fayre and beautifull to beholde, whereby wee gather, is should bee good for many thinges. It is in height, the length of a mans arme from the Elbowe too the hande, lyttle more or lesse, it hath a leafe lyke to Suckorie (Cichorium) when it is very muche growne, but is is somwhat broader, and spreadeth much abroade by the Ground, it is long and at the ende sharpe, in the which there is a sinewe that groweth up to the toppe: the Colour thereof is a lyght Greene, and dooth caste out many braunches, beeing rounde, smal and harde like to Woodde, and in the highest parte of them they caste out certeyne long buddes full of rounde Sinewes with some pointes like to teeth and somewhat lyke to Gillowe flower Buddes. In the Moneth of May there commeth out of these Buddes, certeyne Flowers very muche laden with many leaves, and beeyng all opened, there appeareth a greate Flower, and rounde, and these Leaves bee yeallowe like to the Streames of the Sunne, it is a very fayre Flower to beholde: in the ende of June the leaves thereof doo fal and the buddes become rounde: there dooeth come from them many rounde coddes or flyvinges, that growe rounde about them, which sheweth very wel in the ende of the Sommer. In the small coddes that doo remaine are the seede, and the seede beeyng gone, then the Leaves of [261] the Plantes doo fall. The Roote is lyke to the roote of a Sanaboria fleshie, and weightie, and leaveth with a poynt, and waxeth greater towardes the leaves, it hath a thynne rynde ioynted to the Roote, and is of a russet colour, somewhat blackishe, and somewhat sharpe, and beyng cutte or broken, it dooeth cast from it a certeine clammie waterishes, like to milke: it is al white within, sweete, and fattie, it groweth for the moste parte in Hyllie places, where some moisture is: the complexion thereof is w hot and moist in the first degree..

The Vertues that it hath bee suche as wee have spoken of, the principall vertue is against the Escorcu a beaste so venomous, and dooth so much hurte, that in this surely is seemeth to bee a thing of greate Vertue. It is good when the iuyce is taken out of the leaves and clarified, and that the Roote also bee taken whiche is a thing of greater Vertue.

And it is to bee considered that although you take the iuyce and the Roote of this Hearbe agaynste the Poyson that proceedeth of this beast whiche is so pernicious, it is convenient that great diligence bee used, as we have a foresayde, for the remedie of them that are venomed: whereby it woulde doo very well that in the meane time that the iuyce bee a providing or the Roote of the sayde Hearbe, that foure or five fingers breadth above the sore it bee bounde faste, that the force of the Venome doo not passe to the reste of the partes of the bodye, and thys is to bee doone in the Legge or Arme. And if the byting bee in any suche place where it cannot bee bounde, then there must bee laide to it, Playsters of dry and strong thinges that may dissolve the furie of the venome: and this must bee doon with speed, before the hurt do enter the inner partes, for if it once doo come to the hearth, the cure will goe [262] (Fol. 135) harde: and this must bee universally in al prickinges or bytinges of venomous beastes. And if the wound be small it is needfull to open it with a smal cut, or some other way: and it be newe, let the cuttinges be small, and if it bee of a long tyme, then let the incision bee deepe, for that with the much blood that goeth out thereof, there goe out a greate parte of the venome also. And after the cutting let there bee applied such thinges as may draw out strongly the venome, stil adding thereunto that as shall bee needfull. Some there be that doe sucke out the venome of the prickes or woundes with their mouth, but it is dangerous to them that so doo, for some have dyed thereof: it is better to remedie it with ventosities, or to put it the hinder parte of a Cocke, or Chicken, or a Pigeon beeing alive, uppon the pricke or wounde, the fethers being plucked from the hinder parte thereof, and use it so often as shall bee needefull, until you perceive that they have taken out the venome that is in the wound, and every one of them must be applyed thereto so long tyme until that you may perceive that he dooth waxe faint, or untyll hee bee ready to dye. Also it is a good remedy to put them that bee a live opened at the back, and let them be ther as long time as they have any heate: and beginning to waxe colde, then take them away put others too, and the venom being taken out by these meanes let there be put upon the wounde a medicine that hath the vertue to keepe the wound open. Some doo use in the Cuttinges or incisions an Actuall thing to burne, called a cauteri, which doth very much good, extinguishing the venome, and comforting the hurte. The same effect doth the cauterie potentiall in killing the venome, but it is not so good as the actuall, but thereby it dooth cause that the wounde doo not close, whiche is very necessarie for the cure.

The iuyce of the hearbe Escuerconera dooth profite very much, beeing put on venomous bytinges or prickinges, by it [263] selfe, or mingled with other medicines, that have vertue to take away the strenght of the venom, as triacle, methridato other medicines like to these: and the Bezaar stone might be had casting the pouder therof upon the wound, it wil work a marvellous effect. While they are in this case they must be kept with good order good governement, in all thinges that are contrarie to them, and using evacuations, such as is convenient with wholesome medicines, and there must bee mingled with them medicines that are against venom, and when time serveth use letting of blood, and in the rest, to goo to the cure of the disease, and unto every one of them, as it is convenient universally and particularly, having alwaies care to give to them that are sicke, in the morning fasting, the conserva of the roote of the Escuerconera, and hys water, or the Bezaar stone, or the pouder as it is sayd, or Bolearmenike prepared, hee must have care to annoynt the heart with thinges which are temperate, that may comfort with pouders and cordiall waters, amongest the which let there bee put the hearbe Escuerconera. And besides the vertues that the hearbe Escuerconera hath against the bytynges of these beastes in particuler, and for the remedie of all in universal, it hath also other perticuler vertues, the use whereof hath been shewed unto us, it is very good against soundinges, of the hearte, and for the that have the falling sicknes, and for women whose matrix are suffocated or stopped, by taking the conserva made of the roote, and drinking the iuyce of the hearbe clarified, or the water of it distilled. It dooth profite muche when the soundinges are come, but much more before they doo come: when they feele that they begin to sounde, let them take the roote therof with the water, and it doth hinder the comming therof: and if it do come it is much lesse, and it dooth not woorke so vehemently as when it is taken after. Unto them that have the gidinesse in the head it dooth good, and being continually taken it maketh the heart merrie: it doth take away the sadnes which is [264] (Fol. 136) the cause therof: the iuice taken out of the leaves and clarified, and set in the Sun for certain daies, taking the cleerest thereof, and put into the eies dooeth clarifie the sight and taketh away the dimnesse thereof, if it be mingled with a litle good hony, it is good for them that feare tthemselves to bee poysened. The Conserva of the roote being taken, and the water in the morning, that day by Gods grace they shall be safe. The use and experience of this hearbe hath bin taught without any author: for to this day we know not with what name the autors doe terme it.

Iohn Odoricus Mechiorius an Almaine Phisition, doth write in an Epistle to Andrew Mathiolo, saying that Peter Carniser a Catalan Phisition, sent to him the hearbe Escuerconera dry, into Germany: this Phisition did aske of Mathiolo what herbe it was: Mathiolo did knot know what hearbe it was, neither did any other, untill now that it hath bin spoken or written of. Some that are curious wil say that it is the Condrillia, a spice of Succorie which Dioscorides doth make mention of in the second booke in the 122 chap.and although that it hath some likenes thereof, it differeth much in the roote: for the Condrillia hath it very wooddy and unprofitable and very smal, and in the flowers, but they differ not in their vertues, for both of them are good for the bytings of adders.

And whatsoever that our Escuerconera is, wee see hys effectes are greate, as well agaynste the bytinges of the Escuercos whych is so evill a Beaste and venomous, as for other diseases which we have spoken of; which seeing that in so fewe yeres there hath been so much thereof discovered, I do trust that much more wil be hereafter by wise men, that there may be added to this which I have discovered and written of it.

Ans seeing that we have treated briefly and the best that we can of these two medicines so precious to wit, the Bezaar stone and the hearbe Escuerconera, which are twoo [265] things so precious and of so great effectes against venome: now have we to treate of the last parte which we promised to doe, and how we ought to keep and preserve our selves, not to fal into so greate a danger, as of them is declared, for that it is better to keepe our selves from daunger, then to fall therein. Heerin the ancient writers have bin very circumspect. Amongst the rest it hath beene an ancient customme in Princes Courts other great estates, to have their tasters as well in their meate as of their drinke for the eschewing of poyson, and so by the meanes thereof they assure themselves to be out of peril for that matter, the which surely is allowable and a good custome necessarie for the safegard and health of any Prince or Lorde, for if there be any hurte in the meeate or in the drinke, it shal light first upon them that doe eate or drinke thereof and not upon the Prince or other high estate, in whose life and health greate matters doe depende.

Trueth it is that in these dayes it is done more for a ceremony estate, then for health safety of life, this order is used amongst great estates, more for custome then for any thing else, for this purpose the common people have it in estimation, so that at this present it is used contrarie to t hat end and purpose it was ment, for they use now taking of a litle bread and bringing it with the meat and so tast it: that done, they cast it away, and likwise they drinke a drop of wyne or water: if it shoulde be used as it ought to bee, they should eat and drinke thereof throughly, for otherwise the poyson, if there be any, cannot be discerned before it come in to the Princes moyth. Also the Lord ought to command that there be prepared for him divers meates, for that if he mislyke of one, be may tast of another: for being of divers sorts he may taste of eache a little, and eating litle at once of any that were infected, it would doe lesse hurte then if he should eat of one dish being infected filling himselfe therwith al, for being either of them infected and eating much therof, it shal [266] (Fol. 137) do the more hurt. And note this wel, that many times a man is not given alwaies toe eate of one meate, nor to see it alwayes tasted before hee eate it, and afterward there appeareth in it notable hurte, therefore it is good to take your meate with a forke or a spoone, and that they be made as Ierome Montuo a learned man in Phisicke had appoynted for King Henry of Fraunce, whiche was made to knowe of that he had eaten any venom, there must be made a litle fork and a spoone of one mixture of gold and silver, that the olde wryters called Eletrum and it must bee 4 partes golde and one of silver, they must bee smooth, cleane wel burnished, with the forke or holder let hime eate his meate, and with the spoone his broth: for putting them in the meate or in the broth, if that there bee any Vemoms therein, foorthwith the golde will have an evil colour, appearing tawnie, blewe, or blacke, and loosing the beautie that before it had, the which will cause them to looke better to the meat, and this is doon for trial therof, and to make further experience by some beast that may eate thereof, and so to see the effect thereof, for that is the greatest experience: the lyke may bee doone with the drinke to make a cuppe therof, or a broade vessel wel burnished. For if the Wine or water that is put into it, have any venome, the vessel wil take some colour therof as aforesaid: and if it have no poyson therein, it will remaine in his owne colour. And surely it is a gallant and a delicate secret, when uou begin toe eate any manner of meate, the first morsel that you take let it be wel chewed, and marke wel if it do byte or have any evil taste, or if it burne your mouth, or your tongue, or that your stomacke abhore it, for in perceiving or feeling any thing of these signes, cast if forth, and wash your mouth with wine or water and leave that meate and fal to other: it would doo very wel to give it to some beast to see the effecte therof, it is good to have in the house some beast to whom it might be given, for to make experience thereof. And the effect so appearing they have to iudge therof. And this is to be understoode [267] when the venomes come of corsius thinges, you shal feele a notable sharpenes, and they bite and burn forthwith: the best is for them that have suspicion, to eat meate that is rosted or sod, that they eate neither brothes nor pottages, for in them there may be greater hurte: and if any bee made, let them not bee made with things of smell, as Amber, muske, and sweete spyces, and let them not have overmuch sharpenes, for in broth or pottage, the poison will sooner lurke then in rosted or sodden, and use no Meates, which have much sweetnesse, therein all poyson will lurke the more. Hee that hath any suspicion when he goeth to his meate, let them not be too greedy to eate forthwith very hastily, but let him refrain himselfe, and let him eate with leysure, by litle and litle. The like he must do, in his drinking, being very thirsty, hee feeleth not what he drinketh: and so many people being very dry, have drunke inke, Iye, and also water of arsenike, not feeling the same until they have hurt their body, and therefore it is convenient to drinke leisurely by litle and litle, tasting his drinke as he drinketh: surely if men would be ruled by this order, they should easily finde if there were any evill thing in that they eate, and drink. You have to consider the colour of your meate, for thereby will some what appeare. For it wil looke otherwise, then it ought to doo, see that your vessels wherein you eate or drinke bee cleane, newe, and glistering: and if your abilitie be such, let them be of silver, being cleane burnished, for if you have venom in the drinke, it is easily espied, and the silver doth turn blacke or tawne.

Not many dayes past a Gentleman of great riches, by drinking in a playne cuppe of silver, perceived the cup stagned of a sad tawney colour, and did marvel the reat, he onely tasted the wine, and it made his tongue rough, his mouth also: he looked wel on the wyne, that was put into the cup, it had not that quicknes in drinking that it ought to have had, and hee looked on the water, and in the bottome of the [268] (Fol. 138) ewre there were many graines of arsenyke, which as yet were not dissolved. I was called I gathered out of them ewre more then xx smal grains of arsenike: within certain daies after the Gentleman fel sick, whereby I did coniecture that it was not the first time that they pretended to poyson him: since that, he hath bin sicke a long time. And thus much I affirme that if the cup had not bin altered of his colour, been infected, it had not bin perceived. Therefore it is necessarie that the vessels and tinages where wine, water are kept, be stopt for feare least any venomous thing fall therein, as spyders Sallamanquesas and other like venomous beasts, and therefore it is nought to drinke with vessels or cuppes that have narrow mouths: for it is best to see what one drinketh in a cleere vessel and broade, for it is good for them that do regarde their health. It is good to have a peece of a right Unicornes horne in a small chaine of golde, that it may bee swilled continually in the water that shall be drunke. It would do well, for not onely it taketh away the suspition of the venom but doth put to the drinke a mervellous cordiall vertue. Also you must not stand by the fire that is made with venomous wood, for the smoke dooeth poyson, as if you should take poyson, and to set in the chamber coales when they do begin to kindle, many have died therwith: let your apparel be kept by such as you have trust in, for in them may be put things that may do notable hurt, and for al that, as is said, it doeth much profit to have trustie servants, and that they bee such whome you may trust, and that they bee of a good parentage, and sticke not to reward them well. And above all other let the Phisition that hath the charge of your health, be learned and experimented, discrete and of a good iudgement, and that he be riche and of a good kinred, and beeing such a one, he wil not doe any thing that he ought not to doe, seeing that in his handes is the life and health of the Maister and Lord.

Finis. [269]

THE DIALOGUE OF YRON, which treateth of the greatnesse thereof, and how it is the most excellent metall of all others, and the thing most necessarie for the service of man: and of the greate medicinall vertues which it hath.

An Eccho for the Doctor Monardus

Phisition of Sevill.

In Sevill in the house of Alonso Escrimano. [270] (Fol. 140)


To the most excellent Lorde, the Duke of Alcala &c, my Lorde, the Doctor Monardus Phisition wisheth health, &c.

Forasmuche as the metall called yron is of so greate importaunce in the Worlde, and so necessarye for the service of manne, it mooved mee to make thys Dialogue, whiche dooeth treate of the greatenesse and marvellous Woorkes thereof. Which if they be well considered, they will bring admiration unto all that shall reade them by reason it is so necessarie for all states, and manners of lyving. It hath also greate and Medicinall Vertues, and likewise with worthinesse, and greatnesse, it is an Iustrument and meane whereby the most Woorthie have gotten great Titles, and fame: as wee see manie of those which in times past have attayned unto, among whom the Predecessours of your excellencie with their noble mindes, and strong armes, the Speare in the Fist, and the sworde in the hande, by overcoming Battailes, by getting Townes and places, the name and fame of them have been immortall to this day. And for a augment and increase thys the more, and to give to your excellencie, and to your Children and successours, greater glorie, you tooke to Wife the excellent Duches the Lady Juana Curtes that at thys daye dooeth beautifie the whole worlde, with her woorthinesse, estimation, qualitie, and greatnesse, Daughter tho that valiaunt and renowed Prince, Don Fernando Curtes, who with his greatnesse and infinite Labours [271] conquered another newe worlde, and gotte in it not onely Townes and Cities, but Kingdoms and Empires: whereby dyd followe to hys name everlasting glorie. And even so the Children and Successours, that shall come of your excellencie with iust title shall reioyce of suche Progenitors, labouring to imitate them in their greate knoweledge, and warlike actes that they did, taking the yron for the instrument thereof, that unto them in theyr warlike excercises it may bee a great meane and helpe, and for that this our Diologue dooth treate of it, and of the praise and greatnesse thereof, I dedicate it to your excellencie as unto whome so much bounde, I am and it may please your excellencie to recieve my good will for to serve you in greater thinges. [272] (Fol. 141)

Doctor.                      Burgus.

Burgus, Wherein doth master Doctor goe musing studying so, that he seemeth to be Hipocrates himself as the old writers have pointed him out? Doctor. On a sicke person thath I go to visit. Burgus. It is needfull of so muche care before it be seene? Doctor. Yea long before, seeing from my studie I had greate care of him. Burgus. Is is a thing of greate labour, you having so many sicke persons as you alwaies have, that you muste study every day the case of everie one.

Doctor. They are not studied all everie day, but suche as have most need, and doe aske everie houre new remedies, as in sharpe diseases, where neede is of care and diligence, whereby the occasion of the evil may the sooner passe away: for those that are long sicke, as the benefites that should bee done to them by leasure and by little and little, the studies of them are after the same manner. Burgus. I went also thinking how I shoulde see in the Contratation house whither I nowe go, the great quantitie of Gold and silver, which they have now brought in these fleetes that are now come from the Indias, and especially certaine Emeraldes, which they have brought from the newe kingdome. For it is saide that three of them are worth three score thousande Ducats, and as a rare thing never seene in those partes. I went foorth of my Pothecaries shop to see them in the Contration house. Doctor. And I also doe go thither to visite a sicke person at the treasures lodging: iy may be that there we may see them, let us go in at the litle gate, for it [273] is a shorter way, and fewe people will be there. It seemeth to mee, that the great hall of the Treasurie house is shut: it may bee that whiles I go up to see the sicke person, they wil open it. Burgus. Your worship may goe in Gods name, I will tarrie heere for you, and seeing the great hall is not opened, I wil sitte downe uppon the benche, and wil see what doeth passe untill you come.

Doctour. Master Burgus, I pray you pardon mee, of I have tarried long: for the qualitie of the cause hath causeth mee to tarrie. Burgus. Rather I woulde have beene glad that you hadde tarried longer, because I would have seene more. Doctour. What have you seene whiles I was absent: Burgus. The great hall being shutte, and the yarde full of people, and I looked uppon them earnestly, it seemeth to mee that they are people of estimation, but to my iudgement full of cares: for in them I have seene so variable and divers likenesses of countenance, that I marvel at it. Some of them talking to themselves: others being alone with their heades hanging downe, and with greate imagination: others talking by two and two together: Others in clusters treating of the sales of their Merchaundize: Marines and Souldiours tarrying for their paymentes: Others carrying away their portions of silver, which they had taken out running with it, as though they had stolen it: Others there were with the Notaries about their suites: Others in the office of the Treasurer amongst the Registers: There was also a greate noise of muche people, delivering and recieiving parcels of silver, but they were in a greate strife thereuppon. The Judges were in counsell, and many people tarrying for them in such sort, that I was in greate admiration: I beeing there onely to beholde, and all the rest to do their businesse. And it was to mee as one that did beholde them without greefe, as a comedie with many Pageants. [274] (Fol. 142)

And that which did make mee marvell more, was to see that none were merrie nor content: rather they seemed to have greate care and troubles.

Doctour. Maister Burgus, I am glad you have seene what dooth passe in that house, with so much attention: for all that which you have seene, that Gold and silver is cause thereof, which with so great good will you came to see, and this is it whiche is the cause of their troubles, and cares, and not onely it bringeth such as you saw there amazed and astonied, but many others, for they are at this day the instrument of all these things. Some they put dowme, others they rayse up, whereby they have rule, and dominion in the worlde. These mortall men have put so much felicitie in them, that they have and doo procure them, by the losse of their lyves, and shedding of their blood, and after they have them, they conserve them with their labour, and with greater care keep them, and with much misery they spend them, and with great evill fortune they loose them. These are they that take away quietnes and rest. They take away sleepe, and many passe the day to keepe them, and to increase their afflictions and cares. In the night also they rest with feare, and care: there are in them so many snares and hazardes, as we see every day.

Burgus. For all this I woulde see the Golde, the silver, and the Emeraldes. Doctour. What?: maister Burgus, have you never seene Golde, silver, and Emeraldes? Burgus. Yea, I have seene them but in little quantitye. Doctour. What doo you thinke is there in seeing of little, or much, but to see much earth, or little earth, and moste of all without the profite of man, of as many as nature hath created? And if you have so great desire to see precious metalls: I will carrye you to a place where you shall see one metall much more of price, of greater estimation, then the golde silver that you were so desirous to see, better of more profit [275] then the Emraldes, for that these tings concerning stones are no other thing, but an opinion which men have of them and we have seene very fewe wonders that they do by any thing that is written of them, except it bee to take money out of one purse, and conveigh it into an other. I knowe no other vertue that they have. And the Golde and Silver is no other thing but a dust and earth of that colour, whiche Nature did breede in the bowelles of the Earth, as shee did other Metalles. Trueth it is, that the people have put more estimation in these twoo, then in the rest.: in so much that suche as have aboundaunce of them are called rich: and that is called riches, where of Socrates sayth, that they do no service to the wise man, but to trouble his mind, as the long apparall dooth trouble the bodie. And nowe seeing wee are come to the house where the metall is, that is more precious then Golde, Silver, and Emeraldes, let us goe in, for Maister Ortuno will give us leave: the Porche of the Doore is freshe, and the heate is greate, for here wee shall passe well away a part of the hot afternoone.

Ortuno. What doo you lacke master Doctour? Doctour. Wee would be merry and rest us a little in this your porch of your doore. Ortuno. I am very glad thereof. Will it please your woorships to sit downe, for heere are chayres? Doctour. Master Ortuno the hotte afternoone is better to passe in Biskey then heere in Sevill. Ortuno. There is also heate at this tyme of the yeare, as there is here, but here is a difference, that in this cittie the houses are made verye well to defende the heate: and there the moste parte of the houses are made of boordes, to defende the greate colde, and at thys time of the yeare they are verye hot. It is well spoken of suche as saye, that in the Winter tyme it is good to dwell in Burgus and in the Sommer in Sevill, for because the houses are made to remedy and serve both those seasons. [276] (Fol. 143)

Doctor. And seeing wee are heere, I will shewe Maister Burgus the metall I promised him, whiche is richer then Golde, Silver, or Emeraldes which he went to see. B. I woulde be glad to see wthat it is. D. These planches of Iron that you see leaning to these walles, is the true mettal most precious, which serveth the world: with it men profit them selves in their necessities: this is the true golde and silver, without which wee could not live: nor men coulde exercise their artes, and offices without it: and with it are recovered the true riches, all fruites, and temporall goods, and with this metal al other metalles are fined and brought to theyr perfection. B. Trueth it is, that yron is very necessarie, but it is a playne thing that golde and silver are more excellent then it, and they are bred of a better original substance, and of a greater beginning then it, as it appeareth in the fayrnesse and excellencie which they have, more then all other metalles.

D. Maister Burgus, you shall understande, that all these mettalles doo proceede and are ingendred of one manner of substance, original, and beginning. Trueth it is, that there have beene great opinions and divers iudgementes among the ancient and wise Philosphers, whereuppon the original and beginning thereof should bee, and whereof they are ingendered. Some doo say, that moysture congeled into a certeyne forme, is the matter of all metalls. Aristotle saith, that they are ingendred of a vapour entred into the bowels of the earth. Democrito sayeth, that they are made of a certeyne kinde of lime and lye. Gil a Spanish Moore sayeth, that they are made of ashes: others say that they are made of al the Elements: some say that they are congeled of a colde cause: others, that heate doth make them thicke. The Astronomers doo attribute this matter to the superiour causes, and to the knowen starres, giving to every Planet his metall. Plato willing to reproove the one and the other, woulde that the celestiall vertue, with the earthly were the cause of his beginning, [277] and originall.

Trimegisto sayd, that the earth was the mother of the metals, and the heaven the Father. And Plinie sayth these wordes. The inner parte of the earth is a thing moste precious, for into it, and through it doo goe, and pearce al the influences of heaven, ingendering therein thinges of greate pryce, as stones and mettals: and this is doone, als Calcodonio Platonico doeth say, by reason of the greate heate, that is in the inner parte of it. Calisthenes understood that the forme of metalls were all one. Anaxagoras and Hermes sayde, that the metalls had one form in the inner part, and an other in the outwarde parte, one secret, and an other manifest, after the manner as the lead hath within it gold, and the gold lead, and so of al the rest of the metals. See you my maisters howe many and howe variable opinions there are among wise men.

There is another opinion, which is that whiche is common, and which for the most certeyne we do followe, which Avicen wrote in his bookes of Matheurous, and in the bookes he made of Alcumisto, which were confirmed by Geber and Raymond Lullio, and Arnolde de Villo nova, and all the rest that have treated of these matters, even unto our tyme, doo say, that the true matter of all metalls is ingendred of brimstone, and quickesilver, the brimstone as the father, and the quickesilver as the mother: and the heate of the brimstone, dooth incorporate, and congele with the quicksilver, in such sorte that of these twoo thinges are made the metals which are in the bowelles of earth: and of the variation of these twoo beginninges, they come to dyffer the one from the other, and of the purenesse of these twee beginnings, some doe come to be more excellent then other: and for this the golde is more profitable more fayre then all other metalles, for because it is formed of his beginning cleane, and pure, which was the cause and originall of his perfection. [278] (Fol. 144)

And there were Philosophers which said that al mettals should have bin golde, if it had not bin for the imperfection of the sulphur, and the quickesilver. And al other metald besides the gold, they call imperfect mineralles, because they hadde not their purenesse, and concoction, that the golde had, with that marvellous friendshippe, which nature gave unto it. And of this it commeth, that the Alcumistes for to make golde, doe pretende to make cleane and purifie these twoo beginninges of the which all the mettalles are made, and beeing put into their perfection the golde is made by of them, which is the metall most pure and cleane, of all other.

Thus they dooe woorke with their distillations and limbecks: and how hard it is to doe, let them reporte and speake that have spent their goods, and also their patrimonies thereupom, and yet in the end have performed nothing at all.

Such as doo write against them, making impossible their woorkes and effectes, do say, that in the bowels of the earth, the metals are not ingendred, nor made of brimstone, and quickesilver, as they thinke and holde it for certeine, so they cannot make of them by Arte, for if it were so, that of brimstone and quicksilver they were ingendred, ther would be same rase of them in the mynes of golde, and silver, and of the other metals; for it is seene that there is no signe or vayne of them in any of those mynes, howe deepe so ever they be: but rather they are mynes of themselves, as wee see, that neyther in them are founde metalles, nor in the mynes of the metals are founde sulphur, nor quicksilver.

And if it were so as they saye that the metalles doo breede, and are newly ingendred of those twoo beginnings, it must bee of force, that one metall were already made, and the other shoulde goe a making, for that all coulde not bee made alyke: but rather they take out all metalles ready made, and perfectioned, and in the meltinges [279] that is made of them, are neither founde sulfur, nor quickesilver. The cause is harde, and the opinions are many, as you have heard. I knowe none that hath hit the Marke. God only knoweth, who gave to nature certain lawes, and maners to congele, and make these mettals with such mixture and forme as it hath pleased him to do. Heereof it is that some have beene of opinion, and not without great reason, that the metalles were made and bred ioyntly, with the world, as saint Augustin saith. All that ever the Lord made he made it together, at one time, and he did create it even so when he made the world, and created the earth, iointly with it, and in the bowels of it he created the metalles, and that which is to be taken for most certaine in this cause, as also that which doeth shewe most effectes, is the common opinion, which sayeth, that the metalles are ingendred of brimstone, and quicksilver, for therby are dissolved many doubts which woulde be harde to verifie, if it were not so. And this is the best opinion, most sure, and true, and with the greatest demonstration. B. Great thinges hath master D. shewed us, for they have put me in admiration, and I doe understand, that his desire is to give us to understand, the original cause of what the yron is ingendred, seing that his intent is to treate of it, and of his greatnes. D. Trueth it is, that my principal intent in that which I have saide, is to shewe you howe the yron is made, and created of the same beginnings, and matter, that the gold and silver are made of, and the rest of the mettales, and that the yron dooeth not differ from the gold in more, then the golde is made of his beginninges cleane and pure, wherby it is bright, glistering and faire, and the yron because it is made of grosse beginnings, and not pure, therefore it is foule, blacke, and darke, as we see it, and although it be so, yet it is more excellent then golde, or silver, and all other mettalles, fir of it we receive more benefite, and have more neede of it, then of all the rest: and al other mettales, without it are no value, for it doth [280] (Fol. 145) take them out from underneath the ground with it they are wrought and come to their perfection. With it are vessels made, money, and all other thinges which serve for the use and profite of man: in this respect it is of more strength, then al they are of, seeing that it doth make them al subiect, and in such sorte doeth grinde and beate them, that all they doe come under the woorking thereof, perforce. And before wee passe further, it wil doe wel that Master Ortuno, who was borne in Biskey, doo tell us hoe the Iron is taken out, made, and brought to perfection, and the rest that he doeth knowe thereof: for this being knowen we will lay the matter, with the better foundation. Ortuno. Master Doctor hath saide so much unto us, that hee hath bounde mee lykewyse to runne my rase, and I will speake that which I knowe, although that my talke be as of a Biskaine.

Your worshippes shall understande that all the Hilly Country of Biskey, for the most parte are mynes of yron, and although that all of them are not wrought uppon, yet those which are the best, are wrought, and such where most quantitie of mettall is taken out: the others as a thing of little benefite, bee not wrought uppon, bycause they yeelde not the cost that is made in taking out the mettall of them.

The stones which are uppon all in the uppermost part of the vaine, are the most strong and harde yron, in so much that it is called Steele, for the greate strength that it hath, the uppermost parte is alwaies of greate rockes, wherein is the mettall which they undermine, and put fire under them that therwith they may breake, and afterwarde with great hammers they breake them, and make them in peeces, and after put them into a Oven, like to a lyme keele, and put fire to them, that therewith they may be made soft the easier, and to make them in smaller peeces. And beeing so done, they are put into a Furnace made for the purpose, that they may melte, and there it is melt, and [281] the Iron doeth fall downe into the lowest parte, and so it is made a great cake, the which beeing divided into peeces, they carry them to the forge, where are certain great hammers or sledges of Iron which the water driveth, and they beate them, and there they are forged, and doe make these planches that you see there leaning. Trueth it is, that there are mines where some Iron is more strong then other some and likwise harder and stronger to labour. The Iron of Almaine is softer and gentler to worke: That of Flaunders is harde and naught: and therefore it is that many thinges are soone broken that are made of it. In Italy you have all sortes, that of Biskey is the best, by reason it is good to worke, and it is more mightie and stronge then all other, and for the goodnesse it hath, it is carried to all partes.

Doctour. Doe they bring steele from Biskey as they doe from Italie? Ortuno. They doe bring a certaine kinde of Iron so harde and strong, that being wrought, it serveth for Steele, chiefly with a temperature that is given to it, that doth make it verie strong, although that it be wrought with great labour. There is a great difference betweene this and the Steele which they bring from Italy, and cheefely from Milan, for this is verie pleasant to woorke and softe, and is fare better, and the crestes men that dooe worke it for this cause are desirous of it, and do use it more then any other. Doctour. Some will say, that the Steele is a mine alone of it selfe distant from the Iron. Ortuno. It is not so, for all are mines of Iron, but that some is more strong then other some, the stronger and harder it is, for the strengt hand hardnesse thereof we call it Steele, and there are countries which have no other Iron but this which is harde and strong, as all the country of Mondragon, where alle the mynes that are in it, are of this yron, strong, harde, where by it is called steele, all that is taken out of them, the disposition of the place doeth cause it, but that which they bring [282] (Fol. 146) from Italy is of another sorte. In that Countrie are divers mynes of yron, some of soft yron easie to woorke, and other of hard stong yron not easie to worke. And for to make the steele which they sende us, they use it in this sorte: they take of the soft yron, the quantitie they seeme good, and they make it in certeyne small thinne planches, then they take marble ground small, and also the rust of the yron grounde smal mingling it al together, they put it into a furnace to melt, prepared for this purpose, with much quantitie of kindled coale, they cast all toegether into it, giveth it a strong fire, and after they cast to it some of the hard Iron that is so hard, that it cannot be wrought, and with a strong fire it is al melt, and they make it a one peece, of the which they make these barres of steele, that they bring to these partes, in so greate quantitie the which they call steele, by reason it is hard to woorke, and strong, in Latin it is calles Chalibs, by reason of certeyn smal townes that were so called, whereas was yron most strong: harde. The steele serveth for many things, because it is of greater might, and stronger then the yron, and of more activitie, and they make strong fortifie the tooles of yron with it to endure the longer, and may doo their work more quickly, with more strength readines, for that it is an yron more pure and cleane, and for this cause it is more dry, and white, and better to be wrought: this is to conclude that which I have understoode of the originall of yron, and of steele. D. Maister Ortuno, hat sayde very well, and not in short speech, but wisely, and discreetly. Reason would that many people should buy of these 2 metalles, for I have understood that they serve for many things. Ortuno. They which do buy yron of mee, are many: but they which doo worke it, are many more, for I doo not know any office or science in all this citie whereto yron and steele are not needeful, necessarie. D. M. B. I would bee glad that you would tel us in what occupations, principally yron is used spent. Ortuno. They are so many, that in many dayes they [283] will not bee declared, much less in the little time that wee have heere. D. Let us be informed as long as time wil permit. Ortuno. I will speake of some thinges which I doo remember. One of the thinges in the which yron is most spent, as also a greate parte of the Steele, is in armour, as well defensive, as offensive, so that there is no place at this day in the world where they are not used, and exercised, and in many Countries they are made. Chiely there is spent much yron in making of handgunnes, the use whereof is so much in the warres, and warlyke exercises, that the people of greatest fame and activitie, are they whiche shoote in them: as a thing verie principall, and moste necessarie: but surely it was an invention of the Devill, for to carrie many to hell. And to speake of all kinde of weapons which are made of yron and steele, it will aske a longer time then we have. The yron dooth profite for the tilling of the earth, and labouring of the fieldes, and for the benefites of all the woorkes in the Countrie, to sow, and doo other woorkes, a thing necessarie and profitable for all people, seeing that the woorkes of the fieldes dooth susteyne all manner of estates, in the worlde. The yron serveth to make buildinges, so many sortes, and divers, that therewith they builde Citties, Townes, Vilages, Forts, Churches, and publike places, the which without yron and steele coulde not be made, as also in the sciences of any manner of handicraftsman, for the use and excercise, that thereby you may see how necessarie the yron and steele is, seeing that without them they cannot be made, nor any thing can bee wrought. And to expresse everie office, and science by it selfe, that by meanes of these twoo metalles are made and exercised, it will never bee made an ende of. One thing I will speake with truth, that there is nothing in the worlde, bee it by it selfe alone or with the helpe of an other thing, that hath not need of iron and steele. [284] (Fol. 147)

By meanes of these two metals, kinges princes do get Kingdomes, and cities by meanes of them they doo make subiect their enemies, and doo defende their goods and persons, and as Livio sayth, that with Iron the Countrey is defende, and not with Golde, and with it kinges are made strong and mighty and are esteemede and had in great reverence. By Iron iustice is kept and maintayned, and by the meanes of it, evil dooers are chastened and the good conserved. This mettall hath so much authoritie in the world, that it conserveth peace and quietnesse in common wealthes, in cities, in fieldes, and in desertes, in suche sorte that by it in all places they have all their assurance, and defence: and so much may be sayd of that which it can do, and the greate aucthority that it hath, and the meane that it is for al things that my tongue is not able to speake them, nor my memory to expresse them. One thing I will say, that the auncient Romaines had by it such estimation, that onely the Noble people onely might weare a ring, the same to bee of Iron.

Of twoo needles which are made of steele I will speake, as of the greatest thinges that may be thought: the one is the Needle with the which they doo sowe: how necessarye it is in the world, in citties, in townes in common wealthes, in perticuler houses in the field in the Sea; in al places, yea and to anye one particuler man alone? And let so many Artes speake thereof, that by meanes of the Needle are used, doon, and without it they should not be used, nor doone: and beeing so many, it will bee a thing incomprehensible to speake of them. Let every man consider thereof, seeing that from the king unto the sheepehearde, and from the bishop to the sexton they cannot passe without the use of it. And if wee looke what service it doth to women in their uses and exercises, in their sowings workes wrought upon linen cloth and silke, thinges so politike, and delicate, that with the Needle they do worke: imitating also, in things which they worke, like unto the work of nature, making beastes, birds, [285] plants, leaves, and flowers, which do seeme with the branches, that they give of silke in colours, as if it were the selfe same that is growing in the fielde. I sawe the picture of the kings maiestie made with a needle so naturally, as if an excellent Painter had paynted it. Of all this the needle is the instrument: a thing so small that it is hid among the fingers.

The Indians were in great admiration thereof at the beginning, when they were first discovered, when they sawe Spanyardes sow with a Needle, for it seemeth to them a thing of wonder, and they gave for a Needle much golde, and they were asked wherefore they would have them, seeing that they were naked: they annswered, for the workes that the Spanyardes did with them, they would have them in their power for a thing of admiration. And with them they tooke out the thornes that ran into their feete, beter then with any other thing.

The other Needle is that which serveth for Navigation to sayle withall in the Sea, and is one of the greatest things that hath beene discovered in the whole world, within this little time: and by meanes thereof, there have been founde new worldes, great kingdomes, and provinces, never seene nor knowen unto us. And if the Needle had not been found, they had never bin discovered. When they wanted it, the navigation was very little, and short: they sayled onely casting about by the bankes of the Sea coastes: and nowe by the meanes of it, they do ingulfe themselves, and doo sayle in such sort, that the shippe called the Victorie sayled all the rounde worlde over, as the Sunne goeth everye day, that is sayde, shee sayled at one tyme twelve thousande leagues. And that which is more to bee marvelled at, that the shippe beeing in a gulffe of 800 or 1000 leagues by meanes of the Needle they came to the porte which they pretended to go unto, without any other knowledge, more then by the meanes of the Needle, or as wee call it the compasse, [286] (Fol. 148) the which is of steele: and they do rubbe over one parte of it with the lode stone, forthwith by particular vertue which God hath given unto it by that parte which they did rubbe over with the lode stone, it looketh towards the Pole, which is neere to the North, and perpetually it dooeth this beeing in the Sea, or in the land, either by the day, or by the night, with the Sunne or without it, alwaies it looketh towardes the North.

With the which Needle, and wyth the Carde of Navigation, wherein is placed a distinction for the knowledge of the windes, and the description of the portes: they sayle so many milleons of leagues: as at this day wee see, and it is done so easily, that is is very wonderful. The invention of this marvellous Needle was founde by a Mariner, who was borne in a citie of Melsi in Italy. Also the yron Steele do serve to make clockes, which is a thing of greate art, very necessarie to live und rule order: for by them shal be knowen the works that are to be made, the time that shal be spent in them, they serve for all states of people, whereby they may live wisely discretely: where is no clocke they live like beasts, they are made at this day with so much art curiousnes, that they make great admiration, they purifie and make cleane these two metals, that they make them as bright as any other: they gild them, they silver them, there is given to them other colours, are made verie faire, as we see that there are made cheines of Steele verie delicate and fyne: and there are given to them divers shapes and coulours, and are more esteemed then those which are made of Golde or Silver. These metals are distilled by the waye of Alcumiste: and there is made of them Quinta essencia, as of Golde and Silver. The Alcumistes dooe saye, that the metall moste apte for their causes and effectes is the Iron.

The Iron doeth suffer a greevous disease, which dooeth consume and make an ende of it, which is called [287] rust, and because it may not come to it, there are many remedies, that the thinges which are made of Iron, and of Steele may be continually cleane: principally, that they be put into no moist place, and that they be occupied and used, gilding them of silvering them: in so doing they bee kepte cleane from the aforesaide rust, or annonting them with common oyle, or with the marrowe of a Deare, or with the fatte of birdes, or with white lead and vinegar: when they are raken with the rust, for to take it away, they must be fyled of and put into vineger, and after into the fire, for with this it is taken away, unlesse then they be so much eaten, that they are not to be remedied with these benefites. I doo not speke of the finesse and delicatenesse that there is in sodering of it, and closing of it together, and of the using of it in the forge, because I am weary I let it passe with many other things that I should say thereof, and do conclude that these two thinges, Iron and Steele are the most necessarie things for the service of man, of as many as are in the world. Doctor. I am verie glad with that which master Ortuno hath spoken: for all is to confirme the excellencies, greatnesse which I have understood of these two mettalles, wherby I doe take them to be more necessarie then the gold and silver, if we do consider well of it. The gold doth not serve us principally for any other thing, but for money, which is to buy any thing therwith, and for the trade of thinges, the which any other metal might serve, or any other thing. For in the old time as there was no money, they did barter and change one thing for another: and by reason in thys bartering and changing there could not be used any equality and iustification betweene parties: the wise and discreete men of common wealthes did agree together to make a thing which might serve the lacke that might be of the one party to the other, that with it the thinges might be made equall, and there might bee a iustification invented and made the first [288] (Fol. 149) money, which was neither golde nor silver, but of Iron, and of metall, as wee see in the money of old time. And after that, the Romaines made it of golde and silver, for the fayrnesse thereof, but is is sufficient that the first which was made, was of yron and of metall, seeing that the Indians have it to this day, of fruites of trees, and especially of the Cacao, which is the fruite of a tree, lyke to an Almond, this hath served, and doeth serve them for money, to buy, and to selle, and to use all playnesse, in their businesse. And in all Ginea the blacke people called Negros dooe use for money, for the same effect, certaine little snayles, which they finde in the Sea, as also other nations doe use of thinges lyke to this. B. I have helde my peace, harkening to your worshippes, with great attention, and surely you have treated in thinges of greate importance, and of great learning: and seeing you goe treating so effectually the matter of Iron, and so delicately, and with so greate learning, I woulde that Maister Doctor myght satisfie us one thing, that I have seene decided of learned men, uppon the complexion of yron: for some doe say it is colde, and uppon this I have had so many alterations, that they have amased me, and seeing that Maister Doctor can certifye us concerning this matter, wee shall take great pelasure, if that hee wil declare it unto us. D. I thought to have made an ende with this saying, and that I had accomplished my promise with Maister Burgus: but nowe hee will drive mee to a question, the most hard and difficult that is in al Phisicke, and surely it were neede of more time, then that wee have to determine it.

B. Your worship may not escape by that meane, for to morrowe you may make an end of that, which you cannot doe this day. Ortuno. I shall receive great pelasure in it, although it bee not my profession: for beeing a thing touching yron, I shall reioyce therein. D. For to content you, I will [289] doe it, and so Il will returne hither to morrow after Dinner because we may have time and place to treat of all thinges that are to be said of yron. I goe to visite my sicke people the little time that doth remaine: and Maister Burgus will goe to his Apothecaries shoppe, and so God be with you. [290] (Fol. 150)

The second part of the Dialogue of Iron, treating of the vertues thereof.

Doctour. I am righte glad, that I finde Mayster Burgus heere, for as I came by the waye, I sente to call him, because it might have chaunced that wee shoulde not have mette so well together as wee dyd yesterdaye. For we went from hence when it was night. Burgus. For a matter of so greate importance, and that dooth give so much satisfaction and contentment it is good come tymely. Ortuno. You are welcome, maister Doctour, you have verye well accomplished your promise. God save you, in a good houre be it, the porche of the doore is very freshe, and it is needefull that it should be so, because it is so hotte. Burgus. Seeing that wee bee nowe heere sette downe, and are so wel shadowed from the heate, it will doo well, that maister Doctour doo relate us, that whiche wee asked of him yesterday, that the tyme passe not awaye in vaine. Doctour. I do minde so to doo, for alwayes I come shorte and wearye, and have neede of tyme. This question which we will treate of, is so difficultie, that many of the olde writers, who have treated of yron, did let it alone, and medled not with it: for the doubtes they hadde thereof, whether it were hotte or colde.

And if any did treate thereof, it was so short, and so out of order, that they lefte not anything knowne nor verified, following everye one the opinion that seemed best to hys [291] owne iudgement.

And that wee may more apparantly see the same, I will speake of suche that holde the one opinion, and also of those that are of the other: and the parties being heard, wee will iudge that which shal seeme best unto us. Let us speak first of those that affirme Iron to be colde, and let Galen bee the first, who dooth say that all those metals of their nature are drye, and so they have great vertue, and strength, to dry up, and that hath most vertue and strength to doe this among all of them, is the Iron, as also with this vertue to drye up: it hath also vertue to make colde. Hee dooth compare it to the stone, saying that the substance of the stone is constant, and stedfast, for the colde, and dryeth that it hath: Even so is the Iron, in suche sorte that it hath the nature of the stone, the which is colde and drye. And this whiche hee sayeth in the nienth of his Methodo, hee dooth confiime in that of the naturall faculties. The harde bodies doo shew to have more earthlie partes, and as Iron is most harde, it hath more then all others thinges, whereby it commeth to be colde and drie.

Averoyes dooth confirme the same in the fifth of his Coliget and sayeth: thinges whiche are made harde of heate, with the dominion of earthly partes ought to bee colde, and drye, as the Iron is. Alberto Magno in the booke of the Metheuros sayeth: the Iron when it is kindled maketh it selfe very redde, for because in his principall qualitie it hath earthlie partes, the same he doth confime in the booke which he made of metals.

Conciliador in the difference 155 sayeth in the Iron is not founde that vertue which is expressely active, but in the ende it is colde and drye. The same wordes are sayde in the difference 128. Gentill in the same question whiche he made de Actuatione medicinarum, sayeth, that the Iron is colde and drie. [292] (Fol. 151)

Herculano in the chapter de Vomitu confirmeth the same. Iacobus de partibus upon the second of the first, sayeth that the yron is colde and dry. Wee do see that the waters which have quenched hot yron or steele, are colde and dry. Avicen in the seconde of the first, sayeth that they doo restraine the colour, and take away drieth, and the heate chiefly in time of verie hotte weather. And following after this, Monardo saieth, that the water which hath cooled hotte steele is cold, seeing that it taketh away the drieth, and doth mittigate the heate, in tyme of hot weather: and the drieth being taken away, causeth that the putrefaction of the fevers do cease, and where they are with stooles, it maketh an excellent worke. Albucasis in the booke whiche hee made of cering Instrumentes, sayeth, that those instruments where with the head should bee cered, ought to be of golde, because it is most temperate: that in no manner of wise they be of iron, because the iron is colde of nature.

Brasavola in his Booke of the French disease sayeth, that the yron is colde and dry, which as he sayeth doth shew wel in his colour and manner of substance, and in the darknes and weight it hath, for these thinges doo alwaies appeare, and come into earthly substance, as that whiche is light into hot, and ayery substance which is knowen to bee colde and dry for his effectes, seeing that it taketh away, and dooth represse the cholerike stooles, it withholdeth the fluxe, and hot runninges. That which this dooth, alwaies is cold and drie.

Sanavarola putteth the degrees of the coldnes, which the yron hath, and sayeth: that it is colde in the seconde degree, and dry in the third. B. Maister Doctor I pray you to passe forwarde: for unto mee, that which is spoken, is sufficient, for I have no doubt therof, but that the yron is colde and dry and alwaies I have understood it to be so, and now with the confirmation of such authors, I holde it for more certeine and forme. D. Maister Burgus hath very quicklie [293] determined without hearing the other partie. And therefore it is sayde that the iudge should have two eares, the one to heare one partie, and the other to heare the other party: when you have heard the contrarie party which saith, that the yron is hot, authorised with so graus men, and so wise, as the aforesaide, perhappes you shall remayne confounded, in having made so light a iudgement. B. Is it possible that any doo say that the yron which is harde and colde, weighty, is not cold, but hot? I cannot beleeve it, unlesse it were with some sophisticall argumentes. D. It shall not bee, but with very plane reasons evident, spoken by the most principall Phisitions, and philosophers, that have beene heretofore. Galen in his nienth booke of the simple medicines, saith that the mettalls, have much substance of the fire mingled with the rest: how much reason is it, to bee more in the yron then in the rest of the metalls, but because it is hard and thicke, let Rasis shewe it, for in the 21 of the Continent hey dooth say iron to be hot drie, in the third degree. And for the confimation therof, let Mensne be cited, who was both a phisition and a Philosopher, very famous in his time. Aliabas in the 5 of his Theorica dooth saye that the water that hath quenched hot steele, is hot and dry, because it hath vertue to consume the superfluities of the stomacke, and openeth the inner partes of the bodie which are al workes of heate. Avicen in the second Canon sayth, that the steelie water doth resolve, which worke is only of heate, and he himself giveth it, in the disease of the palsey, which is a disease for the moste part, that commeth of colde causes. Conciliador in the Commentaries which he made upon the problemes of Aristotle, maketh a great doubt in this matter, saying that the authors whiche doo treate of yron, did not determine if it were hot or cold, but that their opinion is, that it doth more decline to be hot then colde. Avicen saith, that the rust of the yron is hot. Mathew de Gradi saith so likewise. Alberto Magno in the booke which he made of metals, in the 23 parte saith, that of [294] (Fol. 152) the gold and the copper there is no doubt, but they are hot, and chiely the copper, by reason it is of a darker colour, and for this cause the yron doth particpate of heate. The Astronomers doe say lykewise that it is hot, seeing that they hold it, to be under the dominion of Mars, which is hot and drie. And besides these grave authors the reason doth shew it self, and the workes and effects that it hath. We see that it doth overcome the superfluous moysture of the stomacke, it openeth the opilations, it provoketh the monthly custome of women, it consumeth and drieth up: al which are works of heat, insomuch that I do perceive with that which is already spoken that. D. B is amased, of an other opinion then he was before. B. Surely it is so, sithence I have heard such grave men shew so good reason that the yron is hot, it hath driven me into a great doubt, and confusion, and know not how to determine with my self, unto which part I shal incline, and beleeve. D. And so lykewise many others have done that knew not what they should determine. And writing of the yron they set not down of what complexion it was, because they knew not to what part they shoulde incline, seeing the varietie of iudgements were such as we have declared. B. It would be a learned thing very convenient to make certain in one iudgement, these authors, seing that so long time they have bin at difference, at discord: and it seemeth to me that M. Doctor might do verie wel, seing that the Greekes Arabians did sit in counsel together with one consent, to determine upon the letting of blood, for the stiche in the side, and other controversies which were in this matter: seing that worke hath bin so esteemed in all places, likwise this wil be of greate estimation, to make such grave authors to agree, which are so different contrary to opinions. D. It seemeth to be a hard thing to do this. B. The greater it is, the more it wil be esteemed. D. Bycause my good will is to please Maister Burgus, I will speake my minde and opinion, more for the desire to tell the certeine trueth, then to be the iudge, and to sette downe a finall Iudgement, [295] and determination of this controversie.

Wee have said with the opinion of Avicen, and the reste of the authors, that al metals are made of sulfur and quicksilver, the sulfur as the father the quicksilver als the mother, the one as the maker, and the other as the matter, and being so, the matter whereof the yron is made, is of these twoo thinges, and of these two beginninges, of the most hot sulfur, and of the most cold quicksilver. The which nature hath placed in the inner partes of the earth, and made them metals, and where there was these twoo beginninges, most pure, it was made golde, and likewise of that which was grosse and unpure, according to the degree and qualitie of everie one, there was ingendred and made metall, conformably to the purenesse, of grofnesse that it had, and where these metals are more unpure, more grosse, and more dark, the yron did ingender.

The whych beeing of beginninges not pure nor cleane, but grosse and fylthie, became to bee a metall, more harde then all other metals, so that by meanes of it strength there might be some who might make it easie and subiect to be wrought, as also it might bee a necessarie instrument that thereof men might profite themselves. And whereas the yron is made and ingendred of these twoo beginnings, which are, sulfur and quicksilver, the one hot, and the other colde: so it hath the complexion and temperature, and dooeth participate of both qualities: therefore it is so drie, and for this cause hard and stong. By meanes of the sulfur it heateth, it consumeth, it drieth, it openeth, it comforteth, it provoketh appetite, and maketh the mervellous woorkes that we will speake of heereafter, and al is done by meanes of the heate which it hath. And by meanes of the quicksilver, being grosse and unpure and being formed with earthly vertue, wherewith it is mingled, it cooleth, it retaineth, it thickeneth, it congeleth, it withdraweth and detaineth any maner of fluxe, or runningsby binding, it taketh away stooles, it cooleth and tempereth the heate, and it dooth many [296] (153) other effects, which are al done by meanes of the coldnes that it hath, in such sort as by the aforesaide is seene, the effects are contrarie which the Iron doth: the cause whereof is by reason it is compounded of thinges that have contrary qualities, which are rootes in it, and do worke conformably to the subiect where they doe worke. For where it is need to open, it openeth: and where it is neede to shutte, it shutteth. Trueth it is, that besides these qualities, the yron hath an other most principall, which is, that is most drie, more then all other metals, by meanes whereof it doeth many of these effectes and woorkes, which wee have spoken of, and also it hath vertue to heate, to coole, and to dry up. And of this it commeth, that some doe say it is hot, bycause they see that it maketh workes of heate, and others say that it is colde, bycause they see it doeth workes to make cold, the reason whereof is, that it is compounded of twoo contrary beginninges, the one hot, and the other colde, and thereby it seemeth that they may verie wel defend themselves, who said, that yron is colde, and worketh cold effectes: And lykewise they that sayde, it was hot, and doth hot effectes. Whereby it doth appeare that which the one and the other have spoken and treated thereof, to be true. B. Master Doctor hath very wel ended the controversis, and contrariety that is in this matter discreetly and wisely, wherby we are satisfied: but there remaineth a doubt, if the quicksilver bee colde, as hee sayeth that some doe say that it is, and to proove it, they say that it sheweth by his strength, colour, and taste, and the effectes, which it doeth, to make colde, seeing that such as doe use of it, it maketh impotent, they suffer waekenesse, and trembling of sinewes, and are utterly voyde of the use of their members, and they die all together of a disease called Apoplexie, and all this doeth come of colde causes. They which say that the quickselver is hot, doe proove it with his effectes, for anointing the ioyntes and other partes, of the body therwith, it maketh great workes, and effects of heat, [297] it inflameth their mouth, and throte, their gummes, roote of their mouth, with great heate, and burning: it provoketh swaet most vehement: we see that thereof is made the most strong thing like to fire, that is called Sublimatum, which is most strong fire, and burneth whersoever it bee put and all that it taketh, it consumeth, and fiereth. Of it is made that corsive poyson, called Pouder Precipitatos, in such sorte that the cause is needfull, seeing it hath and dooeth the workes so contrarie to make colde, and to make hotte. D. The same doubt we have of it, as of the yron, and what is that which Master Burgus wil now have? B. Now that you brought us out of the first doubte, we pray you that you will bring us out of the second. D. It seemeth unto me that Master Burgus doth take the matter so earnestly that I must needs do it, because I meane to content him, in al things, it shal be done very quickly: the evening commeth upon us. The quicksilver is a metall compounded of divers parts, the watery parts that it hath, are mingled with earthly things, which is that that giveth it substance and strength. It hath also mingled with it sulfery parts, which seemeth to be very bright: for in chasing the quicksilver betweene the hands, there remaineth in them the perfect smell of brimstone, so the quicksilver is compounded of divers things. The watery earthy parts giveth it vertue to make colde: by meanes whereof is done the vertue which we have spoken of, and by meanes of the sulfur which hath ayerey parts, it heateth, penetrateth, openeth and maketh thin, and by them it provoketh sweat, it causeth to expel by the mouth and by stooles, the humour that doth abounde, by heating and dooing other effectes of heate.

And therefore it is not to bee marvelled that the quicksilver doth contrarie effects, seing it hath divers operations, which is the selfe same that we have spoken of the yron, and so the doubt remaineth discovred which was propounded by M. Burgus. B. I remaine sufficiently satisfied of that which [298] (Fol. 154) is sayde, but not so satisfied that there dooth not remayne for mee to aske of M. Doctor another thing, which is of more weight then all that is sayde: which is, to knowe the vertues that the yron and steele have in the use of medicine: for their works, and effects, as I have heard it reported, are many.

D. It wilbe a trouble for me to reckon, and tell of so many auncient authors as also of late written authors, whiche do treate of the vertues of iron, and of the steele, by reason they are many and doo treat of great things. And seing that is shalbe declared, let us loose no time, whereby we may the rather make an ende. By that which is sayde, you have understood howe the yron, and steele, are one kinde of metall, saving that the steele is hard and strong. They of old tyme knew not the steele, but onely treated of the yron, and to it they attributed the medicinall vertues that we will speake of, and under our talke of yron, we will comprise the Steele, seing that it differeth not from it, in more then in being purer, and cleaner from superfluities: and for this cause the steele dooth make cold, and drieth more then the yron. For where it is needfull to beate and to open, the yron hath more force, because it is not cleane of the sulpherie partes, for there is lost much thereof, when the steele is made in the forme as it is above saide.

Is is needfull before we proceed forwarde, whereby wee may the better treate of the vertue of yron, that wee understand ho wit ought to be prepared. For if it be not prepared, neither can it be administred, not yet wil it worke it effects, because it is a hard metal and strong. And seeing that wee have M. Burgus heere, who in his Arte is one of the excellentest men of al Spain, he may declare unto us how it may bee used, and prepared, because wee may goe forwarde in this matter. B. I Have recieved great pleasure with that as I have heare treated of yron, and of steele, and thought the wee shoulde have made an ende, and not treated [299] any longer of them: but seeing that is seemeth good to Maister Doctor, that I shoulde speake of the preparing of these metalles, I will doo it, because I woulde say some thing as well for my parte. But if Maister Doctor woulde take paynes, hee might speake thereof, as wel as most men that are in the world, seeing he knoweth it, and that there is nothing in medicine hidden unto him, but seeing that we have of him a good Censor, if any thing doo lacke, he may speake and supply it. The metalles if they bee not corrected and prepared everie one, as it is convenient for them, cannot serve in medicine, nor worke the effectes and vertues, which they have in them, because they are grosse of substaunce and strong.

The Alcumistes have knowne and dooe knowe much in correcting and preparing of them, seeing that wee see they use the golde and the silver, in brothts, that they may be drunke, and do reduce them into pouders, as also they do the like with the lead and copper, and of other minerals and metalles, which they doo correct and prepare, for to make them into pouders, that they may serve in medicine.

They doo correct and prepare particularly the iron for this effecte, buth with great difference, from all other metalles, as Bulcasis sheweth very learnedly, beeing a Phisition, and a Moore, who in particular doth shewe the manner which ought to bee had, for to prepare the yron, and hee sayeth in this manner, the fyling of the yron which is most pure, must bee taken without other mixture, for if it bee mingled with Copper, of Lead, of Glasse, and if it bee given so mingled to any person for to drinke, it wil kill them, you may take the quantitie you list, of that which is filed, beeing most pure, and let it be washed, after it is wel washed, let it be put into a cleane vessell. And let there bee put to it vineger, and put it under some thing, so that it beel well covered, let it so remayne thyrty dayes, or at the least seaven, and after that tyme take it foorth, and [300] (Fol. 155) you shall finde that whiche is filed the colour of Aerdegreace, the which must be dried: and after it is drye, it must be grounde, and being well ground you may use thereof.

Some there bee that doo wash it with fresh water, or with vineger, and doo straine it through a linnen cloath, and then put it under a vessel until it ware rotten, and after they wash it, and keepe it. That which this Moore dooth say, seemeth to be of Averoies, in the fifth of his gathering, where he setteth downe the prepartion of this in this forme: After the Iron is ground very small, let it bee put many times into vineger, or into Goates milke, when it is cruddy. This he would should be the preparation. And Christopher de honestis, following this in the commentaries which hee made upon Mesue sayeth. Let the filing of the Steele be put into vineger many dayes, for in any otherwise the use of it will not profit, although that some do put it into milke of Gotes, and some into oyle of sweete Almondes, and in this sort they take it. The same preparation Clement Clementino doth give. It seemeth a harde thing to beleeve, that the yron or Steele is penetrate, and doth waxe soft with any of these thinges: onely the strong vineger is that which doth penetrate and soften it, whereby it may be well grounde, for to use of it. And for the more certeintie I will shewe howe I do prepare it. I do take of Steele the purest and whitest I can get as also iron, and doo cause it to bee filed and small as may bee, and when it is filed I cause it to be washed in water many times, untill the water doo come foorth cleare, and then I put it into a cleane glassed vessel, and do cast to it as much strong white vineger as may be sufficient to wet thorowe the saide filing, and the vessel beeing stopped and put into a close place, I do let it stand xx daies, stirring it well twice everie weeke, and putting to it some vineger if it bee needefull: and after the twentie dayes, when it is well soked I take it out of that, and put it into some other broader vessell, or uppon a table, that it may dry in the shadowe, and [301] after it is drie, I doo grynde it in a morter of metall, syfting it twice through a thick sive of silke, so being made into Pouder, I put it into a fine earthen paynted pot, then with a Pestle I beate it small againe, in such sorte that beeing thaken betweene the fingers, it seemeth not to have any maner of substance, neither is it felt between them. And if it be not doon in this sorte they are never well grounde, for it is a thing that they take most care of, so that therby it may work the effect the better. And being made into pouder in this sort it ought to be kept in a glassed vessel. Some doo wet it with Gumme Dragagant and make it in rowles: and it liketh mee very well, because they be the better conserved, and the gumme Dragagant taketh away some part of their drieth. And seeing that I have made an end of the preparing of the steele and yron, that it dooth the effect when it is needfull as though it were the steele it selfe, let Maister Doctor, shewe unto us the woorkes and vertues it dooth. D. I doo reioyce very muche to heare the good order of the preparation, that Maister Burgus hath given and set down to be used with these metals. And seeing that I am bound to declare the vertues and medicinal works which they have, I wil speak of it the best that I know, as wel that which I have known and read, as that which experience hath taught me, and the use of so many yeeres. These two metalles doo serve in medicine two manner of wayes, the one is, that of them may be made instruments to worke with, in causes of Surgerie, without the which the Surgeons cannot work their works and effects, nor the Barbours without them cannot do their occupations. To declare what instruments those are which serve for the one for the other occupations, it wil bee too tedious. The iron and steel do serve in medicine with great effectes and marvellous workes, by curing and healing divers diseases, and so Plinie in his booke of the natural historie, treting of this matter of iron, after he wrote great things of it, as well in that which doth profit in the service of man, [302] (Fol. 156) as other curoius thinges, hee treateth of the vertues and woorkes which it doth in medicine, shewing first the qualities of it, saying: The yron hath vertue to dry up, to retayne and to holde faste: it is good for such as dooe lacke their haire, that it may growe, beeing prepared and mingled with some licour prepared and made for the same purpose, it taketh away the roughnesse of the cheekes, mingled with vineger: and being made in an oyntment, with oyle of Myrtiles and waxe, it taketh away the blisters of all the bodie: the pouder of it mingled with vineger, doeth heale the disease called Saint Anthonis fire, as also al manner of skabbes: it healeth the little sores between the naile and the finger, the pouders therof being applied therunto with a linnen cloath. It healeth also the flux of women of what sorte soever it bee, being put thereunto with wooll or with cotton wool, and also if they be applyed thereunto after the maner of a Tent in the lower partes: the pouder being mingled with mirrhe and put to the sores or woundes new hurt, doeth soder them and heale them: and beeing mingled with Vineger, and put upon the piles, it dissolveth them. Is is a great remedie for such as are goutie, being applied with thinges made for the purpose upon the grief: It stencheth the bloof of such as are wounded, which is for the most part made of Iron. It is given to bee drunken to such as are diseased of the lungs, for it consumeth the disease, and healeth him that is sicke, it stayeth any manner of fluxe the Piles, doeth remedie the sores of them. It healeth sore cheekes, casting the pouders upon them it is a great remedy worthy of estimation. He that doeth cause it to be made doeth put it upon a Plaister called Higre, the which doth profite to take away and make cleane the soares, and to take away the Fistula and to eate away the Braunches, and too cause that the sores bee filled with fleshe: all this is of Plinie in the Chapter of yron. Galen in the Booke of Triacleto Piso, declareth much of the necessitie of Iron, for the life of mankinde and for the service of man, and dooeth account it for a [303] most excellent remedy, for to dry up the moystures teares of the eyes. In that of continuall dissolution, hee sayth: that peeces of burning yron cast into milke, by taking awaye the waterishnes which the milke hath, is good for over muche stooles, and especially for the bloodie flix. And in the tenth of the simple medicines, he commaundeth that milke be given wherein peeces of yron have beene quenched, and saith that such kinde of milke dooeth good unto them which have the bloody flix.

And in the like case it is better to use of Iron, then of stones of pebble stones, by reason the Iron doth leave more drithe in the milke. Alexander Traliano, adding to thys, treateth how milke should be used in stooles. He commaundeth to seeth milke with a quarter parte of water, untill the one halfe be consumed, and in this sorte is may be given to them which have the ague with stooles, and it is better in the place of small pebble stones, wherewith they doe commaund it to be sodden, that there be cast into it small peeces of burning Iron. Paulo, well neare saieth that which Galen hath sayed, and that the pouder of Iron mingled with vineger profiteth much to such as have matter comming forth of their eares, although that it hath beene of a long continuance.

And also it is a great remedie for such as have taken venom, that is called Aconito. And forthwith he treateth of the vertues of the water that have cooled hotte Iron, and sayth, that it doeth good to such as so suffer the payne of the belly, and such as have any cholerike disease, and such as have hot stomackes, and such as have the stopping of the lunges.

Dioscorides in the chapter where he treateth of the rust of yron, saieth, that the water or the wine, that hath quenched a peece of burning Iron, is good for them that have the fluxe of the stomack, and the blood fluxe, it dissolveth the hardnesse of the lungs, and serveth in cholerike stooles, and in the loosenesse of the stomacke. Aecio, treating of certaine [304] (Fol. 153) rowles which are verie excellent for the opilations of the inner partes, sayeth, that it is a moste convenient remedie for the Lunges, and inner partes of the Bodye, that the water that hath quenched whotte Iron bee taken for a long time: but such as have a whotte disease, must use of the water, such as are colde of they be weake, of wine that hath quenched yron. Oribacio saieth, that the water which hath quenched whot steele, is an excellent remedie for suche as are sicke of the lunges. Scribonio, an auncient Phisition sayth, that the water which hath quenched whot steele is a great remedie for such as are swollen, and for such as have sores and griefs of the bladders, chiefly if they use it continually. Rasis of his Continent treating of yron sayeth, the same as Galen doth. And Paule adding this, the yron doeth take away the fluxe being overmuch of the menstruous, and conceaving with childe, it healeth the little sores that are betweene the finger and the nayle, it taketh away the Pearle in the eye and the hardnesse of the eye lid, it healeth the piles outwardly, it remedieth rotten gums, it taketh away the Goute from the feete, and from the handes, is maketh haire grow where it lacketh, although there have none growne a long time. The water that hath quenched yron, is good for the fluxe of the bellie, although that it hath beene of a long continuance, and for stooles of bloof which doth avoid from the bodie, and the meate which is eaten and not consumed, and for stooles of blood: it also dissolveth the hardnesse of the lunges, it remedieth the runninges, and weaknesse of the stomacke. And Mecerico an ancient Phisition saith, if the pouder of yron be taken with sodden wine called Tute, it comforteth the weaknesse of the stomacke: he taketh for his Authour Mese a Phisition. And Rasis concludeth the same, saying, I say and certifie by great experience, that the yron, doeth profite in the disease of the Piles, and for the fluxe of Urine, and for overmuch fluxe of the menstrues: this sayeth Rasis. [305]

Serapio reciteth al that Rasis saith, worde for worde: and because I woulde not say it twice together, I let it alone. Avicen followeth Rasis in all that he hath said, adding this that followeth to it. The water wherin yron is quenched, maketh strong the inner members by his owne propertie and manifest qualitie: it comforteth the stomacke, for the water which doth quench what yron, strengtheneth the vertue, and consumeth the superfluities thereof, for those are the thinges that take away appetite by the loosenesse of the mouth of the stomack, they are those whiche extinguish and kil the natural heate: and the yron by reason of the coldnesse and drithe, helpeth the knitting which is made in the mouth of the stomacke, where the appetite is ingendred, it comforteth the Liver and the rest of the interiour members, it strengtheneth natural heat, the sinewes and powers of the bodie, and in such sort it doth give them strength, and they take such vertue therby, that they caste from them the opilations: by reason of which causes the Lunges are consumed. It comforteth the vertue of generation, and this it doeth by consuming the moisture which is that which letteth troubleth natural heat which is necessarie therefore, and if it not done by his qualitie yet it is done by his accidents. Al this is spoken by Avicen, in the second part of his first, as also he saieth in the seconde Canon where he praiseth the yron greatly for Ringwormes, and for swellings, and for the Goute, and mingled with Vineger and put into the eares that of long time have cast out matter, it healeth them, for the sharpnes of the eie liddes, and to take away a webbe or the whitenes of the eyes: and hee saith moreover that the Wyne which dooeth quenche the Iron dooeth profite for the Apostumations in the Lunges, and for the loosenesse of the stomacke, and for the weakenesse thereof, it taketh away the superfluous Fluxe of the Mother: it dryeth the piles, it taketh away old stooles of the bloody Fluxe, it dooeth good to such as their [306] (Fol. 158) fundament commeth forth, and to such as theyr water doth avoid from them, not feeling it, it taketh away the overmuch Fluxe in the menstrues of women, and comforteth lustines in man of woman: all this is taken out of Avicen. Aliabas in the fifth of his Theorica sayth, the water that cooleth the iron, dooth detayne the bellie: it hardneth and comforteth the Members, if you bathe your selfe with it, it dooth good to the Paynes and Apostumations of the Lunges. Albucasis sayeth, that the use of yron prepared, taketh away the naughtie colour of the yellowe face, that is of the colour of Saffron, and the use thereof dooth make fatte, and it shoulde be used as the sicke man doth heale, who being wel and whole, dooth waxe fat.

Well neere all that which I have saide, Alzananio and Isaac, do say: which I do leave to relate, because it is shewed already. B. Have there beene any late writers that have sayde anything touching this matter? I think there be none that considereth how that the auncient Writers have written muche thereuppon. D. Yes, many and very learned. B. It would doo well that you would so much pleasure us, as tho shewe who they are, and what they say, seeyng you have begunne, and that they remayne not unknowen. D. I will shewe you, for some of them with care, and particularly, have written of yron, and the use thereof, and of the great vertues which it hath, and the lyke they say of the steele. A Phisiton which was a Cardinall called Vitalis de Furno, treating of yron in a perticuler Chapter, saith: the filinges of yron hath vertue to drie up, and make thin, and therefore it openeth and healeth opilations of the lungs: it healeth the bloodie Fluxe, and any manner of Fluxe of the Bellie taken in meate or drinke. The Iron that is quenched many tymes in Wyne, is good for the stoppiges of the Lunges, and inner partes, and the milke is good wherein the steele hath been quenched. [307]

The yron obayeth notihg but the Diamond, for it cannot dooe more then yron: for it dooth consume it altogether. There is no mettal, which dooth receive so much hurt with the rust as the yron dooth, and much more if it be cankered with the blood of mankinde, and also after you have made it cleane again, if you annoint it with the marrow of the deere called the Hart, or with Oyle olive, or with Vineger mingled with Alom. This the Cardinall saith.

Montenana in his Counsel a hundreth sixtie one, dooth put for a great secret to kill or quenche fiftye times a peece of steele in strong Vineger and in that Vineger being made whot, to wet a course Linen cloth, and put it upon the lungs and inner partes that are stopped, many dayes together. Michaell Sanavarola in the booke hee made of Bathes, doth say, the yron maketh cold and dryeth up, whereby it is binding, and therefore it dooth deteyne, and the water that killeth or quencheth the yron, hath the saide vertues, and all the rest that the yron hath, for the water receiveth into it his qualities, and vertues as Galen saith, that the water receiveth the qualities vertues of the things that we put into them, or sodde in them, and they do the same woorkes that the said thinges themselves will do, the water which killeth or quencheth the yron or steele dooth detayne, it causeth that the fluxe or runnings do cease, and being put to the ruptures, it doth sodder them together, and shutteth them, it consumeth the olde matter of the eyes. The pouder made of yron dooth loose the swollen eye liddes, it taketh away the Rime from the eye, and doth make fast the gummes that are loose. When there is a tent made and wet in this pouder prepared and put into the mouth of the Moteher, it withholdeth any manner of fluxe of it: and the like it dooth by putting it into the fluxe of blood: that commeth from the Pyles.

This Powder is good agaynst the Venome called Aconito. The Wyne that quencheth yron ot the steele [308] (Fol. 157) doth profit for the hardnesse of the lungs, and the weak stomack and laxative, any maner of fluxe, chiefly if it be cholike, it dooth profit much. Such a shave the dropsie, and the fluxe of the urine, and such as have the menstrues, overmuche, and such as their water goeth from them without perceiving thereof, and suche as their fundament goeth out: hetherunto Sanavarola hath sayde. Nicholas Florentine, prayseth infinitely steele, for opilations of the inner partes of the body, and likewise the water of the steele. Bartholomew Anglicus, greatly prayseth the use of yron, of steele, and sayeth, that they are a most excellent medicine, then gold or silver, for the service of man: for that by them these twoo metalles, that are so greatly esteemed of all men, are kept in safety, because they doo defend and succor them from such as continuallie doo persecute them. They defend iustice, they conserve the common wealthes, by them the evil dooers are chastened, and the good are conserved and defende: in all offices of handycraftes they are necessarie: they labour and woorke the fieldes with them, whereby we are maintained, it hath medicinal vertues more then any other metall for the filing which dooth proceede of it, hath vertue to dry up, and to make thin. It undooeth opilations of the lungs, it taketh away any maner of flux of stooles, although they bee of blood: and it profiteth for many other thinges. Al this the English learned man sayth. Wiliam of Saliceto, in the cure of opilations of the lunges, dooth commaunde to take the pouder of steele, for to loose opilations, and hee taketh it for a great secrete. Platerio in the Chapter of yron sayeth, the yron and the scales of it, and his rust, the steele, every one of them hath the like vertue and propertie, taking twoo partes of a dram of the fyling of yron prepared, as it is convenient, with hot wyne, it healeth the opilations of the liver and the lunges, although they be very olde. Mathew Silvatico saieth the same, that the rust and the scales of the yron have the same vertue that the steele hath, either of them [309] beeing prepared, and made into pouder, do heale old opilations, and they must be taken with hot wyne, and these pouders must be mingled with the iuyce of Polen, put in a tent of cotton wooll, into the pyles, it healeth and cureth them, also when the fundament commeth out, of what maner soever they bee: and chiefly if they proceede of a hot cause, by casting wine called Tente, upon burning yron, and taking the smoke thereof, dooth take it away. Clement Amerino after that he hath shewed the preparing of the steele, dooth command to give halfe a dram thereof prepared, mingled with sugar of Roses, taking it fasting, it causeth that no evill humours be ingendred in the body, and it taketh away the rottennes of them, and it dryeth up the watrineshes of the stomack, it procureth appetite, it strengthneth the interior members that are weake, it rectifieth the liver that is sicke, and the rest of the members, and chiefly if they take the pouders with spyces of a sweete savour, they will make the colour of the face cleere and faire. Christoper de Honestis, after hee had set downe the praring of the steele, saith, that the pouders of it are marvellous good, taken with Sugar of Roses, in the morning, because it giveth appetite to meate, it comforteth the strength of the stomack, consumeth the superfluous moysture therof, whereby the digistive vertue doth strengthen it self, to make his works the better. It healeth them that are in a consumption, such as are swollen with opilations, or with the evil complection of the Liver. It is profitable for them that have a naughtie yellowe pale colour in the face, it comforteth the Liver, it keepeth away the dropsy, if it bee at the beginning, when it first commeth, it cureth healeth it. And generally it taketh away al the rottennes of the body, and dooth rectifie al the corrupt humours, chiefly if they bee the interiour members. Mathewe de Gradi dooth prayse it much in the fluxe, there is overmuch of many months, and in stooles: and Avicen declareth it in the 20 of hys thirde booke, who sayeth in divers places, that it profiteth [310] (Fol. 160) in the like fluxes, and hee saith, that it is good for the Gomera passio, and for the lustinesse of man, and for him that cannot make his water wel, and for the white purgations.

And because I am weary of muche speaking, and of thinges which are to be much esteemed, I pretend to make an end of this matter, for the day goeth away, and if wee would speake other thinges of great importance, time wil not suffer us. B. We would be glad that the sun woulde not make so great hast, that the day were longer, that we might know these thinges, and especially being such as are spoken of.

And I never thought that of a thing so forgotten in medicine, as the yron is, that there had bin so much to say, and so much to bee knowen thereof, and if we well perceive that which is saide, there, there is no disease in man, from the soals of his foote, unto the haire of his head, wherein the iron doeth not good, and that which I have more esteemed, is that such wyse men have gone into counsell, uppon things of so great importance.

D. Master Burgus, dooe you not marvell of Gentil, hee pretending to do this, seeing howe great contrarietie there was to make them agree in one, brought the matter to things hidden and by that as it is saide, shal be seene how he was deceived, seeing that the divers partes which the Iron hath are manifest causes whereby it maketh divers effects and operations. B. There remaineth to me one doubt, which is, if the lode stone being ground prepared, as the yron and steele, if it do the works that they do, seeing it is of the same nature that yron is of. D. The lode stone hath much of the nature that the yron hath, which doth seeme to be so, by his colour, waight maner of substance, friendship that he hath with the yron. Seeing that it plucketh it unto him, as if it were his own, that a far of, that it mooveth bringeth the yron unto it not only the said lode stone doth it, but also the things that it hath touched, that so have taken the vertue of it, as if it [311] were the lode stone it selfe, and all this it doeth by reason of the greate lykenesse and friendshippe which it hath with the yron, together in one with the hidden propertie which it hath therfore. For this vertue, that it hath to drawe unto it yron, either it is for the likenes it hath, or for the property and in this stone ought to be the one and the other. The diamond is his enemie, insomuche as it is saide that in his presence, it draweth not the yron unto it. Galen speaketh of greater power that the loade stone hath then the yron, seing that it draweth the yron to him, being of his own kind, and therfore the ancient writers do give it the same vertue, that they give to the yron, in curing the opilations of the lungs, and other inner partes. Galen saith, that the use therof healeth the dropsie, and doeth evacuate the grosse humors. Serapio saieth, that being taken with water and hony, it looseth the belly, chiefly grosse humors: many doe prayse it for the dropsie, with water and hony. I understand that the lode stone ought to be prepared in such sorte that it may be used, as wee have saide of the preparing of the yron. B. Dooeth your woorship minister any time the rust of yron prepared: for I have prepared it by commandement of a Phisition, being a stranger, and gave the pouder thereof unto such as had opilations: and hee saide to mee, that they did better woorke then the pouders of steele. D. We have spoken of Plateario and of Mathew Silvatico, howe they say that the rust of yron, and the yron it selfe, and the filing of it, and the steele, have al one maner of vertue, and therfore the rust of the yron prepared wil profit as much for the said purpose, as the rust doeth, and I have understoode for to consume and dry up the moisture of the stomacke and the slimy humours therof, it will make great effectes, for the rust of the Iron and of the steele is the most hot partes, the driest partes of them. And so Galen doeth command it to bee prepared with veneger, and that there bee made of it, pouder moste small, the which dryeth extreamely, as he saieth in the nienth of [312] (Fol. 161) simples, and in the fifth of his Methodo. Mesue, in that of the ulcers of the pares, hee dooeth put a confection for them wherein is conteined the preparing of the rust, and before that hee putteth the same rust prepared in vineger, and made in small pouders, hee maketh of them a liniment for the eares that are troubled with ulcers. Rasis in the nienth Chapter of those thinges that doe comforte the stomacke, after he hath shewed of many compound medicines saieth, if they doe not profite, let there be given the skales of yron, with wine, and he saieth the same in the bookes of the Devisons, in the Chapter of the diseases of the moist stomack: he commaundeth to give a composition called Trifera Minor, and after that, the ruste of the yron. And in the same chapter before for the weaknes of stomacke , and the debilitation of the naturall heate, he commaundeth that there bee given Trifera, and after that the rust of yron, and at the end of the saide chapter for such as do eate earth, clay, and coales, hee commaundeth them to be purged with Acibar, and after that they eate Trifera made with the rust of Iron.

B. You have spoken very wel Maister Doctor, but I pray you show us how wee shoulde minister the pouders of these thinges. D. Seeing that therwith wee shall make an end, I wil shew it in short time, considering that the time doth no longer give place.

The cause and originall of the disease being knowen, the sicke person ought to bee let bloode, and purged, if it seeme good to the Phisition to bee so, and if the sicke person hath strength therefore: for there are some so leane, that it is not convenient to use of any evacuations in them. This being done, they shal take of the pouders that shal seeme most convenient fort hem, of the three thinges which are spoken of the yron, the steele, or the rust of them, the quantity that shall seeme good to the Phisition, according to the age, vertue, strength. I doe give to them of a meane age a dramme, and [313] from thence I rise or fal, as the age and strength or the continuance of the disease requireth, and that it may not belesse then twoo graines of waight, nor more then a dram halfe. I give it many kinde of waies, either mingled with sugar of Roses, or with conserva of violettes, or with a syrope of Coriander, or of the roote, or made in pilles, with a syrope made for the purpose, casting them into the mouth, or any maner of these waies, that they be taken: there muste bee drunke after them a little sacke, that it be not cold, nor very strong. And if the person that taketh it, drinke no wine, then he may drinke water sodden with Cinamon, although the wine be the better, it must be taken, fasting in the morning and immediatly after it is taken, they must go and exercise their bodies, twee houres after, if they have strength therefore, and if there bee not strength to doe it, one is sufficient, or the time that they may possibly. The going must be in such sort that the partie be not over waeried: and if he be, let him sit down, now and then and by reason such as do take them have stoppings or opilations, of any maner exercise, although it bee little, they are foorthwith wearie, and all the paine is for the first dayes, for afterward they shall goe very wel, and shall not be so much wearied.

This exercise is better to bee used out of the house, and by the streetes, and in the fieldes, it dooeth importe verie much by the going whereby these pouders doe make their woorkes, and doe good, that if they bee not well gone with all, they doe not the effectes that is desired, and the exercise being made, let him take rest in his house, or in the place where hee commeth unto, not unclothing himselfe, but even so apparelled, let him lye downe upon his warme bed, and rest himselfe one houre, and let him eate foure houres at the least, after he hath taken these pouders, or when hee perceiveth his stomacke to bee cleere, of them, hee shall eate of a Hen, or of another Byrds without any sauce, with some dry fruite, or some conservas, and not [314] (Fol. 162) to eate any greene thing. Let the drinke bee according to the disposition that hee hath, wine watered if it bee convenient for him to drinke, or water sodden with Cinamon: let him refrain to that day from all things that may offend him, let him not drinke betweene meales, let him make a light supper, with that as many dry up moysture. I will not counsell that they take these pouders every day, but every third day, and chiefly these first dayes, and especially such which are leane and delicate, for in taking of them every day, they wil be much wearied, and one day that they rest betweene, they will be restored, and take strength for the next day. The day that it is not taken, if there doo appeare any fever, it would doo well that there were taken a good vessel or great cup ful of whey, made of Goates milke hot, whot sugar if it not be had, then take s smal table of rosade of a sweete smel: this day their liver shal be annoynted with some ointment made for the purpose, and their lungs with some thing that may unstoppe them, and the stomacke with some thing that may comfort. This shall be doon in the morning when he is on his bed, and after the oyntments are ended a little tyme, one houre or twoo after that they are anoynted, receive a common medicine with thinges that have vertue to evacuate, and this medicine shal not lacke, every day when the pouders are not taken, for it dooth much import, except: if there bee not many stooles: in such sort it will bee better that it bee a washing medicine. The day which they take not the pouders, they may eate sodden meats with some sauce and green things, and in the one day and the other drinke little.

These pouders are given many or fewe dayes according tot he necessitie of the partie that is sick, and as it doth him good, for to some 15 dayes are sufficient, and to others 20 and to others 30 some there be which do vomit them up the first twoo or three dayes, and they caste up much cholor with them, whereby they are notable lightened, and dooth [315] them notable good, but being past twoo or three dayes, and being accustomed to them, they vomit no more: others there bee that vomit nothing at all, it wil doo wel when tenne of twelve dayes are past, to purge with some light purgation, and to rest twoo dayes after the purgation, and afterwarde to returne to the pouders, and then to doo it until the taking of them be fully ended.

The use of the steele so prepared is common to men, and women, and to al ages, so that they be not very cold, for very yong, principally these pouders doo good to women, nor the most part they are stopped and doo suffer retention, of the menstrues, which are in them, these pouders doo make marvellous effectes, and causing their monthly order to come. Likewise these pouders are given whereas bee easie agues, and evill colour in the face, of what cause soever it come, it taketh it away, and doth all things that we have saide, being written and commended by so grave authors of so great learning experience: and they may be used in all these thinges with all assurance, without having any thing in them that may offend, as we see by experience, in those which do greatly use them. B. You commaunded mee to make a confection which was of steele prepared, for a women that had bin many yeeres maried, and never brought foorth childe, and tooke it, and I have seene her here with children: shewe unto us if it hath made more effectes then in that woman. D. It hath doone good to many, and I have many god children by that meanes, for when they bring forth children, immediatly they make mee their Gossip, for the benefite to have children, surely it is a marvellous thing the effect that in this case it dooth, for it disopilateth, maketh the monthly order of women to come, where it dooth not, it maketh cleane the mother, it putteth in order to ingender.

B. I woulde knowe one thing, seeing here hath bin said so great excellencies of yron, and it hath bin effectually declared [316] how necessary it is for the service of man, as also his great medicinal vertues, that your worship wil also declare unto us if the gold have any, for that I see learned phisitions command it to be given unto such as are weake leane to such as are ready to die, and to such as are sick at the heart: to such as are full of Melancholy. D. I know not wherupon these learned Phisitions do ground themselves, that you say do this, I know not what benifiet or profit can come unto them of the use of golde that are debilited and leane, for the longer they use it, the worse they shal like it: for if a furnace with great quantity of kindled coles be not sufficient to change the maner, disposition of it; how can the heate of a weake stomack work with it for to profit therof and of the vertues, if it have any: For hetherunto we know not, the neerer they are to the death, the lesse they can do with it. Some there be which do commaund to cast peeces of golde, made in mony or in other formes into the pots where the meat is sodden, for sicke persona, they promise great matters therof, the heat wherewith it is sodden, is not sufficient to change the form of it, nor it profiteth any other thing then to make it clean of the filth that it had, as also the weight which it had, come forth, even as it went in: for so light a seething can do litle in such metal. To think that it serveth for the heart and for soundings, of the which is said, doth manifestly shew that rather it is hurtful for them, being ingendred of their beginnings, of sulphur, quicksilver although it be most pure of them, yet alwaies his beginning is sulfer quicksilver, which both of these thinges be hurtful to the hart. And so Hipocrates taketh it to be evil water which doth passe, by mines of gold, for the said causes. Neither do I know, what foundation there is that gold should be good for them that are Melancholy seing it is metal, being so, it is very dry, a thing so contrary for them: if it be made crowns, wherby they may be spent do his wil with them, who doth possese them, in this they give contentment, gladnes. I know no other medecinal benefit it can do to them. There are many [317] Phisitions which doo command to carry to the mony house (which is the house where the money is made) a pot of water wherin they quench many times a bar of gold, they do attribute more vertues to this water then to rosemary. It is a thing most suspicious of as many as may be, for at the time they divide the gold from the silver or coppers, wherwith it doth come mingled, they divide the strong water which is a corsive venom mortal, of the which it cannot be chosen, but there will remain some evil quality therof bicause it is a thing so strong. And likewise at the time they melt the gold, to make it in bars, of them to make money, or any other thing, that it may fine rise of more killats when it is melt in the furnace, they cast into it Sublimatum ground: iudge you if it wil let the gold to participate, (although it be but letle) of that venom to mortal so hurtful: the poore sick persontrusting upon the words of the Phisition, thinketh that he hath remedy for the heart, for his soundings faintnes, there commeth to him hurt poyson, which destroyeth corrupteth him. Beleeve you me, and suffer not such which are sicke, to spend their money to cast gold in medicines which they take, nor let them quench gold that is hot in wine, nor in water, for the one of the other, there remaineth no medicinal vertue that wil remedy their evils. Only the gold being made mony, hath great vertues properties, for that is it that maketh the hart glad, taketh away sadnes melancholy, and repaireth all the vertues strength of man, it giveth strenght wheras is none, it is an universal, remedy of al things, unles it be of death: for against that, nothing can prevail. And seing that night is come and time giveth not unto us any longer libertie, and although that it gave us, yet age dooth his office, for I feele my selfe weary, God bee with you maister Ortuno, and likewise you maister Burgus, and I goe to take rest.

The end of the Dialogue of Iron. [318] (Fol. 173)

THE BOOKE WHICH TREATED OF THE SNOW, AND OF THE PROPERTIES & VERTUES THEREOF: And of the maner that should be used to make the drinke cold therwith, & of the other waies wherewith drinke is to made cold: Whereof is shewed partly, in the latter part of th second Dialogue of Iron.

With other curiosities which will give contentment by other thinges worthy to bee knowen, which in this treatise shall be declared.

Written by Dctor Monardus Phisition of Sevill.

1574. (318] (Fol. 172)

Most excellent Lord, the faire & white snow doth complaine unto mee, saying that she being so ancient, and of so many ages, celebrated of so many Princes, Kinges, wise & valiant men, & being had in so great estimation, and price, that with greate care they seeke after her, & with greater care they do conserve her, for to give health and contentment to all persons: yet for all this, many people with little consideration, & not knowing what they say, dooe persecute her, putting undecent names to her: and that which dooeth most grieve her, is that some Phisitions, either for ignorance or for malice, do speake evel of her, not perceiving what so many learned men have treated and said of the great utility & profit which she doth to many, as experience doth shew, and all people doe understand, chiefly when they doe drinke their drink most cold with the benefit which doth remaine to them thereof, they do prayse & extoll her. Moreover she saith, that she forceth no parson to use her, but if any will use her, she can give such order and maner to make cold the drinke as is convenient for all persons, giving degrees of coldnesse which everie one would have, and which doth best appertaine to them, and this with al assurance with onely leaving or placing the vessel wherein the drinke is ioyned neere to her, the which none of the olde writers nor of the late did speake against, or forbid. And especially let this manner of making could not be done with stinking water of a well, nor with the most burning saltpeeter, buth with pure water being cleene and cleare. These complaints and many other the faire lilliy white Snow hath uttered unto mee, & in the end shee lastly said to mee, that since that I had praised her so much, and taken in hande to favour her, that I shoulde [319] also seeke her some one person, wise and discrete, that with worthines & greatnes might valiantly succour, and defende her from her adversaries. And seeing the greate reason that she hath, and the bondage that I am in for the preservation of her honour, seeing in all this realme who might dooe it, I have not founde who hath the partes that this faire Lady Snow desireth, & who hath must iust title may doo it so well as your most excellent Lordship. And that your Lordship may understand the rights which she hath, I dooe offer & serve you with this treatie, that of her and of her greatenes I have written being amended and added thereunto, of that which before was writen. Wherby your Lordship, seeing it may the better defend her cause, and this shall not be hard to your Lorship, seeyng that it hath beene so easie to you, that which did seeme impossible, that is, having taken out mightie rivers of drye fieldes, & placed so many and so faire fountaines made with so much arte by all partes of this City which were so necessarie, and where there was a Lake without profite, is nowe made the fieldes of Eliseus & faire places full of Trees which dooeth serve for the recreations and walkes of our citizens: and as one most worthie whych dooeth followe the Romanes in their workes hath brought to light the antiquitie of this Citie putting the colummes that so many yeares have been secretly hid and buried in a place now so publike decked and adorned as the antiquitie and greatnesse dooth serve wherby that al the people may enioy of a remembrance so everlasting, the whych howe harde and laborsome it hath beene, the impossibilitie that the worke had, doth shewe. And so the faire Ladie Snow is in greate hope and trust that having suche a noble protector, she shalbe defended from evil tongues, & that she shall bee taken and held in the same estimation that her workes and greatnes doe rightly deserve. [320] (Fol. 173)


GOD our Lorde to manifest his knowledge infinitie power, made the universall circuite of this world, which conteine al those perfections, that man may imagine in his understanding: and it is devided into two parts, that is, the region celestiall and the Region Elemental. The celestial is shining, without any variation, alteration or corruption.

This dooth conteyne in it eleven Heavens and in seven of them, are the Sunne the Moone and the other Planets, in the eight the starres, the nienth they call Christaline, the tenth movable, and the last they call the heaven of imperial heaven, which is as much to say, as the heaven of fire, by reason of the brightnes that it giveth from it which is fixed doth not moove, where the dwelling place is of them which are of good fortune. The other parte is the elementall region which continually and without ceasing is subiecte to these alterations: and this is devided into 4 elements, which bee fire, ayre, water and earth, of the whiche mixture are ingendred all these inferiour thinges: the element of the earth is in the middest, as the foundation of all the Circuite: then foorthwith is the water: and above the Water and the Earth is the ayre: And above the ayre if the fire, the which is neere to the circle of the Moone. Al these elements dooe moove as wee see in the impressions which are made in them, onely the earth is unmooveable, as the foundation of all. The earth hath much mixture of water and Ayre: onely [321] the fire hath no mixture of other Elements, and amongest these Elements the ayre is very principal, which is devided into three parts, one is the supreame, and neere to the Region of the fire, which is whotte and drye for the fellowshippe that it hath therewith, taking muche of his qualitie, whiche is cleere and pure, from whence doo not proceede anye wyndes, nor clowdes: and this they call the celestial Region: and the partes more lowe which are neere to the water and earth bee great and troubled full of Vapours, pearced and visited with the beames of the Sunne, whereby it commeth to bee whotte and the supreame and middle Region of the ayre, dooth come to bee very colde, because it standeth in the middest of the twoo extremities, beeyng so whotte. And in it, is increased the colde as in the middle part flying from the extreame partes of heat, as we have spoken of before. This middle parte hath partes more or lesse colde, for the parte that is ioyning neere unto us is not so cold, as that which is neere to the superiour partes of the fire. And how much more the vapours do rise up on heigh, the more they do congele, and holde fast. In the midle region of the ayre doo ingender the clowdes, the small raynes, the droppes, the frost, the rayne, the Snowe, the Hayle, and other impressions of the Thunder, lightninges and sharpe showers, and comets. The Clowdes be the principall matter, which doo ingender the Rayne, the Snowe, and the Hayle, and the other impressions which wee have spoken of, that are made of many Vapours which doo ryse uppe from the lower partes unto the middle Region of the ayre: and so beeyng ioyned, the make one body, and they waxe thicke with the colde of the saide place: and for this the cloud is like to a mother, and is the common matter of all the impressions that are made in the ayre. And so it is of the snowe as a thing ingendred of it, in the middle Region of the ayre. And the Snowe is no other thing but a Vapour, colde, and [322] (Fol. 166) moyst, which came into the middle Region of the ayre, beeing ingendred, in the bodie of the Clowde with a meane coldenesse which is not so strong as that which dooth cause the Hayle, nor so soft as that which dooth cause the water, and in the like Vapour before it be made water, it doth congeale and freese, and dooth fall broken in peeces and are white, because there do rayne in them more colden then in the water.

The which Galen dooth shewe unto us in the booke of the Philosophical hystorie of Anaximenes the Philosopher. Of the congealed ayre, hee saieth that the cloudes are made: and of the same, beeyng more thicke, the raine is ingendred, and the same is congealed and frosen, and by the coldenesse of the Ayre it is made Snowe: and beeyng more congealed it is made Hayle. And the same Galen dooeth say in his booke de Utilitate respirationis, the Clowdes congealed are made Snowe: which is the matter that the rayne is made of, the Snowe dooth fall in the high places, which of their owne nature are colde places, and thereby it is muche conserved, and very seldome it falleth in the Valleyes, and if it doo fall there, it is very smal, foorthwith it dissolveth. It falleth in the Sea but seldom times by reason of the heat which it hath for the winds that are continually in it, for heate moisture are contraries much more the winde accompanied with the sun. Galen in the nienth of his simples, saieth that there were Philosophers that said the snow had hot parts, for being taken in the hand, it heateth burneth like to fire. And so the saide Galen in the 4 of the saide Bookes, sayeth as he went upon snow, his feete did burne: the cause of this is not that the snow is hot, nor that it hath whot partes, but which his cold it doth shut the pores of the hande or feete and causeth that the heate which is in the inner parts have not where to come forth: so being shut in, do cause so great a kindling, that seemeth to burne: the which we see contrary of the handes do burne be put into whot water, as the pores [323] are opened because of the heate of the Water it dissolveth, and the inner heate commeth foorth, and the handes remayneth colde.

The Snowe dooeth fall for the most parte in the tyme of Winter, when the whirle windes doo blowe: it falleth in Countries which are full of Mountaines, it never falleth in places that are very whot, unlesse it be by great marvell. When it falleth it is faire and of a goodly shew, by reason it falleth in peeces very white, and it falleth softly without Tempest of Ayre, it feasteth the people as it falleth with her feathers, it hurteth no bodie and if it doo harden the Earth, when it melteth, it softeneth it a againe and fatteneth it. It killeth the evill hearbs, and dooth fructifie and increase them which are good, as Aulo Gelio sayeth, and for this it is sayd. The yeere of Snow, the yeere of fertilitie.

It dooth good tot hem of the Mountaynes and to the Hunters, for in the tyme hat it falleth, there are taken more store of wilde Beastes and wilde fowle, then at other times.

Galen saieth, that the Snowe dooeth cause that the fische dooeth not corrupt, and so it dooeth conserve it a long time that it rotte not: and likewise it conserveth the Fleshe from Putrifaction, as wee see in the Mountaines amonge the Snowe there are found men and beastes that were frosen so muche without corruption, as though they were putte into Balsamo: Galen sayeth when Snowe dooeth fall, it is a Token that colde Diseases are at hande, and the older the Snowe is, the harder it is, and it looseth his softnesse and waxeth harde. In suche sorte that in the Mountaines there are Buildinges and hollowe places made of Snowe so strong, that they seeme as though they woulde indure many numbers of yeeres.

Manie other good thinges are to bee spoken of the Snowe which I dooe let to speake of for to treate of one, the greatest and principall that it hath, whiche is used at [324] (Fol. 175) this day in many partes of the world. With it, is cooled that which we drinke, in such sorte that with all assurance it doeth make it so cold, as our health and taste can suffer: and this is in suche degree, that there is nothing at this day that with more taste and pleasantnes doeth it. And so wee will treate first of it, seing, that the effect of the snowe is to cople, that the drinke may be colde, and to whome it is convenient to drinke it and who they be that with assurance may use it, as wel in the conservation of health, as in the healing of diseases. The drink brought in the beginning of the necessitie which we have of our conservation, for it is a natur al appetite, for al men desire appetite to restore the moysture, that continually is lost, and for this nature brought foorth water which is cold and moist for to repare this losse, and it is common in al creatures: so Hipocrates, Galen and Dioscorides, doe say, that the water although that it be without savour and smel, colour, bright cleere, it ought to bee colde, for that such water doth restore the moisture that is lost, doth make thinne the meate, that it may penetrate to the liver, that there it bee made blood. Galen dooeth say that one of the conditions of good water is, that it ought to bee colde, for being so, it hath many good properties, which the whot hath not. And Avicen understanding this in the second booke speaking of water, hee praiseth much the colde water saying. It is true that the cold water, although that it comforteth the stomack, it dooeth good to such as have their belly soft, and to them that doe suffer the flux or runnings of the bellie, of what sort soever it be, and it doeth good to such as doe suffer diseases, that are caused to the like runnings, where Avicen doth give us to understand how much the use of cold water is convenient for them, which doe suffer the flux, or runninges of the stomacke, chiefly of they bee caused of hor humours: the which wee see having certaine stooles of choler, they are taken away with a good draught of colde water: and others having and suffering griefes and paines of the stomacke, with only [325] drinking of the coldest water they were healed, as Galen sayth in the 7 of his Methodo, that he sawe in one day, yea in one houre, with a draught of colde water many diseases were healed, and some of these were weake of stomack, not only, with colde water of a fountaine, but with water cooled in snowe, and in Rome it is used. And so Cornelio Celso in his first booke, unto such as were weake of stomacke, commanded them to drinke, after they had eaten, the coldest water they could get, and in cholerike stooles should be drunke water, that was most cold, and in runnings of whot humors is should bee used, for to stay the fluxe. Avicen in the saide chapter saith, that the cold water doth comfort all the vertues in this workes, that is to say the vertue digestive, attractive, retitive, and expulsive. And so he goeth declaring everie one of them, giving us to understand how much the colde water doth coroborate and make strong all these vertues, whereby they doe their workes the better. And the said Avicen in the second of his first treatie of water, saieth, the colde water is the best of all waters, and it is convenient for them which are whole, for it giveth lust to meate, maketh the stomack strong. And a little before hee saieth, that which is not colde dooeth corrupt disgestion, and causeth the meate to swim in the stomacke, it taketh not away dryth, it causeth the dropsie, by reason it corrupteth the first disgestion, consumeth the body, with his heate. Avicen himselfe conflirmeth this in the thirde of he first part, saying, the colde water is convenient for them that have a temperate complection, for being whot, it causeth the stomacke to be sicke. Isaac Aliabas and Rasis, say the same, that Avicen saieth, the which he did let to write of, bycause hee woulde not bee long in his sayinges. One thing Avicen would have in the third of the first parte, that he which should drinke very colde, must first make a good foundation, eating first a good portion of meate, before he drinke. Also he saith that the colde drinke may not be drunke much at one draught, byt by litle and litle, by reason [326] (Fol 176)*it dooth bring two benefites, which is, that there is taken more taste in that which is drunke, and it dooth not kill the naturall heat, as it is seene by the pot that boyleth, if you cast into it much water at one time, it doeth cease boyling, but if it bee cast by litle and litle, it ceasesth not his working. And therefore Avicen himselfe sayeth, when that they wil drinke colde, that you drinke with a vessel which hath a straight mouth, that the drinke run not in hastily, the said vessel beeing a limet or a yewre, with a point, surely it is a greate benefit for them which are affectioned to drinke with the lyke vesselles: if they ought first to take out the winde or not, I doo remit me to the Doctor Villalabos, who treateth largelie of this matter.

And by this it is seene howe Avicen woulde that those which woulde drinke verie colde, they shoulde not drinke foorthwith at the beginning of their meate. For some there bee, that as soone as they begin to eate, foorthwith they will drinke that as is very colde, the stomacke beeing emptie without meate, which cannot choose but hurte: and so the hurt which dooth come to them by this, they do attribute it, foorthwith to the colde of the drinke, and not to their evill order: the which Avicen sayth, speaking of colde water, that to drinke it without order, is the cause of many diseases, if it be drunke in order, as wel in time, as in quantity, it profiteth as he hath said. Therfore let every one looke to that which is convenient for him, and let him make experience in himself, and if that it bee convenient for him to drinke colde, that hee maye beare it, without that it doo offende him that doo it, for thereof will followe the benefites which wee have spoken of, but if he be sicke, and fall into any disease, whereby he saith, that the drinking of colde drinke dooeth offende him, in such case let him not use it, for my intent is to shew and perswade them that doo drinke colde, that if it dooe them no hurte, nor offende them that they drinke it so, and suche as doo use it of custome and have experience that it doo [327] not offend them, unto such if they drinke not, that which they drinke cold the lust of their meates is taken away from them, for they take no taste in that which they eate, and they eate it with grief, and with an evil wil, for that which they drink doth not satisfie them the hot drinke doth fill the stomack ful of windinesse, and cannot make therewith a good disgestion.

But what is hee that hath a reasonable health, beeing in the tyme of great heate, or in the whot summer, that comming to eate, beeing weary of excercise, or of greate labour having the tongue drie, the breast shorte, that dooth let to drinke colde, seeing that to doo it, there doo follow the benefites that I have saide, and dooth succour his necessitie, and remayne content and glad without having offended his disposition, and health. Unto the which, Galen doth anymate and exhorte us, in the booke which hee made of good and evil meats: saying. In the time of hot weather, when our bodies are whot, and sometimes inflamed, then we must use of thinges that may refreshe us: although that they bee evill meates, as Plummes, Apples, Cheris, Melons, Goords, of other colde fruites, in these like tymes. Galen saith, that wee may use colde meates, as the feete of a pigge or hogge sodden in vineger, and cruddes milke: and the same meates must bee made colde, and likewise the drinke must be made colde, as the water, and the Wyne watered with colde water, or made cold in snow, the one and the other must bee made colde in the most colde water of a fountaine, and if it bee not to bee had, let it bee made colde in snowe, chiefly the drinke. And after that Galen hath made a large digression as it is convenient, so muche in the tyme of greate heate to eate and to drinke cold thinges, hee dooth describe who they are that should drinke colde, and saith in this sorte, those that should drinke cold are such, and have much busines, and have care of many things, as those which are governers of cities, and common wealthes, and the ministers which doo helpe [328] (Fol. 177) them, and do participate of such cares and troubles, those that are very much exersides in bodily busines, in especially the souldierlike exercises, or other great exersises, they which do iornie, and inespecially long iornies, giving to understand all corporat and spiritual exercises. And after he hath done this, hee dooeth moderate it in this maner saying. But suche which have not these cares, drinketh without them when they are idle and in pleasure, dooe not exercise themselves: these people as they have not heat to constraine them to drink cold, let them not do it, neither it is convenient for them to drink it, let them content themselves with cold water, as nature hath brought it forth, without putting it too coole in any other thing, seeing they have not neede of that which is most cold.

Moreover he saith, although they live idlely, and do no exercise, and are without cares, if the time were warm, or very hot, they may drinke the water cold, I doe meane that in the countries wher it is not cold, they may put it to be made colde, for that it be not verie cold. The selfesame is confirmed by Galen himselfe in his 3 booke of meates and in the booke of the disease of the reines, where he saith, that the use of cold water cooled with snow, unto such as are verie whot, such as are fat, and such as do excercise themselves, labour much, that such may drinke verie cold, chiefly if they be used thereunto, for such as are accustomed to drink it, do suffer carry it better and more without hurt, then such as do not use it, for such ought to drinke it with more respecte and consideration.

And al be it the water hath so great benefite in it, as wee have saide, for the conservation of health, it hath greater to heale Fevers and other diseases: and thereupon Hipocrates and Galen treated verie particularly, inespecially Galen in the nienth of his Methodo, doth reprehend there Erasstrato, and such as do follow him, which do forbid the use of cold water, unto such as were sicke of the Fevers. And in his first booke of his Methodo, by the like reason dooeth reprehend [329] Thessalo, and in the 7 booke he dooeth shew that he himself hath healed many sicke persons that had the griefe of the stomacke, with most cold water, and made cold with snowe. And in the 8, 9, 10 and eleventh of the same Methodo, hee healeth the Fevers other diseases with water that is most cold. And it is an excellent remedie taken with the condition that is convenient. In the xi he saith, that the sharp Fevers are cured with letting of blood, or that have much mixture thereof. By that which is said is seene how convenient it is, that water be made colde with snowe, where there is not to bee found any so cold as is convenient for our conservation and contentment, and for to heale us of many infirmities. Al the which we have treated of in briefe, whereby it may be a beginning of our pretence that shal follow, which is to shew the maner how to make colde the snow, and because that which shall be made cold is the water, and under is also to bee understood the wine, and all the rest that shall bee made colde, wee will speake of that which shall bee treated, under the water.

The water is colde two maner of wayes, one naturally, as it commeth forth of the springes, and this is as colde as it is convenient, and hath no neede to coole it, if it hath as much coldnes as will satisfie our necessitie, without having neede to seeke anything that may make it colder.

There is an other water which is not so colde as is convenient for us, as well in our conservation and health, as for our satisfaction: and by reason it is not so colde as it ought to bee, it is the cause of the hurtes it dooeth, that before we have spoken of.

Some waters are not so colde as they ought to bee by nature, by reason they are in whot countries.

Now your intent is to treate of them, hoewe they ought to be made colde, because with their heate they hurte us, and beeing made colde a smuch as neede requireth, they dooe satisfie is so that wee may drinke them, and use them [330] (Fol. 178) without any hurt that they can doe us: and so we will shew of al the meanes that we may have to make cold, which are used at this day in all the world, and of them we will choose the best, and most sure, setting downe the inconveniences that is in everie one.

There are foure maner of waies to make colde, which at this day are used in al the world: that is to say, with the ayre, in the well, with Salt Peeter, and with snowe, every one of these is used at this day.

The first is, to make colde with ayre, although it bee a common thinge, and used in all places, yet it hath beene and is most used of the Egyptians, by reason they have neither wels, nor snowe, and that of the salt Peeter they never knew. Galen maketh a large relation of the maner to make cold with the ayre, saith thus: They of Alexandria and Egypt for to make their water colde, that they may drinke it in time of whot weather, doe warme it first, or doe seeth it, (! destroy the bactieres and others) and then they put it into earthen vessels, and set it in the colde ayre or deaw in the night in windowes, or in the gutters of houses, and there they set it all the night, and before the Sunne riseth, they take it away, and washe the saide earthen vesselles on the out side with colde water, and then they rowle them with the leaves of a Vine Tre of lettice, and other fresh hearbs, they put them in the ground in the most cold part of the house, that there the colde may conserve it. The maner of making colde is used at this day in all the world, although not with so many curiosity, by reason they seeth not the water, they content themselves with putting it in the cold ayre, in the deaw, as commonly it is done. Likwise they do make cold the water with hanging it in the ayre, having certaine skins ful of water in the ayre mooving them continually: the which is used in al that country called Estremadura. Others do make cold by putting the vessels with water in the deaw, before the sun rise, they wrap them in cloth or in skins, [331] and this the Sheepeheardes and other people of the fielde doe.

This manner to make colde with the ayre hath many in conveniences, because the ayre is subtill element subiecte to any maner of alteration and corruption: and therfore it may be infected with some evill qualitie, easily: and being infected dit may infect the water that is so made colde, infusing therinto his malice. The which Avicen sheweth very wel in the second of the first saying. The ayre is an avil thing, by reason it is mingled with evil thinges, as Vapours, and smelles, and evill smokes, chiefely that whiche is put in betweene twoo walles, and especially that which passeth by places where are rotten Plantes, and naughtie Trees, and where dead bodies are, for it altereth at every one of these things, and of them receiveth an evill qualitie. And for this cause the ancient Phisitions did forbid that in tyme of the plague the water should not be put into the ayre to bee made colde, because the corrupt ayres should not infect it. There is lykewise an other inconvenience, that you cannot every night set the water to bee made colde in the ayre, for some nightes and the moste parte of them, in the Summer tyme are so whot, that not onely the ayre dooth not make colde, but the water that is set in the ayre, is whotter then it was before, and if it bee made any whit colde, it dureth no longer then the Morning, when it is not needefull, and likewise in the tyme betweene Winter and Sommer or in the Winter when the ayre woulde make colde, then the rayne, the tempestes and cloudes and other alterations wil not suffer the ayre to doo it. All these thinges experience dooeth shew at this day.

There is an other maner of way how to make cold with the ayre, which is the most wholesome, and more without hurt than any of all the other: wherin there is no occasion of any evill qualitie. And there are many people of estimation [332] (Fol. 179) which do use this way to make colde that, which they should drinke, the which they put into vessels of earth, or metall, and do alwaies make winde and ayre to the vesseld with a wet linnen cloth. And it must bee so, that it be in the ayre continually without ceasing, as long as you are at meate. And in this sorte it will bee made colde to purpose, and the hote ayre that is ioined to the vessel is taken away, and in place of it commeth freshe and colde ayre, even as it doeth when there is gathered winde to the face, and taking away the hot ayre that is ioyned to ot, and with freshe ayre it maketh it cold and refresheth.

The other way to make colde, is in a well, wherein they doe put the vessels with water or wine, and there they remayne the moste parte of the daye. This kinde of making colde hath also many inconveniences, as well of the parte of the water, wherewith it is made colde, as of the part of the place where it is put, chiefly in the welles of the cities and townes, that for the most parte are foule and full of filthinesse. The water of these welles is an earthly water, grosse and harde, because it is continually standing on one place, and shutte withing the bowels of the earth. And as it is a standing water, it must of force be purified, for that the beames of the Sunne do not pearce it, nor yet the are doth visite it, and therefore continually it is of evill vapours, whereof they doe easely rot, and, and they are foule waters full of durte and claye, and of other mischiefes of an evill qualitie.

And seeing the water or wine is so put a long time into this foule standing water, what can come of it, but that it participateth of the evill qualitie that it hath. And so Galen saieth, that the vessel which must bee put into the well, ought to bee full: for if it lacke of his fulnesse, then the water of the well doeth penetrate it, or the vapour of it goeth into that which is emptie: and therefore it is convenient [333] that the vessel bee filled full, and that it bee well stopt, for that whiche is saide. And hee sayeth the contrarye, when hee shall make colde in the ayre: for then the Vessel shall not bee put full, but some parte thereof remayne emptie: for the colde ayre in the night season entering into that which is emptie, dooth make the water more colde.

Ordinarlye they are vessels of Copper, or of the leafe of Milan, which are put in welles for to make colde. The Copper, if it bee not well tinned within, dooth suffer to enter into that whiche is to bee made colde an evill, qualitie: for with the moysture of the well, there is growne in it immediately, a certeine greennesse that is seene upon it, after it hath stoode a fewe dayes, which is a thing very evyll and hurtfull.

The leafe of Milan is made of Iron, the whiche with the moysture of the well is taken forthwith with rust, which is a blacke thing that is seene uppon it after a fewe dayes, which is an evill thing, whiche dooth infuse an evill qualitie into that whiche is drunke. And therefore I am of the opnion that that which shoulde bee made colde in the water of a well, shoulde bee in a glassed vessel or of silver, although the best waye is to take out water of a well, and put it into a vessel, in the which shoulde bee put that which shoulde bee made colde, mooving the water many times: for by taking the water out of the well, it looseth muche of his evill vapours, by reason it is visited of the ayre, which as is said, dooth shewe the inconvenience that there is by making cold in a well.

And besides that, wee see that the water hath ever a taste of earth, or of some evill taste, that is perceived notablye, after it is drunke, besides evill smell, which we see that it taketh.

The third manner and fashion to make cold, is with saltpeeter, [334] (fol. 180) the which is an invention of marchants, and in especially of suche as goe in the Gallie, by reason that there the ayre dooeth not make colde, and especially in the time of calmes, and there is neither welles nor snow. Necessity did teach them this remedy, although it is not good, for the great inconveniences which it hath. It doth coole, as some say, the colde running unto the inner partes of that which it dooeth make colde, for the excessive heate which the saltpeeter hath, the which is done with the strong force of the saltpeeter with the water, which the saltpeeter beeing entred into the inner partes maketh to bee colde, comming from the heate of the saltpeeter working upon the strong force thereof. Other say that the water doeth make it selfe grosse with the saltpeeter, and being made more thicke and grosse, it hath more colde vertue the which being holpen with the heat of the saltpeeter, the cold maketh a greater pearcing, through the water, for all thinges that are colde, the more thicke parts that they have, the more the coole. And so Galen saith in the bookes of the simple medicines, that nothing can be very cold, which hath subtill thin partes, by the which howe more thick the thinges are, the more force they are of. Other there be, which say that the saltpeeter hath an actuall vertue, very colde, and woorking with the water is made more colde: as is seene by the bryne, that after the salt is verie much stirred in the water, it is most colde. The selfsame is seene in the water of Allom, and of saltpeeter. This manner of making cold doth cause many diseases, it doeth heate the liver, it causeth continuall heate, and a hot burning, it inflameth the lungs, it taketh away the lust of meat ond other evilles, which woulde be tedious to treate of.

There are other waies to make cold, which are in rivers, and moste colde fountaines, whereof Galen speaketh, of the which it is needefull to treate of, for whereas are moste cold waters, it is not needfull to put the mto bee made colde, but the use of them as they are.

Wee have shewed how the water that shoulde bee made [335] raine with the coldnesse of the middle region of the ayre, did freese, and was made snowe, and therefore is little difference from the rayne water, and that which commeth forth of the snowe, for both of them are ingendred of one manner of matter, saving that the water which proceedeth of the snowe, is somewhat more grosse for the compultion it hath of the coldnes of the ayre, in such sorte that it is not so evil, as they say it is. And we see the Scithians doe drinke it continuallly, as Hypocrates sayth. Wee see that of the snowe which doeth melt, are made great and mightie rivers, of the which the people that inhabite neere to them, drinke continually without doing to them any maner of hurt, or benumming of them. And of these are many of Spayne, Almaine, and many more in the west Indias, where moste of the rivers are of snowe, which doeth melt from the hilles and mountaynes, and all people in generall drink of them, for there is no other water in all the country.

The Romaynes for delyght and curiositie, dranke the water that came foorth of the snowe, the which they strayned through stones, to make it more thinne. Atheneo, doth rehearse certayne verses of Sopita, an auncient Post, in the which he saith, that in his time they dranke snowe, and the water which came forth of the snow. Pericrates, Historiegrapher being a Greeke most famous, saieth that in his time, they dranke snow, not only in the Cities but in the Campes. Euticles a man very learned, in one of his Epistles doeth reprehende those that were in his time, that they did not content themselves to drinke that which was made cold with snow, but that they dranke the snowe it selfe. Sciates, maketh mention of the snowe, used at times convenient with much care and delite. Xenophon in the thinges of memorie which hee wrote, maketh mention of many people that did not onely drinke snow, but the water thereof continually.

The Romaines did use it much, and so Plinie in the 31 booke of his Historie saith, that Nero was the first that sodde waters, to coole it in Snowe. The which Galen in the seventh [336] (fol. 181) of his Methodo dooth recite of him, saying Nero was the first that sodde the waters, and afterwarde cooled them with Snowe: for the water beeing made colde in this sorte, receiveth more quickly the colde, and more effectually. And it is a water more healtfull, for by the seething of it, is avoyded the earthly partes from the water, and it remayneth more subtile, and more thin, and so it descendeth more speedily from the stomacke.

Plinie in his naturall historie, in the nineteenth booke, complayneth of the care that those of his time had, in keeping the Snowe of the Winter, for the hotte weather in Sommer, saying, that they did overthrowe the mountaines by keeping the Snowe from warme weather, making it to pervert the order of nature, that in the monethes which are most whot, in the which there is nothing, but heate drieth, that the curiositie of the people is so muche that at that time, there is such aboundance of snowe, as in the monethes in the which there doth naturally fall upon the ground great quantitie thereof. This Plinie sayeth, for in his time and after, it was a common thing to keepe the Snow of the winter for the sommer. Heliogabalo Emperour had made a great cave in a lyttle mountaine, from a garden of his owne, where he gathered in the winter very great quantitie of snowe, bringing it from the mountaines that were neerest to Rome, whereof they used in time of heat, in their bankets.

Chares Militineus, in the historie that hee wryteth of King Alexander sayeth, that in the Cittie of Petra a moste populous Cittie in Asia, there was ordinarily thirtie caves, that in the winter tyme were filled with Snowe, for the whot weather, for the service of Alexander, such as were retayners to him.

At this day it is doone, not onely in Asia, but also in many partes of Affrica, and in all Europe, chiefely in all Countries which are under the dominions of the greate Turke, and especially in Constantinople, where the snowe is so much used, that all the yeere it is solde in [337] publike market, and they use of it all the yeere. The selfe same is doone at this day in all the states of Almayne and of Flaunders, Hungary, and Bohemia, and other places, where they keepe the Snowe in houses and vautes in the Winter, for to make their drinke colde therewith in the Sommer.

They carrye from Flaunders to Paris, the water that is frosen, which is more then three score leagues, distaunce. Likewise in our Countrie of Castile it is kept in houses, and they gather it in the winter: and when winter is past, they conserve it for the whotte weather. And there are many Lordes and great men, which have in the mountaynes perticules houses, where they commaunde that it bee put in the Winter, for this effecte: and many of them dooe use it, and dooe make colde therewith as well in the winter, as in the sommer, as there are chiefely in Castile in the tyme of winter, waters that are most colde.

They which drinke that whiche is made colde with snowe, saye that it dooth not offende them, as that which is made colde with the weather, for it is seene that a cuppe of colde water beeing drunke, that commeth foorth of a well, or of a colde fountayne, hurteth such as doo drinke it, and drinking that which is made colde with snowe, they feele no such hurte.

I dooe much marvell at one thing, that this Cittie of Sevill beeing one of the moste famous of the Worlde, wherein alwaies have lyved many greate Personages of very high estate, and many people of greate estimation as well of the naturall people of the Countrey, as strangers, that there hath bin none which have brought thither snow in the tyme of whot weather for to make colde that which they drinke, seeyng that the heate of this countrie from the beginning of Sommer, until it be well neere towardes Winter, is so great, that it is not to be suffered, and all the waters are most whot, that they cannot scarcely be drunke. And besides that the moste parte of the people of this Cittie are people of [338] (fol. 182) much businesse and cares. And seeing that in a Countrey so whot where businesse and cares do abounde, where the water is whot, and nothing wherewithall to coole it, with iust Title it may be admitted and used that is may be cooled with snowe, seeyng that the coldnesse is so sure, as wee have said, and it dooeth make the benefites whiche Galen and Avicen have shewed unto us.

Let every one looke uppon his disposition, that beeing whole, although hee bee not altogether in health, in tyme of whot weather he may drinke cold more or lesse as it is convenient for him. For the drinking colde dooth temper the Liver, it mittigateth the heate, it giveth appetite to meate, it comforteth the Stomacke, it giveth strenght to all the foure vertues, that may dooe their woorkes the better, the emate is eaten with appetite, and with gladnesse, it taketh away the drieth in the day time, it causeth that the stone doo not ingender in the raynes, by keeping temperate the heate of them, it taketh away lothsomnesse, and likewise it doth many other good effectes, that the use thereof and experience doth shewe us.

And because it is the best manner to make colde with Snowe as wee have saide, let us allowe thereof with grave Authours: and let Avicen bee the first, in the thirde of the first, where sayeth. The water that is made cold with snow, unto such as are of temperate compextion, whereas coldenesse hath beene made with Snowe, yea although the snow be fowle and not cleane, then it serveth to make cold the water without: and that as is good and cleane, is to bee put into that which shalbe drunk: as Avicen sheweth in the 2 parte of the 1 book, the 16 chapter, where he sayeth, the snow the frosen water when it is clean, the snow hath not fallen upon evil plants, or that it be nothing mingled with earth, ot other superfluities, the frost not made of evill infected waters, but that the water which commeth forth of the snow, be cleer, clean, the water that commeth forth of the frost be also good, clean, if any part of the water of the snow or of the frost, be put into [229] the water that must bee drunke, or with them the water be made colde, without doubt it is good: for the waters whiche come foorth of them, be not divers from other waters.

This doth Avicen say, giving to understand that these waters which doe proceed of snow of frost being clean, do not differ from the goodnes of other waters, only the difference is that the waters of the snow of the frost are grosser then other waters, by reson that the vapor is congeled in the middle of the aire, as we have declared. Rasis among the Arabians the best learned, in the 3 book of those whiche he wrote to the King Almasor saith thus. The water of the snow cooleth the liver that is hot, being taken after meat, it strengthneth the stomack, it giveth appetite lust to meate, but that which is drunk may not be much. And immediatly after he saith, the water which hath not so much coldnes, that it giveth not contentment to him that drinketh it, filleth the belly, taketh not away the drith, it destroyet the appetite, it taketh away the lust of the meate, it consumeth the body, concludeth in saying that it is not a thing convenient the bee drunke. I doo understande it for the preservation of the health of man, of the which Rasis treating of that book himselfe in the 4 of Almasor, speaking of the preservation from the plague, he commandeth to drink water of snow: in the same chapter he doth refer it an other time to the 26 chapter of the said booke, in the time of whot weather hee commaundeth to be drunke in the morning snow witg sugar.

The Arabians cured many diseases with the use of the snow, with the water made cold therwith. Avicen in whot griefs of the stomack doth command to make cold the drink with Snow: likewise in hot griefs of the liver, put upon the grief which is very sharpe or sore, in causes whiche are very hot, it hath been seen many times to take away the pain. He commandeth in the grief of the toothache to make cold the water with snow, then they wash their mouth therwith very often. And likewise Avicen in the 11 of the 3 treting of the trembling of the heart saieth, if the cause be strong, therwith be any inflamation, let him have given him cold water to drink, snow water mingled with [230] (fol. 183) usuall water, certaine draughts one after the another, because he should not drinke much at one time, for the reason aforesaid.

The self same saith Rasis in the 7 of his Continent in three places speaking of the said grief: at the first give unto such to drink continually water of snow, chiefly if the said disease proceed of a melancholy humor. And in the second part he counseleth them to go dwel in a cold country, if they cannot do it, that they use to drink snow, continually the water therof. The 3 is that such as have no remedy to be found that they wil be conserved when giving them to drink the water of the snow continually. And being writing of this, healing of a Gentleman that coud not fetch his breath, was al swolen, slept not in many daies, had a grief at the hart, and with letting him blood, giving him to drink water of snow continually, he was healed, not without great admiration of al men: for he was taken to be but as a dead man.

Amato Lucitano in the 7 Centuria speaketh of one that had a hot burning fever, for the great heat, inflammation, he had in the throte, could not swallow down any thing, when a peece of frost, chewing it continually, not onely it tooke away the difficultnes of the swallowing down, in the inflamation in his throate, but did also ease him much of his fever.

It is used to drink at this day made cold with snow in al places, where it is to be had: for with this maner of makig cold, they find more assurance contentment, then in al the rest. And so we see it is used in the courts of kings, princes, al great men lords, and common people that are there resident. And to this day with the use therof, it hath not bin seen, that it hath caused any kind of disease: which if it had beene hurtful, had caused any common disease or paritcular in so many yeeres as it hath beene used, it woulde have beene seene: rather wee have had many examples, that it hath done good, and hath conserved those which are whole, that they should not fall sicke, such as are sicke have bin healed of their infirmities. Here I doe see many being sicke, and having greate occasions of sicknes, after tthat they drinke cold, are whole straight way: when they have given over the use of it, they become [232] sicke again.

And although experience dooe shew it, yet Galen dooeth teache it us in many places, beeing the Prince of Phisike. For in the third degree of the substance of meates, he saith, that unto them which are hot of stomacke, it is convenient that their drinke be made colde with snowe: the same he doth confirme in the booke of good and evil meates.

And in the seventh of his Methodo, it hath beeee seene as he sayeth, that diseases have beene healed and the griefes of the stomacke with colde water, made cold with snowe: and in the six of the Epidimias hee dooeth use muche of Water, firste sodden, and after cooled with snowe, and in many partes hee dooeth put to coole in snowe the medicines, which hee dooth use of: and the same dooe the Arabyens, for that, as it is said, it doeth seeme that the snowe was had in reverence by the auncient Wryters, and that they did use of it in the preservation of their health, and in the healing of their diseases, for that is was the best manner howe to make it colde, more cleane, and more without scruple. For the colde that proceedeth of snowe, is healtful without receiving hurt, by that which is cooled with it, nor causeth any alterion, because it is a very good congeled water, and doth make colde.

Trueth it is, that it is not convenient to use of the saide snowe continually, i fit be not in the time of need, by the way of medicine: for the use of the said snowe drunke in water or in wine, or putting the snowe into them, doth ingender many kinde of diseases, in which if presently they bee not felt, they come to bee felt in age. Of the which Galen doeth make a large relation, in the booke of diseases of the Reines, and in the booke of good and evill meates. And because that Avicen did expound them, I will shew what he writeth, in the third part of the first booke, in the 8 chapter. He which doth drinke snow, and the water that doth proceed out of the same snow, if hee doe use it continually, there wil follow muche hurt thereby: it doth offend the sinewes, and it is naght for [233] (fol. 184) the brest, and for the inner members, and especially for the breathing: and there is none that doe use to drinke it, but it wil do them hurte, unlesse hee be of a sanguine complexion, which if he doe not feele hurte presently, he shall feele it afterwarde. Whereby it appeareth howe evill the use of the sayd snowe is, and the water which dooeth come out of it, if it bee not by the way of medicine onely, so it may bee used to coole therewith, for in suche sorte it doeth not offende, as is saide. For in this neither the auncient writers did put any doubt of hurt, nor any scruple, and now wee see that it hurteth not, but bringeth health, and benefite, as wee have sayde.

And as Plinie also saieth, of the delight and daintinesse of the colde, without offence of any malice of the Snowe. And Martiall dooeth shewe the same, in the 4 booke where he saith, the snow must not bee drunke, but that licour which is made very cold with it. And this was shewed and taught unto us, by the most ingenous drieth.

And unto such as are verie colde, it commeth not well to passe, for them to drinke that, which is made cold with snow or that which is verie colde, if hee bee not accustomed theretoo: for by custome, they may use and drinke it without any offence to them, but is good that they moderate themselves in drinking that which is verie colde, and that they content themselves that it bee made colde, after a meane sorte, although it be with snowe. Also it is not convenient for children, nor boyes, that their drinke be made colde with snow, for the weaknesse of the sinewes, and interiour parts, and for the tendernesse of their age, and chiefly they may drinke no wine, but water, for that their age dooeth not suffer, that they may drinke it: and drinking water verie colde, it doeth them verie much hurte. The wine which is made colde with snowe, doeth not offende so much as the water which is made colde: one of the thinges which taketh away the furie and strenght of the Wine, is the making of it cold. [234]

And so there are three thinges which doe abate the furye of the wyne, that is, to water it a good time before you drinke it. Also to cast a peece of bread into it, that it may sucke the vapours, and subtiltie of the wine. The third is, to put it to coole some reasonable time in water, that is most colde, or in snowe, for the more it is cooled, the more the strength and vapours are repressed, and so it will lesse offend the head, and it will lesse penetrate the ioyntes, which is seene in the said wine, and beeing made colde there is abated much of his strength, in so much that if it bee very colde, it seemeth as though that it were water. Some people there are which doe say and publish much evill of the cooling with snowe, without knowing if it be good or evill: and as it is a newe thing, and especially in thys Countrie, they feare that there will come hurt to them by the use of it. And I being at the Table of a Lorde, there was brought a platter full of Cheeries with snowe upon them, and there was a Gentleman that durst not take any one of them, saying that they shoulde hurt him, bycause that they were made colde with Snowe. And as it was a thing used a long time, to caste snowe upon fruite, as Galen doeth say that it was cast upon the Mulberie, the cause of this is for lacke of the use thereof, by reason it hath not been used nor seene in those partes, and alwaies they take it for suspicious.

And heere are none that dooe use it, but the Noble men, and not all, but such as have beene Courtiers and such as have proved in benefit and commoditie that doth followe of it: for the rest say, that without snowe they have lived, and without it, they wil passe on their time. And they do not consider that to live they may passe with Beefe, and Garlyke, and Leekes, but these kinde of meates doe ingender evil humours: for it is one thing to eate the Partridge, the Veale at this time, and mutton birdes at another time. And there is difference to eat the flesh with sauce the partridge with a Lemon, for the one is to eate without taste rustically, and the other is to eate as men doe, choycely and delicatly. And [235] (fol 185) so it is in the drinking of colde, or whot, for of the drinke that is made colde with snowe, there followeth health, taste contentment: and of the drinke that is whot, commeth evill diseases, disliking, discontment. Let us consider howe the old writers tooke great felicitie to drinke colde, and cheefely that which was made cold with snow, and they were people both wyse and discreete, and with much care that preserved their health. For in this and in their estimations, in theyr maner of subtile living, they did put their whole felicitie and seeing that they with so much care as wee have before declared, did drinke that which they made colde with snowe, in countries that was of lesser heate then this, wherfore should we not enioy this benefit, and contentment, seing that therof cannot followe unto us, but great benefite of health, using therof as I have said.

Let every one look tot hat which is convenient for his health, age, use, and custome, and let him have respect to that which doth agree with him: for the use will shew him that hee shall do, seing that of the hurt or benefit, hee may soone perceive if it ought to be used, or no. he must be advised that at the beginning when he doth use to drinke cold, that which is made colde with snowe, the first day hee shall feele in the day time drieth, but being past 7 or 8 dayes, it is taken away, rather they goe betweene dinner and supper without drith, without having any need to drinke.

They do bring the snow to this countrie, from the mountains wheras is much snowe, leagues beyond Granado. The snow hath many things to preserve it, because the way is long and it commeth by a whot country, by reason whereof it doth much diminish, and very little commeth hither of that which they take out there: and therefore it is so deere.

It is a marvellous thing that these mountaines of Granado, are alwayes full of snow, that in them it is durable and perpetual, and for great heates, and sunne, that shineth upon them: yet th snow continueth in one state, and we see that it doth not change. In the mountaines Pirineos, which are filled [236] with snow every winer, but the sommer being come, al is melted, in such sort that there remaineth in them no snowe. The kinges of Granado beeing in all their royall authoritie dyd use in the months of great heat and time of sommer, to drink these waters, which they drunk made cold with snow, as our hystory writer Alonso de Palensio dooth referre himselfe to that which he wrote of the waters of Granado.

Let the snow be kept in cold and dry places, for the moysture and heate are his contrary, the wind which commeth of the sunne, much more, because it is whot moist. They doo tread or presse the snowe, when they put it in sellers to keep, that it may the longer endure melt lesse. Charles Militineus doth say that the snow must be kept troden, covered with leaves and bowes of an Oke, because in this sorte it is most conserved. That which is brought to this cittie, they bring it in strawe, for it dooth conserve it more then any other thing, it dooth melt the lesse: which the glorious S. Augustine dooth shew us in the first booke of the city of God, where he saieth, who gave unto the straw a cold vertue so strong, that it kepeth the snow which is most colde conserveth it?and who gave it likewise so whot ferventh a vertue, that the green fruit not being ryppe, as apples and other like, it dooth ripe and season them that they may be aeten; in the whiche it is seene what divers vertues the straw hath, seeing that it dooth contrary effects which dooth conserve the snow, dooth make ripe the greene fruite, and dooth more then the water, which is made colde in the deawe, or in other thing: by putting any vessell which is amongest strawe, it dooth conserve his coldnesse all the day.

There were used two principall wayes in these times to make cold with snowe: the one is, to put the bottelles or the vessels of that as you will make cold, buried in the snow, this is doon wher there is much snow, this doth make very cold and quickly: the same is likewise doon with the water frosen. There is another way to make cold which is more easy, it is doon with litle snow, which is to fill a vessel of that whiche [237] (fol. 186) is to be made colde, and put upon it a little platter of silver or glasse, or of thin plate called the leafe of Milan that it may be made so deepe, whereby it may penetrate through that which shalbe made cold, and uppon that deepe vessell let the snow bee put, and from time to time, the water which dooth melt from the snow must bee taken away, for if it bee not taken away, it heateth the snow, and it melteth the more. After this sort it dooth coole much, and maketh it as exceeding cold as you woulde drinke it: and it is a way that every one maye use more or lesse, as colde as hee will, or as hee hath neede of it. The selfe same is doone with a long cane made of the leaf of Milan putting it full of snowe, into the thing that you minde to make colde continuing in it still, and this is to make any thing cold in an earthen pot or any other great vessell.

Ths manner of way is long or it be colde, and it is needfull that it bee put a long tyme before you goe to meate, and for all this it will not make it very colde. Others there bee that doo put the snowe in a lyttle Basket, layde upon a lyttle strawe, for this dooeth conserve the snowe muche, putting in one goblet with that as you will drinke, leaning harde to the snowe: after this sorte there followeth muche benefite, for it is needefull to goe taking away the Water from the Snowe, by reason that it goeth away through the basket. And the other is, that the snowe dooth not melt so muche, let everye man dooe as hee hath the quantitie of Snowe to dooe it withall, and likewise in the cooling of it, more or lesse as hys necessitie and health dooth requiere, and can beare well the use thereof: of the which wee have made a large relation, although that my intente and purpose was for no more then to defende that the best waye to make the drinke colde, and more healthfull is to make colde with snowe, and as for the other manner of wayes and uses to make colde, they have manye inconveniences whiche I have spoken of, and onely to make colde with Snow is that which is convenient, seeyng that the Snowe dooeth not touch the thing, onely the little platter that is made colde [238] with it, is onely that whiche dooeth make colde. All other wayes whiche dooth make colde, dooeth not come neere too the cooling with snowe by a great way, for this is most colde which is cooled with it, and all other wayes doo seeme whotte, beeyng made colde in the dewe, in Welles, or with saltpeter, in comparison of that whiche is made cole with snowe. And so it is a greate thing, and to bee muche esteemed that in the tyme of whot weather, when wee are made a burning coale, of the extreeme heate of the tyme, when the drieth is so great, that it maketh us to sounde and our bodies are so burning and sweating, that wee have so easie a remedie with a lyttle Snowe, wee may drinke so colde as is convenient for us, and as colde as you wyll, with all assuraunce of health giving us so muche delighte and contentment that there is no price to bee esteemed to it, nor understanding that can expounde it, of the whiche every one that dooth drinke colde with snowe may be iudge of my Apologie when they do make an end do drinke by means of the most colde snowe.

By that which is said, it is seene what a thing snow is, how to use of it was esteemed amongst the people of old time for to make cold therwith, as the best maner of these which are to make colde withall, and more agreeable to our health and necessitie, is that which is doone therwith, also as the drinking cold doth bring so many benefits and commodities, the drinking hot so many hurtes, discommedities, seing that to use it is to make leane, and debilitate the stomack, it dooth make the meate to swim in it, it doth corrupt the digestion, whereby it doth consume and weaken the body, it ingedreth winds, it is the cause that the Liver is debilitated, weakened, it causeth continuall drieth, it doth not satisfie our necessity, it giveth paine and griefe and other hurts, that he which dooth use it, shall quickly feele them in himselfe. The which is contrary to them that do drinke colde beeing cold of his owne nature, or made cold with snow, for that it doth comfort the stomack, if it be weak, strengthneth it, doth stay the [239] (fol. 187) flixe, runnings of whot humours to it, therefore it taketh away stooles and vomits being cholerike, it doth comfort al the 4 vertues, it taketh away the drieth, it giveth lust to eat, it maketh the digestion better, you drinke lesse, that with more contentment gladnes, satisfing us more then a litle cold drink, then much which is whot. It doth let the ingendring of the stone unto them which are whot of complexion, it maketh temperat the heat of the liver, it taketh away the kindling of the fire of them that are to hot, or inflamed of what cause soever it be, it tempereth the excessius heate of the summer, it preserveth from the plague in the time of it, and being taken upon meat is strengtheneth natural heat, that it may make better his digestion work, it taketh away the sharp paines which commeth of any hot cause, it taketh away the trembling of the hearte, it maketh glad them that are melancholie, it taketh from wine his furie, vapours, the fruits put in snow, cause, that they doe not corrupt, hee that drinketh cold doth enioy the daintinesse of colde that it dooth make, which is a thing that cannot be expressed and the understanding of man cannot comprehend it. They which may liberally drink cold being made cold with snow, are such as be temperate of complection, ful of flesh, and those which are of a cholerike complextion hot, inflamed, the which are whot of the liver, and of the stomack, they which are sanguine and do exercise themselves and labour as men of great businesse, they which have many cares, the governours of cities common wealthes, the ministers of them, which do partcipate of the like cares and troubles, they which doe exercise themselves in warlike affaires, and other great businesse, they which goe much and have laboured much, they which doe suffer burning agues, and evils of greate heate and inflamations, above al, those which are accustomed to drink it heerin, let every man drink cold, or most cold as he hath necessitie, and as it is most convenient for him, to such as it is not convenient to drink cold nor most colde, are they that are very old, and such as do live idely, without exercise, and without care, they which have [240] rawnesse in their stomackes, they which suffer griefes of colde humors, they which are sicke in the breast, they which have diseases of the sinews, they which cannot tast that they eate, for humors or colde causes, they which doe suffer much ventositie, children, and such as are of young age, and others to whom time and use have shewed what is convenient for them. And thus we end our Apologie.


In Laudem Doctissimi Nicolai Monardus Medici Hispaniensis.

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